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HISTORY   OF   ZIONISM 

1600-1918 


CL^i^^'^y,^  •^    ••  ri 


/hiroM   EhMON'D  //f    RoTHSCHII.!) 

HV 

.1/.   AlME   MORO 


ory  of  Zionism 

I600-I9I8 


BY 


NAHUM  SOKOLOW 


WITH    AN    INTRODUCTION    BY 

THE   RT   HON-   A,  J,   BALFOUR,   M.P. 


AND  NINETY  PORTRAITS  AND  ILLUSTRATIONS 

SELECTED    AND   ARRANGED   BY    ISRAEL   SOLOMONS 

IN    TWO    VOLUMES 

VOL   11. 
WITH  AN  INTRODUCTION  BY 

M.  STEPHEN   PICHON 

MINISTER   OF    FOREIGN   AFFAIRS    FOR    FRANCE 


LONGMANS,    GREEN    AND    CO, 
39   PATERNOSTER    ROW,    LONDON 

FOURTH    AVENUE     <»•     3OTH     STREET,     NEW    YORK 

BOMBAY,     CALCUTTA    AND     MADRAS 

I9I9 


PREFATORY  NOTE 

The  present  volume  contains  the  continuation  and  documenta- 
tion of  Volume  I. 

After  the  conclusion  of  the  historical  review  in  its  chronological 
order,  it  was  considered  desirable  to  supplement  a  portion  of  the 
narrative  by  adding  further  chapters,  which  will  be  found  at  the 
beginning  of  the  present  volume.  These  chapters  bring  the 
historical  narrative  up  to  the  outbreak  of  the  War  in  1914. 

The  developments  in  the  Zionist  Movement  during  the  War 
are  dealt  with  in  a  separate  account,  which  is  not  claimed  to  be, 
in  the  proper  sense  of  the  word,  an  historical  study,  but  an 
account  of  recent  activities  up  to  the  Peace  Conference. 

The  present  volume  also  contains  an  introduction,  written  by 
the  French  Ministre  des  Affaires  Etrangeres,  M.  Pichon,  which 
arrived  too  late  to  be  included  in  the  first  volume,  and  a  character 
sketch  of  the  late  Sir  Mark  Sykes,  whose  death  occurred  while 
the  present  volume  was  in  the  press,  to  whose  memory  a  tribute 
is  offered. 

The  appendices  contain  not  only  the  text  of  documents  re- 
ferred to  in  the  body  of  the  book,  many  of  them  hitherto  un- 
published, but  also  essays  on  subjects  related  to  the  main  purpose 
of  the  work — for  instance,  Jewish  art,  and  Hebrew  literature — 
and  notes  of  a  bibliographical  or  critical  character. 

It  is  desired  to  point  out  that  the  nature  of  the  subject  with 
which  this  work  deals  rendered  it  inevitable  that  it  should  to 
some  extent  assume  an  encyclopaedic  rather  than  a  narrative 
character.  The  innumerable  sources  from  which  Zionism  draws 
its  being,  the  geographical  dispersion  of  the  Jewish  people,  the 
many  events  and  phenomena  outside  of  the  life  of  the  Jewish 
people  which  have  had  and  still  have  their  bearing  on  the  de- 
velopment of  the  Jewish  National  idea,  give  it  inevitably  the  f  (  rrn 
that  it  has  assumed.  The  author  is  well  aware  that  the  History 
of  Zionism  as  narrated  in  these  pages  does  not  appear  as  alto- 
gether a  symmetrical  structure.  Some  periods  dealt  with  in  the 
story  are  somewhat  disjointed,  and  as  a  necessary  consequence  the 
record  of  those  periods  reflects  the  same  character.  A  writer  who 
cared  more  for  the  form  than  for  the  correctness  of  the  narrative 
would  in  such  a  case  have  recourse  to  his  imagination  in  order  to 
fill  in  the  blanks.  The  present  author  has  not,  however,  done  so . 
He  has  attempted  rather  to  let  Zionism  appear  as  it  really  was 
in  the  different  countries  and  epochs  with  which  he  has  dealt. 
Where  his  narrative  is  fragmentary  events  were  fragmentary. 
In  the  earliest  periods  the  different  elements  of  Zionism  were 


vi  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

sometimes  completely  detached  from  one  another.  An  exact  de- 
scription of  these  therefore  takes  necessarily  an  encyclopaedic 
character.  But  Zionism  develops  as  a  unity,  and  at  the  end  it 
will  be  found  to  offer  to  the  reader  a  united  picture. 

The  present  book  treats  of  the  History  of  Zionism  especially 
in  England  and  France,  but  it  has  been  found  both  impossible 
and  also  undesirable  to  exclude  from  the  narrative  all  references 
to  certain  important  events  and  personaUties  of  other  countries. 
Zionism  in  England  and  France,  however,  forms  the  main  thesis 
of  these  volumes.  Furthermore,  this  book  is  not  only  a  history 
of  the  Zionist  efforts  among  the  Jews,  it  also  narrates  the  history 
of  similar  efforts  by  non- Jews,  in  connexion  with  political  events 
and  Uterary  manifestations  in  the  countries  in  which  they  worked. 
At  the  same  time  the  author  has  endeavoured  as  Httle  as  possible 
to  cover  ground  that  has  already  been  repeatedly  traversed,  his 
intention  being  rather  to  break  new  ground  and  especially  to 
bring  to  light  hitherto  unknown  sources,  old  and  forgotten  prints, 
unpublished  manuscripts  and  archives.  These  he  has  used  to 
illustrate  and  document  his  narrative. 

The  plan  which  the  author  has  followed  falls  under  three 
headings  : — 

(I)   The  special  treatment  of  Zionism  in  England  and  France  ; 
(II)   A  particular  consideration  of  the  pro-Zionist  efforts  outside 
of  Jewry  ;  and 
(III)   The   pubhcation   of   previously   unknown   literary    and 
archival  sources. 

In  accordance  with  this  plan  this  history  begins  in  the  year 
1600,  although  the  history  of  Zionism  in  reality  opened  much 
earlier,  even  perhaps  at  the  beginning  of  the  Jewish  history  of 
the  countries  dealt  with. 

Material  for  a  thorough  treatment  of  the  History  of  Zionism 
in  other  countries,  including  many  monographs  and  historical 
notices  which  remain  in  the  hands  of  the  author,  as  well  as  further 
recent  diplomatic  and  other  documents  relating  to  the  most  recent 
development  of  Zionism  and  in  connexion  with  the  Peace  Con- 
ference of  1919,  will  be  used  as  the  basis  of  further  volumes. 

Pubhcation  of  an  index  to  the  work  might  well  have  been  de- 
ferred until  these  volumes  had  been  completed,  but  the  author 
thinks  that  he  ought  not  to  delay  one  any  longer.  At  the  end  of 
the  present  volume,  therefore,  the  reader  will  find  a  thorough 
index  of  persons  and  of  subjects,  for  which  Mr.  Jac -b  Mann,  m.a., 
is  responsible  and  to  whom  he  hereby  tenders  his  thanks. 

Finally,  the  author  wishes  to  supplement  the  expression  of 
thanks  addressed  to  those  of  his  friends  who  are  mentioned  in  the 
Preface  to  the  first  volume  of  this  work  for  the  assistance  they 
have  rendered  him  in  its  preparation,  and  to  mention  in  particular 
the  good  services  of  Mr.  Albert  M.  Hyamson  and  M.  Andr^  Spire. 

Paris,  June^   1919. 


INTRODUCTION 

By  M.  STEPHEN   PICHON 

MINISTER  OF  FOREIGN   AFFAIRS   FOR   FRANCE 

FiDELE  aux  traditions  de  son  histoire,  la  France 
vient  de  montrer  une  fois  de  plus,  au  prix  du  sang 
de  tant  de  ses  fils,  comment  elle  entend  les  devoirs 
que  lui  impose  son  role  seculaire  d'emancipatrice  des 
opprimes.  Elle  sort  aujourd'hui  victorieuse  d'une 
lutte  decisive,  soutenue  au  nom  du  Droit  menace 
par  la  brutalite  d'un  imperialisme  sans  scrupules. 
Champion  des  grandes  idees  qu'il  a,  plus  que  tout 
autre,  semees  a  travers  le  monde,  notre  pays  a  puise 
dans  la  conscience  d'etre  un  vivant  symbole  de 
justice,  la  force  de  terrasser  son  adversaire.  II  a,  du 
moins  aujourd'hui,  le  droit  de  se  dire,  non  sans  fierte, 
qu'il  n'est  plus  au  monde  une  race  ou  une  nation  qui 
ne  puisse  faire  entendre  ses  legitimes  aspirations,  et 
qui  ne  sache  qu'en  France  il  y  aura  toujours  un  coeur 
pour  les  adopter. 

Dans  la  paix  comme  dans  la  guerre,  la  France, 
etroitement  unie  a  ses  Allies,  veut  demeurer  fidele  a 
sa  parole.  EUe  a  profnis  aux  nationalites  naguere 
asservies  de  def endre  leurs  interets  et  de  faire  respec- 
ter leurs  droits.  Elle  ne  reniera  pas  une  promesse 
dont  la  realisation,  en  inaugurant  une  ere  nouvelle 
de  rhistoire  du  monde,  justifiera  les  sacrifices  con- 
sentis  a  la  cause  commune.  Elle  ne  laissera  se 
commettre  aucune  injustice,  d'ou  qu'elle  vienne,  et 
qu'elle  qu'en  soit  la  victime.     Elle  ne  saurait  per- 


viii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

mettre,  en  particulier,  sans  protester  hautement, 
qu'une  majorite  ethnique  ou  confessionnelle  puisse 
desormais  abuser  impunement  de  sa  force  a  I'egard 
d'autres  Elements  voisins,  plus  faibles  ou  plus  dis- 
perses. 

C'est  dire  Techo  que  ne  pourra  manquer  d'eveiller 
chez  les  Frangais  la  voix  eloquente  du  representant 
le  plus  autorise  du  Sionisme.  Monsieur  Sokolow, 
mettant  au  service  de  son  ideal,  un  talent  qui  n'en 
est  plus  a  son  premier  essai,  s'attache  a  nous  retracer 
riiistoire  des  doctrines  au  triomphe  desquelles  il  n'a 
cesse  de  consacrer  le  meilleur  de  ses  forces.  Sachant 
combien  il  importe,  aujourd'hui,  de  demontrer  his- 
toriquement  les  origines  et  les  antecedents  des  idees 
que  Ton  professe,  il  a  voulu  nous  exposer  les  titres 
que  possede  le  Sionisme  a  s'imposer  a  Tattention  des 
Allies,  au  moment  oti  ceux-ci  procedent  a  une 
reconstitution  du  monde  entier.  Monsieur  Sokolow, 
dont  la  foi  dans  le  succes  final  de  nos  armes  ne 
connut  jamais  de  def alliances,  possede  une  foi  au 
moins  egale  dans  T esprit  de  justice  qui  preside  a 
I'oeuvre  de  la  Conference  de  la  Paix.  Les  sympa- 
thies et  les  concours  precieux  qu'il  a  su  trouver  chez 
nos  amis  Britanniques,  et  dont  Mr.  Balfour  lui 
renouvelle  ici-meme  T  assurance  la  plus  formelle, 
sont  aux  protagonistes  du  Sionisme  un  sur  garant 
de  I'accueil  que  la  France  reserve  a  leur  genereuse 
initiative. 

Non  seulement,  en  effet  la  race  juive  n'a cesse  d'etre, 
au  cours  des  siecles,  persecutee,  d^cimee,  poursuivie 
sans  treve  par  une  haine  incapable  de  desarmer  ; 
plus  malheureuse  encore  que  tant  d'autres  peuples 
opprim^s,  qui  ont  pu  conserver  au  moins  un  symbole 
de  leur  grand  passe,  les  Juifs  n'ont  pu  sauver  ce 
dernier  vestige.  D'autres  qu'eux  memes  sont  de- 
venus  les  maitres  de  Ja  Judee.    Disperses  a  travers 


INTRODUCTION  ix 

le  monde,  beaucoup  aspirent  aujourd'hui  plus  que 
jamais  a  reprendre  la  chaine  brisee  par  tant  de 
conquerants  successifs,  de  leurs  traditions  ethniques 
et  religieuses  :  ils  pensent  aussi  qu'une  telle  restaura- 
tion  n'est  possible  qu'appuyee  sur  des  realites,  c'est 
a  dire,  en  Tespece,  sur  un  foyer  moral  national 
reconstitue  au  milieu  des  mines  de  T  antique  Judee. 
Qui  done,  sans  avoir  perdu  les  plus  element  aires 
sentiments  d'humanite  et  de  justice,  pourrait  refuser 
aux  exiles  de  revendiquer  leur  place,  au  meme  titre 
que  les  autres  elements  indigenes,  dans  cette  Pales- 
tine oil  un  controle  collectif  des  Puissances  euro- 
peennes  assurera  desormais  a  chacun  le  respect  de  ses 
droits  les  plus  sacres  ? 

Entree  en  guerre  pour  assurer  la  victoire  definitive 
du  Droit  sur  la  force,  la  France  se  felicite  de  Tappui 
que  le  Sionisme  a  rencontre  chez  elle  et  chez  ses 
Allies.  Une  doctrine  qui  a  pour  elle,  outre  la  justice, 
I'eloquence  d'avocats  tels  que  M.  Sokolow  est  assuree 
de  succes.  Je  suis  heureux  de  Toccasion  qui  m'est 
offerte  de  reiterer  les  voeux  que  le  Gouvernement  de 
la  Republique  n'a  cesse  de  faire  pour  le  triomphe 
final  d'une  cause  qui  rallie  tant  de  sympathies 
fran9aises. 


CONTENTS 


PREFATORY  NOTE 


INTRODUCTION,  by  M.  Stephen  Pichon 


CONTENTS  OF  Volume  II 


ILLUSTRATIONS  to  Volume  II 
SIR  MARK  SYKES— A  Tribute 


'AGE 
V 


XV 

xvii 


CHAPTER   XLIXa. 

Congress 


From  the   Second  to  the   Fourth 


xxxvii-xliv 


Choveve  Zion  and  Zionists  in  England — Louis  Loewe — 
Nathan  Marcus  Adler — Albert  Lowy — Abraham  Benisch — 
The  Rev.  M.  J.  Raphall— Dr.  M.  Caster— Rabbi  Samuel 
Mohilewer — English  representation  at  the  Second  and 
Third  Congresses- — The  Fourth  Congress  in  London. 

CHAPTER  XLIXb.     The  Death  of  Herzl 

England  and  Zionism^ — Sir  B.  Arnold  in  the  Spectator — 
Cardinal  Vaughan — Lord  Rosebery — The  death  of  Herzl — 
David  Wolfisohn — Prof.  Otto  Warburg — Zionism  in  the 
smaller  states. 

CHAPTER  XLIXc.     The  Pogroms 

The  year  1906 — Pogroms — Emigration- — Conder  and  his 
activities — An  Emigration  Conference — The  Eighth  Con- 
gress— The  question  cf  the  Headquarters. 


CHAPTER  XLIXd.     The  Death  of  Wolffsohn 

1 9 10- 1 4 — The  Tenth  and  Eleventh  Congresses— 
Wolffsohn. 

CHAPTER  XLIXe.     On  the  Eve  of  the  War 


-Death  of 


Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild  in  Palestine — Sir  John  Gray 
Hill — Professor  S.  Schechter — South  African  Statesmen — 
A  Canadian  Statesman — Christian  religious  literature 
again. 


ZIONISM  DURING  THE  WAR,   1914-1918 

General  Survey    . 

Zionist  Propaganda  in  Wartime 

Conferences 

The  Jewish  National  Fund    . 

Zionism  and  Jewish  Relief  Work 

The  Russian  Revolution 


xlv-1 


li-liv 


Iv-lvii 


Iviii-lxiii 


I 
21 
22 
32 
33 
38 


xu 


THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 


ZIONISM  DURING  THE  WAR,  1914-1918— continued- 
Political  Activities  in  England  and  the  Allied  Countries 
Conference  of  English  Zionist  Federation  in  191 7 
Zionism  and  Public  Opinion  in  England 
Co-ordination  of  Zionists'  Reports 
The  British  Declaration  and  its  Reception 
London  Opera  House  Demonstration 
Manifesto  to  the  Je>\ish  People 
Declarations  of  the  Entente  Governments 


42 
54 
58 
79 
83 
99 
124 
127 


APPENDICES— 

I.    The  Prophets  and  the  Idea  of  a  National  Restoration  161 

II.    Rev.  Paul  Knell :    Israel  and  England  Paralleled       .  168 

III.  Matthew  Arnold  on  Righteousness  in  the  Old  Testa- 

ment         ........  169 

IV.  "  Esperan9a  de  Israel,"  by  Manasseh  Ben-Israel  169 
V.    "  Spes  Israelis,"  by  Manasseh  Ben-Israel    .          .  171 

VI.    "Hope    of    Israel — Ten    Tribes    ...    in    America — 
7X11?*  nipD — De  Hoop  Van  Israel,"  by  Manasseh 

Ben-Israel           .......  171 

VII.    The  Humble  Addresses  of  Manasseh  Ben-Israel.          .  173 

VIII.    "  Vindiciae  Judaeorum,"  by  Manasseh  Ben-Israel          .  173 

IX.    Ensefia  A  Pecadores         .  .  .  .  .  .173 

X.    "  De  Termino  Vitae — of  the  Term  of  Life,"  by  Manasseh 

Ben-Israel  .  .  .  .  .  .  -174 

XI.    "  D^*n   riDK'J — De   Immortalitate   Animae,"    by   Man- 
asseh Ben-Israel           .          .          .          .          .  175 

XII.    "  Rights  of  the  Kingdom,"  by  John  Sadler       .  .176 

XIII.  "  Nova  Solyma,"  edited  by  the  Rev.  Walter  Begley     .  176 

XIV.  "  Praeadamitae — Men  before  Adam,"    by  Isaac  de  La 

Peyrdre      ........  180 

XV.    Isaac  Vossius            .......  180 

XVI.    "  Doomes-Day  ".......  181 

XVII.    "  Restauration  of  ^// Israel /lM(i  Judah  "  .          .          .  182 
XVI II.    "  Apology  for  the   Honorable   Nation  of  the   Jews — 
Apologia   por   la   Noble    Nacion    de   los    Ivdios — 
Verantwoordinge     voor     de     edele     Volcken     der 
Jooden,"  by  Edward  Nicholas     .          .          .          .182 

XIX.    "  A  Word  for  the  Annie,"  by  Hugh  Peters          .          .  183 

XX.    Isaac  da  Fonseca  Aboab  ......  183 

XXI.    Dr.  Abraham  Zacutus  Lusitanus        .  .184 

XXU.    Jacob  Judah  Aryeh  de  Leon 185 

XXIU.    Thesouro  Dos  Dinim 188 

XXIV.    "  Rettung  der  Juden,"  by  Manasseh  Ben-Israel  .         .189 

XXV.    Newes  from  Rome 191 

XXVI.    "The   World's   Great   Restauration."   by   Sir  Henry 

Finch         ........  207 

XXVII.    "  The  World's  Great  Restauration  " — continued  208 

XXVIII.    Philip  Ferdinandus 209 

XXIX.    Petition  of  the  Jewes  Johanna  and  Ebenezer  Cart  (en) 

(w)right 210 

XXX.     '  The  Messiah  Already  Come,"  by  John  Harrison  210 


CONTENTS 


Xlll 


XXXI.    "  Discourse  of  Mr.   John  Dury  to  Mr.  Thorowgood — 
Jewes     in     America,"     by     Tho.     Thorowgood — 
"Americans  no  Jews,"  by  Hamon  I'Estrange       .     211 
XXXII.    "  Whether  it  be  Lawful  to  Admit  Jews  into  a  Chris- 
tian Commonwealth,"  by  John  Dury    .  .  .212 

XXXIII.  "  Life  and  Death  of  Henry  Jessey  "  .  .  .  .212 

XXXIV.  "  The  Glory  of  Jehudah  and  Israel— De  Heerlichkeydt 

.  .  .  van  Jehuda  en  Israel,"  by  Henry  Jesse  .     214 

XXXV.    Of  the  Late  Proceeds  at  White-Hall,  concerning  the 

Jews  (Henry  Jesse)     .  .  .  .  .  .215 

XXXVI.    Bishop  Thomas  Newton  and  the  Restoration  of  Israel     216 
XXXVII,    "  A  Call  to  the  Christians  and  the  Hebrews  "       .  .217 

XXXVIII.    The    Centenary    of    the    British    and    Foreign    Bible 

Society      ........     218 

XXXIX.    Lord  Kitchener  and  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund     219 
XL.    Bonaparte's  Call  to  the  Jews     .....     220 

XLI.    Letter  addressed  by  a  Jew  to  his  Co-religionists  in  1798     220 
XLII.    "  Transactions  of  the  Parisian  Sanhedrim,"  by  Diogene 

Tama         ........     222 

XLIII.    "  Signs    of    the    Times  " — "  A    Word    in    Season  " — 
"  Commotions  since  French  Revolution  " — "  His- 
tory of  Christianity  " — "  The  German  Empire  " — 
"  Fulfilment  of  Prophecy,"  by  Rev.  James  Bicheno     223 
XLIV.    "  Restoration  of  the   Jews  " — "  Friendly  Address  to 
the  Jews,"  by  the  Rev.   James  Bicheno — "Letter 
to  Mr.  Bicheno,"  by  David  Levi  ....     223 

XLV.    "  Attempt    to    Remove    Prejudices     Concerning    the 

Jewish  Nation,"  by  Thomas  Witherby  .  .     225 

XLVI.    "  Observations  on  Mr.  Bicheno's  Book,"  by  Thomas 

Witherby  ........     225 

XLVII.    "  Letters  to  the  Jews,"  by  Joseph  Priestley       .  .     225 

XL VIII.    "  An  Address  to  the  Jews  on  the  Present  State  of  the 

World,"  by  Joseph  Priestley         ....     226 

XLIX.    "  Letters  to  Dr.  Priestley,"  by  David  Levi  ,  .     226 

L.    "A  Famous   Passover  Melody,"   by  the   Rev.    F.   L. 

Cohen        ........     227 

LI.    "  Reminiscences  of  Lord  Byron  .  .  .  Poetry,  etc.,  of 

Lady  Caroline  Lamb,"  by  Isaac  Nathan         .  .     228 

LII.    "  Selection   of    Hebrew  Melodies,"   by    John   Braham 

and  Isaac  Nathan       ......     228 

LIII.    Earl  of  Shaftesbury's  Zionist  Memorandum — Scheme 

for  the  Colonisation  of  Palestine   .  .  .  .229 

LIV.    Restoration  of  the  Jews    .  .  .  .  .  .231 

LV.    Another    Zionist    Memorandum — Restoration    of    the 

Jews  ........     236 

LVI.     Extracts  from  Autograph  and  other  Letters  between 

Sir  Moses  Montefiore  and  Dr.  N.  M.  Adler      .  .      237 

LVII.    The  Final  Exodus    .......      245 

LVIII.    Disraeli  and  the  Purchase  of  the  Suez  Canal  Shares      .      246 
LIX.    Cyprus  and  Palestine         ......     247 

LX.    Disraeli  and  Heine  .......     248 

LXI.    Disraeli's  Defence  of  the  Jews  .....     249 

LXII.    A  Hebrew  Address  to  Queen  Victoria  (1849)        .  .     250 

LXIII.    An  Appeal  by  Ernest  Laharanne  (i860)      .  .  .     251 


xiv  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

PAGB 

LXIV.    Statistics  of  the  Holy  Land 252 

LXV.    An  Open  Letter  of  Rabbi  Chajryim  Zebi  Sneersohn  of 

Jerusalem  (1863)         ......     253 

LXVI.    The  Tragedy  of  a  Minority,  as  seen  by  an  English 

Jewish  Publicist  (1863)        .....     255 

LXVII.    London  Hebrew  Society  for  the  Colonization  of  the 

Holy  Land    .         .         .         .         .  .         .256 

LXVIII.    An  Open  Letter  of  Henri  Dunant  (1866)    .         .  .259 

LXIX.    An    Appeal   of   Rabbi   Elias   Gutmacher  and   Rabbi 

Hirsch  Kalischer  to  the  Jews  of  England  {1867)  262 

LXX.    Alexandre  Dumas  (fils)  and  Zionism  .  .  .     263 

LXXI.    Appeal  of  Dunant 's  Association  for  the  Colonisation 

of  Palestine  (1867)      ......     265 

LXXII.    Edward  Cazalet's  Zionist  Views         .  .  .  .267 

LXXIII.    A  Collection  of  Opinions  of  English  Christian  Authori- 
ties on  the  Colonization  of  Palestine      .  .  .269 

LXXIV.    Petition  to  the  Sultan 279 

LXXV.    (i)  Chovevd  Zion  and  Zionist  Workers        .  .  .     281 

(2)  Modem  Hebrew  Literature  .....      309 

LXXVL    Note  upon  the  Alliance  Israelite   Universelle  and  the 

Anglo- Jewish  Association   .  .  .  .  .318 

LXXVIL    An  Appeal  of  the  Berlin  Kadima       ....     325 

LXXVIII.    The  Jewish  Colonies  in  Palestine       .  .  .  326 

LXXIX.    The  Manifesto  of  the  Bilu  (1882)        .  .  .  .332 

LXXX.    Zionism  and  Jewish  Art  ......      333 

LXXXI.    Progress  of  Zionism  in  the  West  since  1897         .  -347 

LXXXIL    The  Institutions  of  Zionism 358 

LXXXIII.    David  Wolffsohn's  Autobiography     .  .  .  .388 

LXXXI V.    Some  English  Press  Comments  on  the  London  Zionist 

Congress  (1900)      .......     389 

LXXXV.    Colonel  Conder  on  the  Value  of  the  Jewish  National 

Movement  (1903)        ......     391 

LXXX VI.    Lord  Gwydyr  on  Zionism  and  the  Arabs    .  .  .     392 

LXXXVII.    Consular  Reports 395 

LXXX VII I.     "  Advent  of  the  Millennium  "  (Moore)       .  .  .     399 

LXXXI X.     Cremieux's  Circular  to  the  Jews  in  Western  Europe    .     400 

XC.     "  The  Banner  of  the  Jews  "  (Emma  Lazarus)    .  .     400 

XCI.     "  The  Advanced  Guard  " 401 

ADDENDA 403-425 

CORRIGENDA 426-427 

CATALOGUE  OF  THE  ILLUSTRATIONS         .  .  .        429-447 

BOOKS  CONSULTED 449-460 

INDEX 461 


ILLUSTRATIONS   TO  VOL.    II. 


Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild 
LiEUT.-CoL.  Sir  Mark  Sykes,  Bart,  M.P. 
Rt.  Hon.  Arthur  J.  Balfour,  M.P. 
Gen.  Sir  Edmund  H.  H.  Allenby 

M.    S.    J.   M.    PiCHON  . 

M.  Jules  Cambon     . 

H.E.  Paolo  Boselli 

H.E.  Baron  Sidney  Sonnino 

M.  A.  F.  J.  Ribot    . 

M.  G.  E.  B.  Clemenceau 

President  Thomas  Woodrow  Wilson 

Rt.  Hon.  David  Lloyd  George,  M.P. 

Laying  Foundation  Stone  of  the  Hebrew  University 
Jerusalem 


The  Kattowitz  Conference,  5644=1884    . 


Frontispiece 

Facimr  p.     Xvii 

82 

84 

128 

128 

128 

128 

128 

128 

130 

132 


144 

288 


Leopold  Pilicfunuski.     tqi8 

LieuLCol.  Sir  Mark  Sykk?,  Bart.,  M.P. 


SIR   MARK   SYKES,  BART.,  M.P. 

(A  TRIBUTE) 

A  MOST  tragic  event  took  place  on  the  i6th  of  February, 
1919,  when  the  world  lost  one  of  the  most  valiant  champions 
of  Zionism,  namely  Sir  Mark  Sykes,  Bart.,  M.P.  He  fell 
like  a  hero  in  the  thick  of  the  fight ;  he  was  suddenly 
extinguished,  as  it  were  a  torch  in  full  blaze.  He  stood 
towering  above  the  crowd  of  sceptics  and  grumblers,  viewing 
the  promised  land  as  from  Pisgah's  height,  his  clear  eye 
fixed  on  Zion.  He  was  at  once  a  sage  and  a  warrior,  a  knight 
in  the  service  of  the  sacred  spirit  of  the  national  idea 
without  fear  or  reproach,  whom  nothing  could  overcome 
but  the  doom  of  sudden  and  premature  death.  Sir  Mark 
Sykes  was  but  forty  years  old,  physically  a  giant,  a 
picture  of  perfect  manhood,  full  of  youthful  vigour,  a 
soldier  and  a  poet,  a  fervid  patriot  and  a  kindly  and  self- 
sacrificing  friend  of  humanity.  He  was  one  of  the  born 
representatives  of  that  tradition  which  for  centuries  has 
inseparably  united  the  genius  of  Great  Britain  with  the 
Zionist  ideal  of  the  Jewish  people.  In  him  appeared  to  be 
harmoniously  united  the  soaring  imagination  of  Byron,  the 
deep  mysticism  of  Thomas  Moore,  the  religious  zeal  of 
Cardinal  Manning  and  the  statesmanly  and  wide  outlook 
of  Disraeli. 

The  germs  of  Sykes'  Zionism  lay  latent  in  him  in  his 
earliest  years.  He  was  scarcely  eight  years  old  when  his 
father  took  him  for  the  first  time  to  Jerusalem.  He  often 
related  how  when  many  years  later  he  visited  a  certain  spot 
in  Palestine,  an  elderly  Arab  told  him  that  years  before  an 
English  gentleman  had  been  there  with  a  little  boy,  leaving 
behind  him  kindly  memories.  His  father,  a  wealthy  land- 
owner in  Yorkshire,  was  one  of  the  principal  churchbuilders 
in  England  of  his  time.  He  was  a  gentleman  of  the 
old  style,  a  protector  of  the  poor,  fired  with  religious 
enthusiasm,  who  devoted  untiring  labour  to  the  manage- 
ment of  his  family  estate.     Every  foot  of  this  extensive 


xviii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

family  estate  with  its  churches  and  schools,  its  country 
houses  and  old  and  new  farms  and  dwellings,  with  its 
great  collections  and  its  old  and  valuable  library,  bears 
the  impress  not  only  of  marked  diligence  and  refined  taste, 
but  also  of  an  unusual  sense  of  continuity  and  tradition. 
Long  before  the  traveller  from  Hull  reaches  the  estate,  a 
high  and  slender  tower  strikes  his  eye.  It  is  the  monument 
that  has  been  erected  in  memory  of  the  grandfather,  the 
old  squire,  an  original  character  about  whom  Sir  Mark  was 
wont  to  tell  so  many  amusing  stories.  Long  after  the  intro- 
duction of  railways  he  used  to  ride  his  steed  to  London,  and 
on  the  way  often  used  to  stop,  take  the  hammer  from  the 
navvies  who  were  breaking  road-metal,  and  perform  their 
work  for  them  for  hours  at  a  time.  Now  his  statue  is  to  be 
seen  in  a  chapel-like  recess  crowned  with  a  high  tower  on  one 
of  the  main  roads  of  the  estate.  His  son.  Sir  Mark's  father, 
was  not  less  of  an  original  character.  He  had  nothing  of 
the  tradition  of  feudal  lords — the  family  was  descended 
from  an  old  and  very  rich  shipbuilding  family  in  Hull 
which  flourished  in  the  i6th  century,  had  by  the  17th 
century  gained  a  great  reputation,  and  later  had  business 
relations  with  Peter  the  Great — but  he  rather  repre- 
sented the  type  of  a  fanciful  Maecenas,  whose  hobby 
it  was  constantly  to  remodel  buildings  or  to  erect  new 
ones.  His  ancestors  had  built  ships,  he  built  houses. 
That  amounted  to  a  passion  in  him,  a  noble  passion,  a 
desire  to  build,  endow  and  found.  And  as  he  was 
very  reUgious  he  built  churches.  He  also  travelled  widely 
and  gathered  large  collections  in  his  country  house.  His 
religion  was  nominally  High  Church,  but  he  must  have 
had  strong  leanings  towards  Catholicism.  His  wife,  the 
mother  of  Sir  Mark,  was  an  ardent  Catholic.  Sir  Mark  was 
attached  to  his  mother,  and  was  brought  up  in  the  Catholic 
faith.  On  his  mother's  side  Sir  Mark  had  a  decided  strain 
of  Irish  blood,  but  the  English  type  was  predominant  in 
him.  His  features,  however,  were  of  extraordinary  gentle- 
ness, his  eyes  large  and  clear  blue  in  colour,  and  a  wisp  of 
hair  would  often  fall  over  his  brow.  He  was  an  Enghsh 
Catholic  and  cherished  in  his  heart  the  memory  of  the  not 
so  far  distant  time  when  CathoHcs  were  persecuted,  and 
restricted  in  their  civil  rights.  He  was  a  CathoHc  in  a  coun- 
try where  the  Catholics  constitute  a  small  and  weak  minority, 
and  often  he  remarked  to  me  that  it  was  his  Catholicism 
that  enabled  him  to  understand  the  tragedy  of  the  Jewish 


SIR  MARK  SYKES  xix 

question,  since  not  so  long  since  Catholics  had  to  suffer 
much  in  England.  His  Catholicism  did  not  make  him 
fanatical ;  it  made  him  rather  cosmopolitan,  that  is  to  say, 
catholic  in  the  pure  sense  of  the  word.  He  received  an  ex- 
ceptionally careful  education  and  studied  hard  in  Catholic 
schools  before  he  took  his  course  at  Cambridge.  The  fact 
that  in  his  early  youth  he  had  Jesuit  priests  among  his 
teachers  was  often  exploited  by  those  who  envied  him,  in 
a  sense  which  suggested  a  leaning  in  him  towards  Jesuitism. 
If  the  term  Jesuitism  be  taken  to  mean  a  zeal  for  Catholi- 
cism, then  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  assertion  is  correct, 
since  Sir  Mark  was  certainly  very  religious.  But  if  this 
expression  be  taken  in  the  customary  sense,  namely,  as 
equivalent  to  clerical  intrigue,  hypocrisy  and  spiteful  hate 
of  other  religions,  nothing  was  more  remote  from  the 
character,  the  mental  outlook  and  all  other  attributes  of 
Sir  Mark  than  such  a  form  of  Jesuitism.  He  was  incapable 
equally  of  dissembling  or  of  servile  conduct  ;  he  was  proud 
without  being  arrogant,  and  was  severe  and  inflexible  when 
truth  was  at  stake.  His  soul  was  an  open  book  ;  he  troubled 
himself  neither  of  career  nor  of  popularity.  He  possessed 
an  ideal,  and  this  ideal  was  the  sole  test  of  all  his  thought 
and  actions.  At  heart  he  was  pious,  a  good  Christian  and 
a  good  Catholic  :  he  never  prided  himself  upon  his  faith, 
which  was  a  sacred  thing  to  him  :  religious  boast  and  pro- 
paganda were  alike  foreign  to  him  :  his  relations  with  God 
were  an  intimate  personal  matter  which  concerned  no 
stranger  ;  but  his  faith  was  the  moving  force  of  his  life 
which  afforded  him  courage  to  go  forward  and  strength  to 
endure  and  to  deny  himself. 

When  I  was  with  Sir  Mark  in  Hull,  where  we  came 
to  speak  at  a  great  Zionist  meeting  last  summer,  the 
member  for  Hull  disappeared  from  my  sight  for  several 
hours  on  one  occasion.  I  presumed  that  he  had  gone  to 
the  old  Catholic  cathedral  to  attend  a  service  as  he  fre- 
quently did.  On  returning  he  told  me  that  he  had  visited 
his  old  teachers,  the  Jesuit  fathers,  and  that  he  had  con- 
vinced them  that  it  was  the  duty  of  Christians  to  atone  for 
the  crime  that  humanity  has  not  ceased  for  many  centuries 
to  commit  against  the  Jewish  people  in  withholding  their 
old  native  country  from  them.  "  This  was  not  so  difficult," 
he  added,  "  as  one  of  these  fathers  is  an  avowed  friend  of 
the  Jewish  people.  When,  some  years  ago,  a  protest  meet- 
ing was  held  in  Hull  against  the  Beilis  trial  (the  trumped-up 


XX  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

story  of  ritual  murder  that  had  emanated  in  Kiev  from  the 
Russian  anti-Semites),  this  priest  had  appeared  on  the  plat- 
form to  declare  in  the  name  of  his  religion  that  the  perse- 
cutions of  the  Jews  that  took  place  in  Russia  under  the  old 
regime  were  a  blot  upon  civihsation."  The  meeting  which 
was  to  be  held  that  same  day  was  to  be  attended  by  Jews 
and  Christians  equally.  He  said  with  a  humorous  smile 
that  his  success  with  the  fathers  made  him  hope  for  equal 
success  with  the  whole  Christian  audience  at  that  meeting. 
'*  Perhaps  people  find  fault  with  me,"  he  continued,  "  that 
I  have  neglected  their  local  affairs.  A  member  for  Hull 
who  gives  all  his  time  to  Zionism  may  be  rather  a  puzzle  to 
the  good  people  of  Hull,  but  I  think  I  shall  manage  them — 
will  you  be  responsible  for  the  Jews  ?  "  I  replied,  "  Very 
well,  I  shall  be  responsible  for  the  Jews,  but  only  with  your 
help ;  the  Jews  are  more  impressed  by  an  English  baronet 
who  is  a  Christian  than  by  a  fellow  Jew  like  me."  "  It  is 
to  be  regretted,"  he  said  somewhat  sadly,  "  that  the  Jews 
rather  than  follow  leaders  of  their  own  race  bow  and  scrape 
to  Gentiles.  How  do  you  explain  that  ?  "  I  answered  : 
"  That  is  the  spirit  of  the  Exile,  that  can  be  combated  only 
by  means  of  Zionism." 

The  meeting  was  most  successful.  There  never  had  been 
such  a  Zionist  triumph  in  Hull.  The  enthusiasm  was  shared 
by  both  the  Christian  representatives  and  the  Jewish  popu- 
lation, the  latter  but  recently  arrived  for  the  most  part  from 
Eastern  Europe.  There  was  only  one  discordant  note  in 
the  speeches,  and  that  probably  escaped  the  notice  of  most 
of  those  present,  and  did  not  detract  in  the  least  from 
the  success  of  the  meeting  ;  this  was  an  utterance  that 
offended  Sir  Mark's  religious  sentiment.  "It  is  natural," 
someone  said,  "  for  Sir  Mark  to  be  a  friend  of  the  Jews  as  he 
is  such  a  good  Christian,  and  must  be  conscious  of  the  fact 
that  the  founder  of  Christianity  belonged  to  the  Jewish 
race  ;  moreover.  Sir  Mark  as  a  Catholic  venerates  the  Holy 
Mother  who  was  as  we  know  a  daughter  of  the  Jewish 
people."  This  utterance  pained  Sir  Mark  and  hurt  me  very 
much.  I  afterwards  had  long  talks  with  Sir  Mark  about 
this  tactlessness,  which  could  only  have  been  committed 
by  a  quasi-assimilated  Jew.  The  speaker  may  have  meant 
it  well,  but  a  Zionist  could  never  have  made  such  a  mistake, 
for  to  be  a  Zionist,  means  not  only  to  desire  immediate 
emigration  to  Palestine,  but  also  to  maintain  the  proper 
practical  attitude  to  the  non- Jewish  world.     This  attitude 


SIR  MARK  SYKES  xxi 

is  one  neither  of  servility  nor  of  arrogance,  it  is  one  of  digni- 
fied yet  modest  and  noble  self-consciousness,  self-respect 
and  respect  for  others. 

In  order  to  understand  the  attitude  of  such  as  Sir  Mark 
and  others  like  him  in  his  own  and  other  nations,  towards 
the  Jewish  problem,  it  is  necessary  to  study  the  problem 
more  closely  than  is  common  among  the  unthinking  crowd 
who  bandy  about  the  words  anti-Semitism  and  philo- 
Semilism,  and,  upon  their  superficial  observations,  condemn 
one  man  as  an  anti-Semite  and  laud  another  as  a  philo- 
Semite,  according  as  whether  they  hate  or  love  certain 
individual  Jews.  The  crowd  does  not  understand  that  one 
can  be  a  great  friend  of  the  Jewish  people  and  a  great  admirer 
of  the  Jewish  genius  and  yet  find  such  things  ridiculous 
and  repulsive  as  the  apeing,  the  servihty,  the  obtrusiveness, 
the  hollowness  and  the  empty  display,  the  desire  to  intrude 
everywhere,  the  excessive  zeal  of  the  neophytes  and  all  the 
unpleasant  traits  of  some  assimilated  Jews.  On  the  other 
hand,  one  may  approve  of  all  these  qualities  and  rejoice 
that  certain  Jews  have  become  rich,  obtained  titles  or  gained 
high  office  in  so  far  as  one  desires  the  assimilation  of  the 
Jewish  people  and  the  extinction  of  the  Jewish  spirit. 

Anti-Semitism  is  fractricidal  in  that  it  implies  hatred  and 
contempt  for,  and  the  desire  to  persecute  a  whole  race.  It 
is  organised  outrage,  because  it  employs  the  brutal  power 
of  a  majority  to  insult  a  defenceless  minority  and  to 
deprive  it  of  human  rights.  It  is  consciously  calumnious 
because  it  instigates  malice  against  the  Jewish  people  or 
religion  and  exploits  for  this  purpose  actual  weaknesses  or 
faiUngs  belonging  in  reality  to  neither  the  race  nor  the 
religion.  It  is  biassed  and  sophistical  because  it  generalises 
from  the  faults  of  individuals  and  because  it  fixes  itself 
upon  the  mote  in  another's  eye  without  perceiving  the  beam 
in  its  own. 

Philo-Semitism  in  the  true  sense  of  the  word  resembles 
philhellenism.  The  latter  does  not  mean  simply  friendly 
intercourse  with  parvenu  Greeks,  but  sympathy  for  the 
Hellenic  people  as  such,  and  with  the  spirit  of  Hellenism 
and  an  endeavour  to  aid  these  and  to  estabUsh  them.  Of 
such  a  kind  was  the  philo-Semitism  of  Sir  Mark  Sykes.  I 
will  speak  plainly,  and  do  not  hesitate  to  state  that  he  had 
no  liking  for  the  hybrid  type  of  the  assimilating  Jew.  He 
had  no  wish  to  interfere  with  such  people  ;  he  emphatically 
condemned  any  attempt  at  suppression  of  rights  or  chi- 


xxii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM      . 

caner}^  but  he  did  not  like  this  type  just  because  he  was  fond 
of  the  Jewish  people.  What  was  of  the  Jewish  essence,  of 
the  Jewish  tradition,  was  sacred  to  his  reUgious  sense  and 
stimulating  to  his  artistic  sense.  In  this  lay  the  secret,  not 
exactly  of  our  personal  success  with  Sykes  (for  our  cause  is 
of  too  great  an  importance  in  the  world's  history  to  be 
connected  with  personaUties)  but  of  the  wonderful  concord 
of  minds  which  was  the  natural  outcome  of  his  outlook 
The  opposite  poles  attracted  each  other  with  irresistible 
force.  Truly  anglicised  Jews  could  not  have  had  the 
hundredth  part  of  the  same  success  with  him,  not  because 
of  their  not  being  excellent  patriots  and  capable  men  (for 
such  many  of  them  incontestably  are  and  Sykes  was  fond 
of  society  and  of  making  acquaintances  and  was  amiable  to 
all),  but  for  him  there  were  real  Englishmen  enough.  Con- 
cerning EngUsh  affairs,  national  questions  and  parliamentary 
matters  he  would  discourse  with  anglicised  Jews  on  the 
same  footing  as  English  non-Jews,  but  concerning  the  spirit 
of  Jewish  history,  the  ethos  of  Hebraism,  the  national 
sufferings  and  aspirations,  that  emerge  only  in  national 
Hebrew  literature,  in  the  large  centres  of  Jewish  population 
in  Eastern  Europe  and  in  the  new  settlements  in  Palestine 
— concerning  all  these  matters  he  would  and  could  seek 
information  only  from  the  fountain  source.  These  are  the 
things  that  have  succeeded  with  Sykes  and  others  and  that 
will  succeed  further,  not  high  diplomacy.  There  is  no  lack 
of  this  latter  at  the  Foreign  Office,  which  swarms  with  great 
diplomats,  and  it  would  be  carrying  coals  to  Newcastle 
to  seek  to  add  more  trained  specialists  to  the  crowd  of  busy 
poUticians  in  Downing  Street.  There  could  be  no  success 
with  Sykes  that  way.  He  was,  as  it  were,  born  to  work  with 
us  Hebrews  for  Zionism. 

The  spirit  of  the  East  breathed  in  this  Yorkshire  gentle- 
man. In  his  earUest  youth  he  showed  a  keen  interest  for 
Arabia,  for  Islam  and  the  Turkish  Empire.  At  Cambridge 
he  studied  Arabic  under  Professor  E.  G.  Browne,  and  there 
also  he  met  the  lady  who  was  afterwards  to  be  his  wife  and 
true  helpmeet,  a  daughter  of  Sir  John  Gorst,  who  was 
at  the  time  one  of  the  members  of  parliament  for  the 
University.  In  the  year  1898  Sykes,  then  a  young  student, 
undertook  a  second  journey  to  the  liast,  and  stayed  much 
of  his  time  in  the  Hauran.  He  devoted  himself  with  the 
entire  freshness  and  sincerity  of  his  youth  (he  was  then  but 
twenty  years  old)  to  his  observations  as  a  traveller.    In  the 


SIR  MARK  SYKES  xxiii 

year  1900  appeared  his  first  book,  which  recounts  his  im- 
pressions in  an  elegant  style  and  light  form.^  In  this  book 
he  ascribes  to  his  guide,  a  Christian  Arab  named  Isa,  the 
following  words  apropos  of  the  Jews  there,  that  they  were 
"  dirty  like  Rooshan  and  robber  like  Armenian." ^  Sykes 
himself  had  at  that  time  no  clear  idea  of  Jews  or  of  Ar- 
menians— of  the  two  peoples  for  whom  he  strove  and  died 
nineteen  years  later.  He  cites  an  expression  of  opinion  and 
repeats  it  in  the  bad  English  of  an  Arab  guide.  After  his 
return  from  the  East,  he  devoted  his  attention  to  military 
studies,  in  which  he  distinguished  himself.  He  served  in  the 
South  African  War  in  1900-2.  He  gave  a  proof  of  his 
technical  knowledge  in  his  work  on  strategy  and  military 
training  which  he  had  compiled  in  collaboration  with  Major 
George  d'Ordel.^  In  the  year  1904  he  was  travelling  again, 
and  the  literary  product  of  his  later  and  earlier  journeys 
was  his  second  considerable  book  on  Islam  and  the  Orient. "^ 
This  book  is  dedicated  to  his  fellow-soldiers  in  the  South 
African  War.^  In  this  work  already  speaks  to  us  a  young 
but  mature  man  who  had  travelled  much  in  four  continents 
and  had  been  through  the  South  African  Campaign.  Here  we 
already  perceive  the  fundamentals  of  his  later  Zionism. 
As  regards  the  future  of  the  Orient  he  looks  not  to  modern 
civilisation  and  capitalism,  but  to  the  latent  force  of  national 
life.  He  was  not  deceived  by  the  specious  platitudes  so 
dear  to  that  deplorable  product  of  modern  European 
democracy  '  the  man  in  the  street '  as  to  '  extending  the 
blessing  of  Western  civilisation  '  ;  he  regarded  rather  with 
unconcealed  apprehension  the  contingency  of  the  Western 
Asiatics  becoming  '  a  prey  to  capitalists  of  Europe  and 
America,'  "in  which  case  a  designing  Imperial  Boss  might, 
untrammelled  by  the  Government,  reduce  them  to  serfdom 
for  the  purpose  of  filling  his  pockets  and  gaining  the  name 
of  Empire-maker."  (Prof.  Browne's  Preface,  Dar-ul-Islam, 
p.  iv).  He  had  a  great  predilection  for  all  national  individu- 
alities, and  detested  the  desire  to  imitate  and  assimilate. 
"  He    hated    the    hybrid    Levantine  .  .  .  and    faithfully 

^  Through  Five  Turkish  Provinces,  by  Mark  Sykes.     London,  Bickers 
and  Son.    1900, 

2  Ibid.,  p.  127. 

3  Tactics  and  Military  Training.    By  Major  George  d'Ordel  and  Captain 
Mark  Sykes.    London.    1902. 

*  Dar-Ul-Islam.     A  record  of  a  journey  through  Ten  of  the  Asiatic 
Provinces  of  Turkey.    By  Mark  Sykes.    London.    1904. 

*  "  The   F  Company,    3rd   Batt.    Princess   of  Wales'    Own   Yorkshire 
Regiment,  who  served  in  South  Africa,  1900-2." 


xxiv  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

portrayed  the  Gosmopaleet  (Cosmopolite) "  (ibid.).  He 
condemned  interfering  tutelage.  "  Orientals  hate  to  be 
worried  and  hate  to  have  their  welfare  attended  to.  .  .  . 
Oppression  they  can  bear  with  equanimity,  but  inter- 
ference for  their  own  good  they  never  brook  with  grace  " 
(ibid.).  He  shows  a  profound  historic  sense :  "he  does  not 
disguise  his  preference  for  countries  with  '  a  past '  over 
countries  with  '  a  future  ' "  (ibid.),  and  finds  in  the  nature 
of  the  Oriental  the  conditions  for  a  true  equality.  *'  He 
recognises  the  fact  that  there  is  more  equality  because  less 
snobbery  and  pretence  in  Asia  than  in  Europe  "  (ibid.).  The 
only  feature  that  is  wanting  in  this  book  is  a  knowledge 
of  Jews  and  of  Zionism.  He  makes  but  once  mention  of 
this  matter,  in  a  short  sketch  of  the  Jews  at  Nisibin.  "  The 
Jews  at  Nisibin  .  .  .  their  appearance  is  much  improved 
by  Oriental  costume  ...  in  which  they  look  noble  and 
dignified."  He  then  adds  :  "I  trust  that  the  Uganda 
Zionists  will  adopt  my  suggestion  "  (p.  141).  One  who 
believes  in  the  assimilation  of  the  Jews  may  snobbishly 
consider  this  also  as  anti-Semitic,  but  in  fact  it  is  only  the 
harmless  joke  of  an  artist,  for  Sykes  was  essentially  an 
artist.  His  drawings  were  excellent,  he  was  also  very  musical, 
and  had  a  great  predilection  for  all  true  individuality,  for 
the  archaic,  the  original,  the  unadulterated,  for  race, 
nationality,  genius  loci,  for  everything  racy  and  natural, 
and  for  everything  that  was  not  cliche,  mechanical  and 
snippety. 

This  was  the  foundation  of  his  latent  Zionism.  From 
1904  to  191 1  he  pursued  his  mihtary  studies,  managed  his 
estates  and  travelled  much.  In  1911  he  entered  Pariiament 
as  member  for  Hull.  Although  nominally  a  Tory,  Sir  Mark 
was  at  bottom  no  party  man,  but  a  man  of  convictions. 
Full  of  faith,  greedy  for  work,  energetic,  confident,  capable, 
quick  of  study,  charmed  with  a  fight.  Equally  ready  to 
defend  or  attack,  he  was  unselfish.  Over  the  Irish  question 
he  fell  out  with  the  Conservatives  ;  he  was  an  outspoken 
champion  of  Home  Rule,  and  throughout  his  Hfe  he  remained 
a  loyal  friend  of  Irish  nationalism.  His  speeches  soon  made 
him  popular  in  Parliament  ;  they  were  never  long  and  yet 
never  trite.  He  showed  the  same  qualities  in  his  letters  to 
the  Press.  He  had  always  something  to  say,  some  original 
thought  which  he  expressed  in  his  own  individual  style. 
He  told  me  once,  how  he  had  learned  public  speaking  at 
school.    He  had  to  prepare  the  outline  of  the  speech  and 


SIR  MARK  SYKES 


XXV 


afterwards  to  state  in  short  and  simple  terms  the  substance 
of  his  speech.  The  latter,  he  added,  was  the  more  difficult 
task,  because  a  facile  speaker  can  make  long  speeches,  and 
yet  find  it  impossible  to  repeat  later  the  essential  facts 
of  his  speeches.  He  was  not  a  facile  speaker  in  this  sense  ; 
he  never  spoke  quite  extempore,  but  always  prepared  his 
speeches  carefully,  often  by  means  only  of  simple  key  words 
or  of  a  few  pictures,  resembling  hieroglyphics,  as,  for  example, 
the  sun  with  streaming  rays.  He  never  spoke  to  the  gallery, 
never  flattered,  never  perverted  the  truth  under  the  mask  of 
sincerity,  and  never  sought  to  create  effects.  His  speeches 
were  full  of  beauty  and  deep  idealism  with  a  breath  of  re- 
ligious fervour,  as  he  leant  forward  to  address  himself  to 
the  hearts  of  his  audience.  This  practical  man  was  at 
bottom  a  poet.  He  could  tell  most  fascinating  stories. 
He  had  not  been  brought  up  in  the  chilling  atmosphere  of 
severe  Puritanism,  but  in  the  medieval  glamour  of  Catholic 
cathedrals  and  under  the  sun  of  the  East.  Yet  he  had 
remained  a  proud  and  staunch  Briton.  He  was  a  remark- 
able and  extremely  unusual  combination  of  a  blue-eyed, 
simple  and  modest  Englishman  of  childlike  sweetness,  and 
of  a  medieval  knight  full  of  Oriental  reminiscences,  with 
ardent  faith  and  picturesque  imagination.  We  loved  him 
and  he  loved  us,  because  his  nature  was  gentle,  kind  and 
sympathetic.  He  chatted  freely:  he  told  all  about  his 
enthusiasms,  his  "  castles  in  the  air,"  his  stories  about 
dervishes,  his  travelling  impressions,  with  a  lively  dramatic 
touch  with  appropriate  gesture  and  expression,  often  draw- 
ing his  round,  brown  stylo  pen  from  his  pocket  in  order  to 
explain  the  matter  more  pointedly  by  means  of  a  rapid 
sketch.  How  often  I  regretted  that  no  shorthand  writer 
was  present.  His  ways  were  dignified  and  courteous,  his 
modesty  so  natural  and  so  frank  that  he  gave  the  impression 
of  being  himself  unconscious  of  it.  When  the  talk  took  a 
jesting  turn,  there  was  no  sting  in  his  witticisms,  his  jests 
were  easy  and  never  offensive.  When  he  was  angered, 
his  emotion  lasted  but  a  few  seconds,  and  afterwards  he  was 
as  light-hearted  as  a  child. 

Such  was  the  Mark  Sykes  of  1914  when  the  War  broke 
out.  He  took  up  his  part  in  the  War  with  all  his 
patriotism  and  with  his  idealistic  faith  in  the  victory 
of  justice.  In  1915  he  was  with  his  regiment  busy  in 
hard  training  and  ready  for  the  field.  He  often  told  me 
how  it  had  come  to  pass  that  the  East  had  become  his 


xxvi  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

sphere  of  action.  One  day  Lord  Kitchener  said  to  him  : 
"  Sykes,  what  are  you  doing  in  France,  you  must  go  to  the 
East/'  "  What  am  I  to  do  there  ?  "  asked  Sykes.  "  Just 
go  there  and  then  come  back,"  was  Lord  Kitchener's  answer. 
Sykes  travelled  to  the  East,  made  his  way  through  accessible 
and  inaccessible  districts,  and  came  back.  His  observations 
and  experiences  constituted  the  material  upon  which  all  the 
great  things  that  afterwards  happened  were  based.  He 
then  voluntarily  entered  the  service  of  the  Government 
as  expert,  as  adviser,  and  as  draughtsman  of  their  poHcy. 
He  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  the  new  British  War  Policy 
in  the  East,  one  of  the  protagonists  of  the  "  Eastern  School." 
In  the  year  191 6  he  undertook  with  M.  Georges  Picot  a 
journey  to  Russia.  It  was  then  the  Czarist  Russia  with  its 
eye  fixed  upon  Constantinople  ;  that  was  the  occasion  upon 
which  the  so-called  Sykes-Picot  agreement  was  signed. 
From  the  standpoint  of  Zionist  interests  in  Palestine  this 
agreement  justly  met  with  severe  criticism  ;  but  it  was 
Sykes  himself  who  criticised  it  most  sharply  and  who  with 
the  change  of  circumstances  dissociated  himself  from  it 
entirely.  It  was  a  product  of  the  time,  a  time  when  there 
was  as  yet  no  decided  plan  formed  of  launching  a  definite 
campaign  in  the  East,  when  the  prime  necessity  was  some 
sort  of  agreement,  since  otherwise  no  progress  would  have 
been  made.  This  was  long  before  Mr.  Balfour's  declaration, 
and  since  at  this  time  the  Zionist  interests  in  Palestine  had 
as  yet  received  no  attention  because  they  were  unknown 
and  not  debatable,  and  also  as  it  was  essential  to  come  to 
terms  about  Constantinople  with  the  old  regime  in  Russia, 
this  agreement  was  a  necessary  prelude  to  action.  This 
agreement  Sykes  regarded  later  as  an  anachronism. 

Zionism  had  been  at  work  in  England  for  two  full  years 
without  its  coming  to  know  anything  of  Sykes,  who  himself 
worked  on  his  own  lines  for  a  year  and  a  half,  without  know- 
ing anything  of  Zionist  organisation  or  a  definite  programme 
of  Zionism.  What  happened  resembled  the  construction 
of  a  tunnel  begun  at  two  sides  at  once.  As  the  workers  on 
each  side  approach  one  another  they  can  hear  the  sound 
of  blows  through  the  earth.  It  seems  at  first  a  strange 
enough  story  ;  a  certain  Sir  Mark  appears,  he  makes  some 
enquiries,  and  then  expresses  a  wish  to  meet  the  Zionist 
leaders.  Finally  a  meeting  actually  takes  place  and  dis- 
cussions are  entered  upon.  Sir  Mark  showed  a  keen  interest 
and  wanted  to  know  the  aims  of  the  Zionist  Organisation, 


SIR  MARK  SYKES 


XXVll 


and  who  were  its  representatives.  The  idea  assumed  a 
concrete  form  ;  but  this  acquaintance,  however,  valuable  as 
it  was,  had  as  yet  no  practical  significance.  Acquaintance- 
ships were  made  and  discussions  took  place  during  the  years 
1914-16  by  the  hundred  with  influential  people  and  with 
some  who  had  more  voice  in  affairs  than  Sir  Mark  ever  had. 
They  constituted  certainly  a  most  important  introductory 
chapter,  and  one  without  which  the  book  itself  could  not 
have  been  written,  but  they  were  naturally  fragmentary, 
preliminary,  without  cohesion  and  without  sanction.  The 
work  itself  began  only  after  the  7th  of  February,  1917. 

The  subsequent  chapters  describe  this  work  in  general 
outlines.  A  thousand  details  remain  for  the  pen  of  some 
future  historian,  when  the  time  comes  for  the  archives  of 
the  Foreign  Office,  of  the  Ministries  for  Foreign  Affairs  of 
the  other  Entente  Powers,  and  of  the  political  offices  of  the 
Zionist  Organisation  in  London  and  Paris  to  be  made  public. 
In  the  whole  proceedings  there  are  no  secret  treaties,  no 
secret  diplomacy,  in  fact  neither  diplomacy  nor  conspiracy ; 
but  they  constitute  a  series  of  negotiations,  schemes, 
suggestions,  explanations,  measures,  journeys,  conferences, 
etc.,  to  which  each  of  those  who  took  a  part  gave  something 
of  the  best  in  himself. 

It  is  my  duty  both  as  historian  and  as  one  who  took 
an  active  part  in  these  negotiations  and  proceedings  to 
record  here  that  Sir  Mark  Sykes  really  gave  of  his  best 
to  this  work.  For  more  than  two  wonderful  years  we  were 
in  daily  intercourse  with  him.  Our  friendship  was  of  the 
most  intimate  We  shared  in  common  all  the  delights 
and  disappointments  arising  from  the  Zionist  work.  We 
instructed  each  other  ;  he  furnished  his  knowledge  of  the 
East,  his  profound  understanding  of  the  guiding  political 
principles  of  Great  Britain,  his  personal  observations  with 
reference  to  the  possibilities  of  bringing  our  aims  into 
harmony  with  the  ideals  of  the  Entente  ;  we  supplied 
Zionism,  inspired  by  Jewish  sufferings  and  hopes.  It  was 
not  difficult  for  us  to  convince  him  what  an  excellent  cultural 
type  the  Hebrew  represents,  since  already  in  his  youth, 
before  he  had  the  shghtest  idea  of  Jews  and  Zionism,  he 
had  intuitively  perceived  that  the  hybrid  Levantine  is 
hopeless  in  that  direction.  The  idea  was  latent  in  him, 
and  but  awaited  stimulus  and  direction  into  the  proper 
channel.  He  was  ready  to  understand  what  a  great  natural 
force  the  Jewish  genius  could  be  in  the   reawakening  of 


xxviii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Palestine,  all  the  more  because  long  before  as  a  man  of 
extraordinarily  high  culture — English  to  the  last  fibre  of 
his  thought,  saturated  with  EngUsh  tradition,  EngHsh 
literature  and  EngUsh  taste — and  yet  at  the  same  time  a 
broad-minded  humanist,  with  great  ideals  not  only  for  his 
own  nation  but  for  all  other  nations  and  races,  he  had  seen 
that  the  '  civihsing '  of  the  East  by  assimilation  was  idle 
and  superficial  prating  and  a  vain  delusion.  Deep  sympathy 
of  ideals  had  earlier  formed  an  unconscious  bond  between 
us.  When  this  sympathy  ripened  into  consciousness  through 
our  meeting  and  soon  after  the  commencement  of  our 
common  work,  the  resulting  harmony  was  not  one  of  policy 
but  one  of  outlook.  The  idea  of  a  natural  alliance  between 
Jews,  Arabs  and  Armenians  as  peoples  of  the  Near  East 
developed  into  something  quite  distinct  and  found  in  Sir 
Mark  a  convinced  champion.  He  was  an  enthusiastic  pro- 
tagonist of  the  Jewish  national  renaissance  in  Palestine, 
an  admirer  of  the  Hebrew  genius,  who  could  not  hear  enough 
from  me  about  national  Hebrew  literature,  who  took  an 
interest  in  every  detail  of  Jewish  culture.  At  the  same  time 
he  was  a  sincere  friend  of  the  Arabs  and  Armenians  and 
made  strenuous  efforts  to  secure  their  liberation.  We  all 
worked  together  with  him  in  this  direction,  but  the  main 
idea  was  his  and  remained  his  favourite  project  till  the  close 
of  his  Ufe.  Many  superficial  and  petty  individuals  in  our 
own  ranks,  who,  not  reahsing  the  great  and  difiicult  task 
and  themselves  taking  no  active  part,  busied  themselves  in 
spreading  distrust  and  discontent,  complained  that  Sykes 
was  too  much  taken  up  with  the  Arabs.  I  am  sure  that 
among  many  Arabs  of  the  same  degree  of  political  maturity 
Sykes  was  accused  of  being  too  much  taken  up  by  the  Jews. 
Our  interchange  of  ideas  resulted  in  a  complete  fusion  of 
thought.  But  Sykes  gave  us  his  time  and  labour  as  well  as 
ideas.  It  seemed  as  though  in  these  two  years  his  whole 
life's  energy  reached  its  culminating  point  and  spent  itself. 
He  worked  at  constant  high  pressure.  But  rarely  he 
allowed  himself  a  week-end  in  Sledmore  with  Lady  Sykes 
and  the  children,  and  even  there  he  was  never  idle.  It 
was  a  constant  round  of  church-going,  of  devotion  to  the 
estate  and  building  repairs,  of  musicians,  old  French  songs, 
and  of  hospitality.  Holidays  were  out  of  the  question. 
All  his  excursions  were  connected  with  poUtical  or  ParUa- 
mentary  business.  Even  prior  to  the  commencement  of 
his  official  connection  with  Zionism,  Sir  Mark  was  a  man  of 


SIR  MARK  SYKES  xxix 

extraordinarily  wide  activities.  When  on  the  8th  of 
February,  1917,  one  day  after  the  first  official  meeting, 
our  work  began  with  the  first  conference  with  M.  Georges 
Picot  at  Sir  Mark's  private  house,  No.  9  Buckingham 
Gate,  the  latter  place  had  already  become  an  important 
centre  for  matters  concerning  the  new  and  at  that  time 
scarcely  completed  plan  of  a  kingdom  of  the  Hedjaz,  con- 
cerning Armenia  and  Mesopotamia,  and  was  equipped  with 
all  such  material  as  files  of  correspondence  and  telegraphic 
communications,  etc.  It  was  then  that  Zionism  took  its 
place  in  the  system  and  came  to  dominate  the  situation 
more  and  more  as  our  labours  progressed.  One  was  liable 
to  be  called  upon  at  any  moment,  early  in  the  morning  or 
late  at  night.  It  became  a  joke  with  us  to  name  his  sudden 
telephone  calls  '  brain-storms.'  Sir  Mark  had  a  '  brain- 
storm *  which  meant  :  danger  in  sight.  This  may  appear  as 
somewhat  far-fetched  to  outsiders,  but  those  who  were  in  the 
thick  of  the  work  knew  well  what  formidable  obstacles  stood 
in  the  way,  and  how  well  founded  were  Sir  Mark's  doubts 
and  fears.  At  every  moment  dangers  had  to  be  guarded 
against ;  there  were  elements  that  were  in  favour  of  the  status 
quo  ante  in  the  Near  East ;  vested  economic  interests  that 
desired  to  uphold  this  status  quo  for  their  own  ends  ;  clerical, 
anti-Semitic  and  pan-Islamitic  propaganda  ;  certain  Arab 
sections  that  opposed  Zionism  because,  obsessed  by  fana- 
ticism or  misled  by  agitators  or  influenced  by  narrow  and 
short-sighted  considerations  of  the  needs  of  the  moment, 
they  had  no  proper  appreciation  of  the  great  idea  of  a 
Hebrew-Arabic  national  alliance ;  intrigues  of  certain 
Syrian  concession-hunters  who  stormed  with  a  '  holy 
wrath '  against  the  Zionist  idea  ;  certain  factions  in  England 
that  would  have  nothing  to  do  with  an  energetic  policy  in 
the  East,  and  indeed  ridiculed  and  belittled  the  impor- 
tance of  British  interests  in  that  region  ;  a  by  no  means 
small  party  that  warned  England  against  undertaking  any 
new  engagements  ;  and  finally,  be  it  mentioned  with  regret, 
our  Jewish  circles  of  the  assimilating  school.  The  cause  of 
Zionism  was  in  the  same  dire  case  as  Laocoon  in  the  grip 
of  snakes.  Every  day  brought  a  fresh  indication  of  some 
hostile  movement,  a  new  suspicion  of  enemy  schemes  each 
of  which  caused  Sir  Mark  to  sound  a  warning.  These  were 
the  '  brain-storms.' 

I  should  like  to  record  a  few  impressions  of  different 
occasions.    The  first  was  a  day  in  April,  1917,  in  Paris.    I 


XXX  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

was  due  at  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  to  give  informa- 
tion about  Zionism.  Sir  Mark  also  came  ;  he  was  a  sincere 
friend  of  France  and  was  anxious  that  Zionism  should  have 
the  same  appreciation  in  France  as  in  England.  He  came  in 
great  haste  by  motor  from  the  Front,  where  he  had  been 
making  a  visit,  and  went  to  the  Hotel  Lotti.  He  arrived 
early  in  the  morning  after  a  tiring  night's  journey.  At  that 
time  Doctor  Weizmann  was  fully  occupied  with  most  im- 
portant affairs  in  England.  It  fell  to  me  to  begin  the  official 
work  in  France,  after  we  had  together  prepared  all  our  plans. 
Sykes  was  impatient :  in  spite  of  his  complete  confidence 
in  us,  he  could  not  refrain  from  remaining  near  me,  always 
ready  with  advice  and  help.  We  worked  together  for  some 
hours.  I  departed  on  my  mission  and  we  arranged  for  him 
to  wait  for  me  at  the  hotel.  But  as  I  was  crossing  the  Quai 
d'Orsay  on  my  return  from  the  Foreign  Office  I  came  across 
Sykes.  He  had  not  had  the  patience  to  wait.  We  walked 
on  together,  and  I  gave  him  an  outline  of  the  proceedings. 
This  did  not  satisfy  him  ;  he  studied  every  detail ;  I  had 
to  give  him  full  notes  and  he  drew  up  a  minute  report. 
"  That's  a  good  day's  work,"  he  said  with  shining  eyes,     p" 

The  second  was  a  day  in  April,  1917,  in  Rome.  Sykes  had 
been  there  before  me  and  could  not  wait  my  arrival.  He 
had  gone  to  the  East.  I  put  up  at  the  hotel :  Sykes  had 
ordered  rooms  for  me.  I  went  to  the  British  Embassy  ; 
letters  and  instructions  from  Sykes  were  waiting  for  me  there 
I  went  to  the  Italian  Government  Offices  ;  Sykes  had  been 
there  too  ;  then  to  the  Vatican,  where  Sykes  had  again 
prepared  my  way.  It  seemed  to  me  as  if  his  presence  was 
wherever  I  went,  but  all  the  time  he  was  far  away  in 
Arabia,  whence  I  received  telegraphic  messages. 

The  third  was  at  the  London  Opera  House  Meeting  of 
the  2nd  of  December,  1917.  It  was  a  truly  brilliant  gather- 
ing in  a  packed  house,  a  festive  token  of  the  bond  of 
brotherhood  between  Great  Britain  and  ancient  Israel. 
Sykes  modestly  surveyed  the  assembly.  The  majority 
of  the  audience  scarcely  knew  him,  and  only  a  few  were 
aware  that  this  was  a  great  day  in  his  life.  When  he 
began  to  speak  the  audience  recognised  that  one  was 
addressing  them  who  had  made  Zionism  a  part  of  his  life. 
He  showed  no  flaring  enthusiasm,  but  rather  a  quiet  elation,  a 
devotion  to  the  subject.  On  leaving,  he  and  I  shook  hands — 
no  words  were  necessary  because  we  understood  each  other. 

The  fourth  was  a  mass  meeting  at  the  end  of  December 


I 


SIR  MARK  SYKES  xxxi 

in  Manchester.  In  the  morning  there  had  been  a  small 
gathering  with  Sykes,  and  before  the  meeting  a  banquet  in 
honour  of  Mr.  C.  P.  Scott.  The  meeting  itself  was  one  of  the 
largest  that  ever  was  held  in  Manchester.  Sir  Stuart  Samuel 
was  in  the  chair.  Doctor  Weizmann  made  one  of  his  most 
brilliant  speeches,  and  Mr.  James  de  Rothschild  roused  the 
audience  to  enthusiasm.  Then  Sykes  rose,  and  made  a 
speech  full  of  the  dreamy  poetry  of  an  Eastern  tale.  The 
audience  felt  itself  transported  into  another  and  better 
world.  The  poetry  of  the  East  diffused  itself  as  a  softening 
charm  over  the  hard-cut  hues  of  high  pohtical  argument. 
After  the  meeting  we  sat  down,  tired  out,  to  tea.  Sykes 
hurried  in  in  his  rain-coat  :  he  had  no  time  to  stay,  as  he  had 
to  catch  the  night  train.  He  was  due  in  London  next  morn- 
ing to  send  urgent  telegrams  to  Palestine. 

The  fifth  was  on  a  glorious  June  day  in  191 8  en  route 
from  Paris  to  London.  Sykes  insisted  on  my  travelling 
with  him.  He  was  in  company  with  a  distinguished  party 
containing  nearly  all  the  members  of  the  Government. 
As  there  was  no  time  to  complete  the  passport  formalities, 
he  simply  attached  me  to  himself  personally.  I  felt  em- 
barrassed and  accepted  his  proposal  with  reluctance.  But 
when  he  told  me  that  it  was  necessary  to  remind  people 
constantly  of  the  Declaration,  I  made  up  my  mind  to  venture 
flying  if  he  should  think  it  necessary.  The  journey  almost 
assumed  the  form  of  a  Zionist  meeting.  There  were  twenty- 
eight  persons  in  all,  the  most  prominent  members  of  the 
Government.  On  deck  the  Prime  Minister  was  talking 
with  Jellicoe.  The  tall  and  imposing  figure  of  Mr.  Balfour, 
with  his  noble  grey-haired  head  and  the  well-known  small 
hat,  stood  above  the  rest.  Sykes  urged  me  to  have  a  word 
with  the  Prime  Minister.  I  seized  the  opportunity  and  in 
the  course  of  our  conversation  I  had  from  him  the  treasured 
words  :  that  such  a  war  as  this  would  be  in  vain  if  we  did 
not  aim  at  succouring  all  peoples,  the  Zionist  Jews  included. 
I  afterwards  told  this  to  Sykes,  who  was  at  the  other  end  of 
the  ship,  but  he  knew  already.  *'  How,  by  an  indiscretion  ?  " 
"  No,  a  favourable  wind  whispered  it  to  me."  The  *  Favour- 
able Wind  '  was  one  of  the  company  who  had  overheard 
the  conversation. 

Sir  Mark's  work  during  the  last  few  years  falls  into  eight 
successive  periods,  (i)  February-March,  1917,  the  colla- 
boration in  London  with  M.  Picot,  and  after  the  latter's 
departure   for   France,   with   us ;    (2)    March-June,   1917, 


xxxii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

our  journey  to  Paris  ;  his  journey  to  Egypt ;  (3)  June- 
November,  1917,  preliminary  work  leading  to  the  Balfour 
Declaration  ;  (4)  November,  1917-March  1918,  from  the 
Declaration  to  the  despatch  of  the  Commission  to  Palestine  ; 
(5)  March-October,  1918,  the  work  in  London  during  the 
stay  of  the  Commission  in  Palestine  ;  (6)  October-Decem- 
ber, 1918,  the  work  after  the  return  of  the  Commission  ; 
(7)  December  1918-February,  1919,  the  journey  to  Syria, 
and  (8)  February,  1919,  the  last  days  in  Paris. 

In  the  first  period  the  foundations  were  laid  ;  at  that  time 
Sir  Mark  was,  so  to  speak,  introduced  into  the  world  of 
Zionist  ideas.  The  second  was  full  of  active  negotiations 
with  the  Entente  Governments.  During  the  third  Sykes 
was  in  busy  relations  with  a  number  of  the  friends  of  our 
cause.  In  this  period  the  work  of  Major  Ormsby-Gore  was 
of  practically  the  same  importance,  as  also  during  the  fourth 
period.  In  the  fifth  period,  during  the  time  of  the  important 
work  in  Palestine  of  the  Commission  under  the  leadership 
of  Doctor  Weizmann,  Major  Ormsby-Gore  was  of  great 
service  there.  The  whole  of  the  labours  in  London  connected 
with  the  activity  of  the  Commission  and  with  a  thousand 
other  matters  relating  to  Zionism  fell  upon  Sykes,  and  neces- 
sitated daily  work  of  an  intensely  difficult  character. 

To  this  period  belong  a  number  of  most  important 
measures  which  for  the  first  time  gave  Zionism  both  inter- 
nally and  externally  its  proper  position  and  its  necessary 
prestige.  Sir  Mark  had  at  that  time  his  office  in  two  rooms, 
afterwards  partitioned  into  three,  on  the  basement  of  the 
back  wing  of  the  Foreign  Office,  connected  with  the  upper 
storeys  by  means  of  a  lift,  never  used  by  Sir  Mark,  who 
mounted  the  stairs  about  twenty  times  daily  at  a  lightning 
speed,  which  made  it  impossible  for  me  to  keep  pace  with  him 
in  spite  of  my  most  strenuous  efforts.  The  first  large  room 
was  dark  because  the  big  window  was  blocked  with 
sandbags  as  a  protection  against  possible  air  raids;  it 
had  long  tables  and  was  illuminated  artificially.  I  had 
to  be  there  often  and  for  long  periods  at  a  time: 
my  work,  indeed,  required  my  attendance  there  more 
than  at  the  Zionist  offices,  and  sometimes  I  had  to 
go  there  three  times  a  day  and  to  remain  there  till  late 
at  night.  On  one  of  these  occasions  Sir  Mark  said  to 
me,  '*  Does  not  this  subterranean  room  look  like  a  medieval 
inquisition  chamber,  with  those  long  tables  upon  which  the 
victims  of  the  Inquisition  might  be  stretched  for  torture  ? 


SIR  MARK  SYKES  xxxiii 

Who  knows/'  added  he  humorously,  "  whether  some  of  your 
forefathers  had  not  to  undergo  treatment  in  chambers  of 
this  kind  ?  "  I  answered,  "  Yes,  as  Scripture  has  it :  *  I 
will  make  the  desolate  valley  into  a  door  of  hope  '  "  After 
that  we  often  used  to  call  this  room  the  "  Door  of  Hope." 
This  room  opened  into  another  where  Sir  Mark  spent  whole 
days  at  work  except  for  the  time  at  Westminster.  The 
duties  of  Secretary  were  most  ably  filled  by  Mr.  Dunlop, 
a  young  and  energetic  man  ;  opposite,  in  the  building  in 
Whitehall  Gardens,  Sir  Mark's  older  colleague,  the  learned 
and  highly  experienced  Mr.  Beck,  worked  in  conjunction 
with  him.  Between  the  two  offices  the  faithful  Serjeant 
Wilson,  who  accompanied  Sir  Mark  ever5rwhere  on  land  and 
sea,  passed  to  and  fro.  It  was  like  a  hive  ;  there  was  a 
constant  coming  and  going  of  Foreign  Office  men,  M.P.'s, 
Armenian  politicians,  Mahommedan  Mullahs,  officers, 
journalists,  representatives  of  Syrian  Committees,  and 
deputations  from  philanthropic  societies.  In  the  midst  of 
this  busy  world~Zionism  maintained  its  prominent  position. 
Everything  had  to  pass  through  Sykes'  hands.  In  order  to 
avoid  confusion  and  divergence  of  effort  he  insisted  upon 
what  was  readily  conceded  him,  namely  that  he  should 
pass  an  opinion  on  every  question  and  every  detail,  and  in 
this  there  was  no  hesitation,  no  delay.  Among  many  others 
a  couple  of  examples  will  suffice.  The  Oriental  Jews,  being 
Turkish  subjects,  were  under  the  law  regarded  as  alien 
enemies.  They  were  certainly  only  technically  such  ;  at 
heart  they  were  thoroughly  pro-British  and  in  any  case 
politically  harmless.  Exceptions  had  already  been  made  on 
the  recommendations  of  personal  standing,  but  no  logical 
plan  was  followed.  I  maintained  that  the  Zionist  Organisa- 
tion should  be  officially  empowered  to  protect  the  Jews 
of  Palestine  and  Syria,  just  as,  for  example,  the  Polish 
Committee  protected  the  Poles  from  Galicia,  who  were  also 
technically  alien  enemies.  Sykes  obtained  this  concession 
after  considerable  labour.  This  was  an  official  recognition 
of  the  Zionist  Organisation  as  competent  authority.  When 
at  the  time  of  the  most  strenuous  military  efforts,  the  later 
categories  of  the  male  population  were  called  to  the  colours, 
the  Zionist  Organisation  in  England  was  threatened  with 
losing  the  last  of  its  secretaries,  speakers,  organisers,  etc., 
and  with  seeing  its  activities  restricted,  if  not  completely 
interrupted.  None  were  more  patriotic  than  the  Zionists, 
so  many  of  whom  were  in  the  Army,  but  we  had  to  deal 


xxxiv  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

with  a  number  of  men  who  could  be  of  no  value  to  the  Army, 
and  who,  on  the  other  hand,  were  indispensable  to  the 
Zionist  Organisation.     Previously  some  had  been  left  with 
^  us,  but  now  it  was  a  question  of  large  numbers.     It  was  a 

»  generally  recognised  principle  that  people  whose  occupation 

was  of  national  importance  were  allowed  to  continue  at  it. 
I  insisted  upon  having  this  principle  applied  to  Zionism. 
This  matter  could  not  be  settled  by  any  single  individual 
or  by  any  single  tribunal.  The  question  concerned  a 
matter  of  principle,  and  had  nothing  to  do  with  individuals. 
Since  we  had  received  the  declaration  of  recognition  from 
the  British  Government  and  the  whole  Entente,  and  as  we 
had  to  prepare  the  field  for  the  realisation  of  this  declara- 
tion, this  ought  surely  to  have  been  regarded  as  a  matter 
of  national  importance  from  the  official  standpoint.  Sykes 
adopted  this  point  of  view  and  made  strenuous  efforts  to 
have  it  realised.  He  was  thoroughly  convinced  that  our 
loyalty  to  Great  Britain  and  her  Allies  was  boundless,  and 
that  in  all  our  demands  the  interests  of  both  parties  had 
been  considered  with  equal  devotion.  On  the  other  hand, 
we  recognised  that  when  he  denied  us  something  as  inad- 
missible, though  like  any  other  man  he  might  sometimes 
make  mistakes,  he  was  open  to  change  of  conviction  upon 
good  reason  being  shown,  and  that  any  stand  taken  by  him 
against  our  proposals  was  due  rather  to  the  fact  that  he 
regarded  the  matter  at  issue  as  unfavourable  in  certain 
circumstances  to  Zionism,  than  that  he  had  the  interests 
of  Zionism  less  at  heart  than  we  ;  thus  a  community  of 
effort  and  a  mutual  trust  was  established,  which  led  to  a 
complete  sohdarity  of  aims.  In  this  way  our  work  in  con- 
junction with  Sykes  became  the  foundation  for  our  relations 
with  the  higher  Government  authorities,  as  also  with  Sykes* 
colleagues  and  successors. 

The  most  important  and  poHtically  difficult  task  that 
had  to  be  accompUshed  in  London  during  the  stay 
of  the  Commission  in  Palestine  was  to  make  possible 
the  official  laying  of  the  foundation  stone  of  the  Hebrew 
University  in  Jerusalem.  The  recommendations  and  the 
instructions  carried  by  the  President  of  the  Commission, 
Doctor  Weizmann,  to  Palestine  were  most  valuable,  and 
will  stand  as  a  lasting  token  of  the  generous  and  kindly 
feehngs  of  the  leading  men  in  the  British  Government 
towards  Zionism.  The  influence  of  the  Commission,  the 
excellence  of  their  work,  their  splendid  relations  with  the 


SIR  MARK  SYKES  xxxv 

authorities  had  ensured  complete  success.  Nevertheless  it 
was  found  that,  particularly  with  reference  to  the  founda- 
tion-stone ceremony,  the  instructions  had  been  of  too 
general  and  too  vague  a  character  to  overcome  the  formal 
and  legal  administrative  obstacles.  It  is  my  duty  to  one 
who  is  gone,  to  record  the  great  services  of  Sir  Mark  in  this 
direction.  It  goes  without  saying  that  the  final  decision 
lay  with  a  man  in  higher  ofhce.  However,  before  Mr.  Balfour 
gave  his  decision  and  before  the  most  detailed  instructions 
had  been  telegraphed,  we  had  to  work  strenuously  day  after 
day  for  several  weeks,  by  correspondence  and  by  interviews, 
with  such  devotion  and  enthusiasm  as  only  so  magnificent  an 
object  as  the  Hebrew  University  in  Jerusalem  could  inspire. 

During  the  period  that  followed,  namely  the  sixth  as 
above  described,  the  Zionist  programme  was  being  prepared. 
The  end  of  the  War  was  in  sight,  but  the  cessation  of  hos- 
tilities was  not  to  be  expected  so  very  soon.  Sykes  decided, 
then,  the  whole  of  Palestine  and  Syria  being  in  British  hands, 
to  travel  thither  to  gather  fresh  information  and  to  bring 
the  results  of  his  latter  observations  to  the  Peace  Conference. 
I  tried  to  dissuade  him  from  this  journey,  because  I  thought 
his  presence  in  Europe  important  :  he,  on  the  other  hand, 
wanted  me  to  go  with  him  to  Palestine.  He  finally  went 
alone  and  wrote  to  me  from  there  that  I  should  come  without 
delay.  His  stay  in  Palestine  was,  however,  only  a  very  short 
one  :  he  soon  passed  to  Syria  and  did  strenuous  work  in  the 
direction  of  restoring  order  in  Aleppo.  In  the  meantime  the 
Peace  Conference  opened  here.  We  were  all  of  us  already 
assembled — except  Sykes.     We  thought  of  him  every  day. 

One  evening  there  was  a  telephone  call.  On  taking  up 
the  receiver  I  heard  Sykes'  voice  telling  me  that  he  had  just 
arrived  in  Paris,  and  was  staying  as  usual  at  the  Hotel 
Lotti  opposite  us.  I  invited  him  at  once  to  dinner,  and  he 
came.  He  was  the  same  lovable  fellow,  full  of  life  and 
humour,  but  now  frightfully  thin.  He  had  lived  the  whole 
time  on  "  German  sausages''  and  had  suffered  much  from 
digestive  troubles.  It  only  transpired  later,  that  he  had 
spent  sixteen  hours  a  day  in  Aleppo  working  under  almost 
impossible  conditions  on  behalf  of  the  Arabs  and  Armenians. 
He  was  himself  never  in  the  habit  of  talking  about  his 
work.  It  was  two  hours  after  midnight  when  he  left 
us, — he  had  so  much  to  tell  about  the  ordinary  incapa- 
city for  proper  administration  of  the  local  Syrian  popula- 
tion and  their  marked  capacity  in  that  direction  under 


xxxvi  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

suitable  guidance,  about  the  prospects  for  Palestine,  about 
the  steps  he  had  taken  against  anti-Zionist  intrigues  in 
Syria  and  other  matters.  From  that  time  forward  we 
saw  each  other  every  day.  Some  days  later  he  went  to 
London  to  see  his  family  and  returned  in  three  days 
with  Lady  Sykes.  Immediately  upon  his  arrival  he  was 
in  touch  with  us.  He  had  a  thousand  ideas,  and  had 
brought  reports  and  instructions  from  Syria  that  had  to  be 
elaborated.  Our  days  were  filled  with  appointments  for 
visits,  interviews,  etc.  Then  Lady  Sykes  was  attacked  by 
influenza,  which  caused  a  little  dislocation  and  the  postpone- 
ment of  an  accepted  invitation,  but  gave  no  cause  for  alarm. 
On  the  13th  of  February,  Sir  Mark  hastily  entered  my  room, 
and  on  finding  me  indisposed,  he  shouted,  "  There's  no 
time  now  for  being  ill."  The  following  morning  he  sent 
word  to  me  that  Lady  Sykes  was  better,  but  that  he  himself 
was  taken  ill.  "I  have  got  it,"  he  said  to  Serjeant  Wilson 
when  he  went  to  bed.  On  the  15th  Lady  Sykes  sent  for 
me,  and  told  me  that  her  husband  would  have  to  remain 
in  bed  for  a  few  days,  that  afterwards  she  intended 
to  go  to  England  for  a  week  or  so  to  recuperate.  "  To 
Sledmore  ?  "  I  asked.  "  No,"  said  Lady  Sykes,  "  it  is 
too  cold  there.  I  think  the  South  will  be  better.  And 
my  chief  reason  for  troubhng  you,"  she  added,  "  is  because 
my  husband  wants  to  know  how  ZionisJ  matters  went 
yesterday."  I  gave  full  details  to  Lady  Sykes.  In  the 
afternoon  of  the  i6th  Sir  Mark  died. 

He  died  on  the  threshold  of  the  Peace  Conference  which 
was  destined  to  make  his  dream  a  living  thing,  died  in  a 
hotel  in  the  midst  of  us,  bound  up  with  our  deepest  affec- 
tions, a  radiant  form  full  of  love  and  sincerity.  His  Hfe  was 
as  a  song,  almost  as  a  Psalm.  He  was  a  man  who  has  won  a 
monument  in  the  future  Pantheon  of  the  Jewish  people 
and  of  whom  legends  will  be  told  in  Palestine,  Arabia  and 
Armenia.  Just  returned  from  a  difficult  task  in  the  service 
of  humanity  in  the  service  of  the  idea  of  nationality,  and 
about  to  perform  great  things  for  the  Jewish  people,  he 
fell  as  a  hero  at  our  side. 

There  it  ends  !  Shakespeare  himself  could  use  no  more 
than  the  commonplace  to  express  what  is  incapable  of 
expression.    "  The  rest  is  silence  !  " 

We  say  :  "  The  rest  is  immortahty — in  the  annals  of 
Zionism." 

Paris,  April,  1919. 


CHAPTER  XLIXa 

Choveve  Zion  and  Zionists  in  England — Louis  Loewe — Nathan  Marcus 
Adler — Albert  Lowy — Abraham  Benisch — The  Rev.  M.  J.  Raphall — 
Dr.  M.  Gaster — Rabbi  Samuel  Mohilewer — English  representation  at 
the  Second  and  Third  Congresses — The  Fourth  Congress  in  London. 

The  Choveve  Zion  movement  in  England  was  not  very 
powerful,  yet  it  enjoyed  a  certain  amount  of  popularity.  If 
we  examine,  for  instance,  the  records  for  1892-7 — the  years 
which  preceded  the  First  Zionist  Congress  (Basle,  1897) — 
we  find  among  the  leading  representatives  not  only  the 
Chief  Rabbi  of  the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  Communities, 
Dr.  M.  Gaster,  Mr.  Herbert  Bentwich,  Rabbi  Professor 
H.  Gollancz,  the  late  Colonel  Albert  Goldsmid,  Dr.  S.  A. 
Hirsch,  Mr.  S.  B.  Rubenstein,  Mr.  E.  W.  Rabbinowicz  and 
other  English  Jews  of  standing,  who  are  even  now  more 
or  less  active  in  the  Zionist  Organization ;  but  we  read 
the  names  of  the  late  Chief  Rabbi  of  Great  Britain,  Dr. 
H.  Adler,  the  late  Lord  Swaythling,  Mr.  Elkan  Adler, 
Albert  Jessel,  Mr.  Joseph  Prag  (who  was  one  of  the  most 
active  members),  Joseph  Nathan,  Louis  Schloss,  Haim 
Guedalla,  Captain  H.  Lewis-Barned,  Bernard  Birnbaum, 
Mr.  Herman  Landau  and  other  distinguished  members  of 
the  community,  as  among  those  of  the  prominent  enthusi- 
astic supporters  of  the  Choveve  Zion  movement  who  did  not 
join  the  new  Zionist  Organization.  The  same  phenomenon 
strikes  us  in  France.  There  the  new  Zionism  was  con- 
fronted on  the  part  of  the  Choveve  Zion  by  an  opposition 
that  was  even  stronger  than  in  England. 

An  impartial  historian,  desirous  of  reviewing  the  facts 
as  they  were  revealed  in  Jewish  life  and  literature,  would  in 
vain  endeavour  to  discover  any  essential  difference  between 
the  Choveve  Zion  and  the  Zionist  fundamental  principles. 
He  could  trace  a  complete  and  clear  conception  of  political 
Zionism  through  centuries  of  English  history  or  Jewish 
history  in  England,  and  on  the  other  hand  also  efforts  and 
undertakings  in  the  direction  of  colonization  pursued  with 
great  energy  and  care  by  forces  that  are  generally  found  to 
be  co-operating  with  political  Zionism.  A  sober  and  dis- 
passionate examination  of  all  these  ideas  without  regard  to 


xxxviu  THE  HISt6rY  OF  ZIONISM 

mere  catchwords  must  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  Sir 
Moses  Montefiore's  representations  to  Mehemet  Ali  in  1838 
were  substantially  the  same  as  Herzl  made  to  Abdul  Hamid 
in  1898.  However,  both  aimed  at  a  legally  assured  home 
and  both  insisted  that  Palestine  should  belong  to  the 
Jewish  people.  And  no  real  student  of  contemporary 
Jewish  history  will  imagine  that  Sir  Moses  was  an  isolated 
dreamer.  He  never  undertook  anything  in  Jewish  affairs 
without  consulting  the  authorities  of  his  time.  One  of  his 
advisers  was  Louis  Loewe,  the  well-known  Jewish  scholar 
and  his  secretary  for  many  years. 

Dr.  Louis  Loewe  (1809-88),  who  was  educated  at  the 
Yeshihot  of  Lissa,  Nikolsburg,  Presburg,  and  at  the 
University  of  Berlin,  came  to  England  in  1839  and  was 
appointed  by  the  Duke  of  Sussex  to  be  his  Orientalist. 
He  then  travelled  in  the  East,  where  he  studied  languages. 
In  Cairo  he  was  presented  to  Mehemet  Ali,  for  whom  he 
translated  some  hieroglyphic  inscriptions.  On  his  return 
from  Palestine  he  met  at  Rome  Sir  Moses  and  Lady  Monte- 
fiore,  who  invited  him  to  travel  with  them  to  Palestine. 
When,  in  1840,  Sir  Moses  went  on  his  Damascus  expedition, 
Loewe  accompanied  him  as  his  interpreter.  Since  that  time 
Loewe  was  attached  to  Sir  Moses  as  his  personal  friend  and 
secretary.  He  accompanied  Sir  Moses  on  nine  different  mis- 
sions. He  wrote  several  valuable  works  on  oriental  subjects : 
The  Origin  of  the  Egyptian  Language,  London,  1837  ;  A 
Dictionary  of  the  Circassian  Language,  1859  ;  ^  Nubian 
Grammar  and  several  pamphlets — and  translated  J.  B. 
Levinsohn's  Efes  Damim  (1871)  and  David  Nieto's  Matteh 
Dan  (1842).  Dr.  Loewe  was  an  ardent  supporter  of  all 
schemes  in  favour  of  Palestine  and  strongly  assisted  David 
Gordon,  the  editor  of  the  Ha-Magid,  who  was  an  enthusi- 
astic and  outspoken  political  Zionist  years  before  Herzl. 

We  have  already  mentioned  to  what  an  extent  the  Chief 
Rabbi,  Dr.  N.  M.  Adler,  influenced  Sir  Moses'  works  in 
Palestine.  Nathan  Adler  was  born  at  Hanover  in  1803. 
He  received  his  education  at  the  Universities  of  Gottingen, 
Erlangen  and  Wurzburg.  Already  as  a  youth  his  abilities 
proved  him  to  be  particularly  adapted  to  the  discharge 
of  rabbinical  functions.  In  1829  he  was  appointed  Chief 
Rabbi  of  Oldenburg  ;  in  1830  his  jurisdiction  was  trans- 
ferred to  Hanover  and  all  its  provinces.  His  fame  spread 
beyond  the  Rhine  and  reached  England  just  when  the 
Jewish  population  there  was  in  need  of  a  spiritual  leader. 


ADLER— LOWY— BENISCH  xxxix 

In  1844  the  election  took  place  for  Chief  Rabbi  of  the 
Ashkenazi  Congregations  of  Great  Britain  and  the  choice 
fell  on  Dr.  Adler.  He  was  inducted  into  office  on  July  9th, 
1845.  His  activity  and  influence  during  his  lengthy  careei 
as  Chief  Rabbi  proved  a  blessing  and  were  attended  with 
most  invaluable  results.  His  calling  did  not  prevent  him 
from  contributing  excellent  literary  productions,  mostly  in 
Hebrew,  the  principal  of  which  is  Nethino  La-Ger's  com- 
mentary on  the  Targum  of  Onkelos.  There  is  no  doubt 
that  this  famous  Rabbi  and  great  Jew  was  in  close  touch 
with  Sir  Moses  in  all  the  steps  the  latter  took  for  the 
colonizing  of  Palestine  for  a  political  as  well  as  philan- 
thropic purpose. 

Many  of  the  most  important  Jewish  scholars  arriving  in 
England,  and  becoming  in  course  of  time  the  pride  of  English 
Jewry,  were  much  attracted  by  the  idea  that  England 
was  the  classical  soil  for  a  fruitful  work  in  Palestine.  It  is 
worth  noting  that  Dr.  Albert  Lowy  belonged  also  to  this 
group.  He  was  born  on  the  10 th  of  December,  1816,  at 
Aussig  in  Moravia.  After  his  harmizwah  (attainment  of  his 
religious  majority — the  age  of  thirteen)  he  was  sent  to  a 
public  school  at  Leipzig.  Later  he  attended  the  University 
and  Polytechnic  at  Vienna.  There  he  first  met  his  lifelong 
friends,  Moritz  Steinschneider  and  Abraham  Benisch. 
Lowy  and  his  friends  formed  "  Die  Einheit,"  a  society 
whose  object  was  to  promote  the  welfare  of  the  Jewish 
people.  In  order  to  realize  this  object  the  c^()^ization  of 
Palestine  by  the  Austrian  Jews  was  advoca^S.  The  first 
meeting  of  the  new  society  was  held  in  1838,  in  Lowy's 
room.  The  object,  however,  had  to  be  kept  secret  for  fear 
lest  it  would  be  defeated  by  the  Government.  England  was 
regarded  as  the  country  likely  to  welcome  the  new  move- 
ment, and,  as  an  emissary  of  the  Students'  Jewish  National 
Society,  Lowy  was  sent  to  London  in  1841.  Years  after- 
wards he  took  a  leading  part  in  London  in  the  foundation  of 
a  body  with  kindred  objects,  the  Anglo- Jewish  Association. 

To  the  same  group  of  noble-minded  men  who  raised 
themselves  to  the  height  of  a  national  and  Zionist  con- 
ception of  a  superior  kind  belonged  also  the  afore-mentioned 
Abraham  Benisch,  one  of  the  creators  of  the  Anglo- Jewish 
Press,  the  author  of  the  Jewish  School  and  Family  Bible 
(1851),  the  translator  of  Petahiah  ben  Jacob's  Travels  (1856), 
and  for  many  years  editor  of  the  Jewish  Chronicle.  If  there 
ever    was    a    Jewish    nationalist,    this    important    Anglo- 


xl  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Jewish  writer  was  one  beyond  a  doubt.  He  was  a  man  of 
great  abilities  and  learning,  and  rendered  valuable  assist- 
ance in  the  propaganda  for  and  in  the  organization  of  the 
societies  for  the  colonization  of  Palestine.  In  several 
leading  articles  written  by  him,  with  great  tact  and 
sagacity,  he  expounded — particularly  in  connection  with 
the  political  events  of  1856  and  of  1861 — the  root  prin- 
ciples of  political  Zionism. 

Another  remarkable  Jewish  scholar  and  pioneer  of 
Zionism  in  his  time  was  the  Rev.  M.  J.  Raphall,  who  was  a 
brilliant  writer  and  also  a  pioneer  of  the  Anglo- Jewish  Press. 
He  edited  the  Hebrew  Review  and  Magazine  for  Jewish 
Literature  in  1837,  which  was  resumed  in  1859.  Some  years 
later  he  edited,  together  with  the  Rev.  A.  de  Sola,  the  Voice 
of  Jacob,  which  had  been  founded  by  Jacob  Franklin  in 
1841.  He  afterwards  settled  in  America  and  assisted  there 
in  the  fifties  of  last  century,  together  with  some  distinguished 
American  Jews,  in  establishing  in  New  York  a  society  for 
the  colonization  of  Palestine.  He  was  later  engaged  in 
similar  work  in  Canada.  Essentially  a  student  and  a 
scholar,  he  devoted  many  years  of  his  life  to  the  propa- 
ganda of  the  Jewish  national  ideas. 

It  is  impossible  to  conjure  away  all  the  facts  showing, 
firstly,  that  the  supposed  differences  between  the  Choveve 
Zion  movement  and  the  new  Zionism  are  mere  phraseology, 
and,  secondly,  that  the  best  representatives  of  Anglo- Jews 
were  nationalist  and  Zionist.  The  refusal  to  accept  the  new 
Zionism  on  the  part  of  some  representatives  of  the  Choveve 
Zion  movement  for  that  reason  can  only  be  regarded  as  a 
temporary  misunderstanding. 

The  new  Zionism  made  headway  in  England  especially 
through  the  efforts  of  the  two  organizations  :  the  English 
Zionist  Federation  and  the  Ancient  Order  of  Maccabeans. 

The  English  Zionist  Federation  was  formed  in  pursuance 
of  a  resolution  passed  by  the  Clerkenwell  Conference  of 
March,  1898,  for  the  purpose  of  finding  a  common  platform 
upon  which  Zionists  of  all  shades  of  opinion  could  co- 
operate. A  committee  was  appointed  by  the  Conference  to 
draw  up  a  scheme,  and  that  committee  established  the 
Federation.  When  the  Federation  was  started  it  received 
support  from  eight  societies,  representing  five  towns  :  after 
six  months,  sixteen  societies,  representing  nine  towns,  had 
joined:  at  the  time  of  the  Fourth  Congress,  thirty-eight 
societies,   representing  twenty-nine  towns,  were  affiliated. 


DR.  MOSES  GASTER  xli 

This  was  the  first  stage  of  development  prior  to  the  London 
Congress  of  the  Zionist  Organization. 

The  appearance  of  EngHsh  Zionist  Delegates  at  the  First 
Congress  has  already  been  alluded  to.  After  the  First 
Congress  Dr.  Gaster  published  the  following  letter  in  the 
Times  of  the  29th  of  August,  1897  : — 

"  The  movement  aims  at  the  solution  of  one  of  the  most 
complex  modern  social  problems  in  Europe,  and  the  means 
which  are  to  be  employed  towards  the  solution  are  the 
realization  of  deep-seated  religious  hopes  and  ideals.  For 
this  very  reason  men  from  all  the  ranks  of  Jewish  society 
and  all  shades  of  Jewish  religion  are  here  united  in  the 
common,  noble,  lofty  and  humanitarian  purpose — the 
restoration  of  Israel,  which  is,  moreover,  the  true  fulfilment 
of  the  words  of  our  Prophets. 

"It  is  surprising  to  find  .  .  .  the  incorrect  statement 
that  the  agitation  is  the  outcome  of  anti-Semitism.  It 
existed  long  before  this  word  even  was  coined.  It  prompted 
the  Jews  of  Russia  and  Roumania  many  years  ago  to  found 
colonies  in  Palestine.  But  this  movement  is  felt  to  be 
inadequate  to  cope  with  the  whole  question.  The  political 
situation  of  the  Jews  has  since  made  enormous  strides.  The 
number  of  Zionists  with  a  definite  aim  before  their  eyes 
has  grown  rapidly.  They  are  recruited  from  among  the 
young  enthusiasts  on  the  Continent.  University  Professors 
and  students,  scholars  and  workmen  are  joining  hands. 
They  belong  most  exclusively  to  the  orthodox  and  embrace 
the  vast  majority  of  the  Jewish  people.  The  Bible  and  the 
Prayer  Book  are  the  text,  and  this  agitation  is  merely  the 
practical  commentary.  ...  I,  as  an  orthodox  Rabbi,  beg 
to  differ  radically  from  .  .  .  (the  anti-Zionist  views).  .  .  . 
It  is  not  here  the  place  to  enter  upon  dogmatic  questions 
and  I  therefore  refrain  from  discussing  the  *  miracles  *  that 
are  to  happen  on  that  day  when  Israel  is  to  return  to  the 
land  of  his  fathers.  God  chooses  human  agencies  to  carry 
out  His  Will,  and  it  is  after  it  has  been  accomplished  that 
we  become  aware  of  the  renewing  circumstances,  unexpected 
and  unlooked  for,  which  have  all  contributed  to  bring  about 
the  result,  which  before  would  have  appeared  to  be  little 
short  of  a  miracle.  Whether  the  restoration  will  be  ac- 
complished by  the  purchase  of  Palestine,  or  by  unexpected 
political  combinations  or  by  other  peculiar  circumstances,  it 
would  be  idle  to  dogmatize  about. 

"  One  thing  is  certain.    The  whole  orthodox  and  realistic 


xlii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Jewry,  which  does  not  volatilize  the  words  of  the  Prophets, 
and  does  not  look  upon  the  Divine  promises  as  so  many 
spiritual  symbols  to  be  interpreted  away  according  to  each 
one's  fancy,  is  now  assembled  in  spirit  at  the  Congress  and 
watches  its  deliberations  with  sympathy  and  elevated  hope." 

We  have  already  mentioned  that  Rabbi  Mohilewer  had  sent 
his  congratulations  to  the  Congress.  The  contents  of  Rabbi 
Mohilewer's  expressions  may  be  briefly  noted  as  a  supple- 
ment to  Dr.  Gaster's  letter.  Rabbi  Mohilewer  wrote  that  as 
the  state  of  his  health  did  not  permit  him  to  travel,  he  sent 
the  Congress  his  blessing  in  writing.  Harmony  and  concord 
should  exist  among  all  Zionists,  even  if  their  religious  views 
differed.  The  colonization  of  Palestine  was  recommended 
as  a  religious  duty — religion  should  therefore  be  a  leading 
factor  in  the  Zionist  movement.  They  should  also  bear  in 
mind  that  it  was  a  duty  to  construct  and  not  to  demolish, 
and  they  should  preserve  the  honour  of  the  rabbis,  who 
were  thoroughly  patriotic  as  regarded  the  land  in  which 
they  lived.  For  the  past  two  thousand  years,  the  Jews  had 
awaited  the  advent  of  the  Messiah,  who  would  take  them 
back  to  the  land  of  their  fathers.  But  in  our  country  men 
had  risen  who  had  abandoned  this  hope  and  had  eliminated 
it  from  the  Prayer  Book.  Several  of  the  rabbis  in  Western 
Europe  had  declared  against  the  Zionist  movement,  and  one 
of  them  had  gone  so  far  as  to  assert  that  the  movement  was 
contrary  to  the  biblical  prophecies,  as  the  Messiah  was  only 
to  be  symbolized  and  the  Jews  were  to  remain  in  exile.  He 
declared  this  to  be  wholly  untrue.  Their  faith  was  that 
God  would  send  a  Redeemer  to  bring  back  the  People  to 
their  own  land,  and  that  the  Jewish  people  would,  once 
again,  be  honoured  among  the  nations.  Zionism  does  not 
interfere  with  this  deep  belief ;  it  is  rather  in  harmony  with 
it,  and  it  prepares  the  way. 

These  two  letters  were  a  sort  of  profession  de  joi  on  the 
part  of  two  rabbis  representing  different  sections  of 
traditional  Jewry  in  England  and  Russia  respectively. 

The  Second  Zionist  Congress  at  Basle,  1898,  was  attended 
much  more  numerously  than  the  first  one.  There  were  over 
four  hundred  delegates,  and  the  English  Zionists  had  sent 
a  larger  contingent  (the  Haham,  Dr.  M.  Gaster,  had  a 
Roumanian  mandate  ;  Jacob  de  Haas,  Leopold  J.  Green- 
berg,  E.  W.  Rabbinowicz,  B.  Ritter,  A.  Snowman,  S.  Claff, 
J.  Massel,  Dr.  Moses  Umanski,  Herbert  Bentwich  and  others). 
The  presence  of  Dr.  Gaster,  who  was  one  of  the  most  energetic 


THE  SECOND  AND  THIRD  CONGRESSES      xliii 

spirits  of  the  Congress,  was  a  great  gain  to  the  Movement. 
The  Enghsh  delegates  adopted  thoroughly  English  methods. 
They  were  not  seen  standing  about  in  groups  and  knots  in 
the  passages  and  ante-rooms  delivering  impassioned  speeches. 
The  oratorical  contributions  of  the  English  delegates  were 
few,  and  none  of  them,  except  Dr.  Gaster's  powerful  address 
towards  the  close  of  the  proceedings,  took  up  more  than  a 
few  minutes.  But  the  English  delegates  worked  hard  in 
Committee  and  at  special  conferences. 

At  that  time  the  number  of  Zionist  Associations  in  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  had  reached  twenty-six  (Leeds  three, 
Glasgow,  London,  Liverpool  and  Manchester  two  each  ; 
Belfast,  Cardiff,  Cork,  Dublin,  Edinburgh,  Exeter,  Hanley, 
Hull,  Limerick,  Newcastle,  Newport,  Norwich,  Plymouth, 
Portsmouth  and  Sunderland  one  each),  and  in  France — three, 
out  of  the  total  number  of  the  Associations  all  over  the 
world  of  913. 

The  Jewish  Chronicle,  writing  about  the  Second  Con- 
gress, remarked  :  "  There  is  the  remarkable  point  of  the 
Congress — in  strong  relief  with  the  comparative  paucity 
of  the  personnel  of  the  English  representatives  is  the 
undoubted  English  influence  that  has  been  exerted. 
Indeed,  the  net  result  of  the  Second  Basle  Congress  is  that 
Zionism  has  made  a  distinct  move  towards  England. 
Indeed,  it  would  look  as  if  events  were  so  shaping  themselves 
that  the  Mountain  having  refused  to  go  to  Mahomed, 
Mahomed  is  coming  to  the  Mountain.  The  Bank  is  to  be 
located  in  England,  so  is  the  Colonization  Commission.  This 
may  have  been  the  result — probably  it  was — of  England's 
supreme  position  among  all  the  great  Continental  Nations, 
not  only  in  regard  to  its  undoubted  stability  politically,  but 
also  its  unique  position  towards  Jews." 

The  Third  Zionist  Congress  at  Basle,  1899,  was  attended 
by  a  still  larger  number  of  delegates  from  the  United 
Kingdom.  There  were :  Dr.  M.  Gaster,  Joseph  Cowen,  J.  de 
Haas,  Murray  Rosenberg,  Herbert  Bentwich,  L.  J.  Green- 
berg,  S.  Stungo,  J.  Massel,  Rabbi  Yoffey,  Rabbi  Dagutzky, 
M.  L.  Dight,  Rabbi  Wolf,  and  others — representing  London, 
Leeds,  Glasgow,  Manchester,  Liverpool,  Birmingham,  Bel- 
fast, Edinburgh,  Sheffield,  Limerick,  Grimsby  Associations. 
According  to  a  report  of  Mr.  L.  J.  Greenberg,  who  had 
already  become  an  energetic  propagandist  of  the  new 
Zionism  in  England,  the  work  was  progressing.  He  referred 
also  to  the  activities  of  Mr.  Herbert  Bentwich,  for  if  it  had 


xHv  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

not  been  for  him  no  such  organization  would  have  existed 
in  England.  The  Congress  elected  as  members  of  the 
Colonization  Committee  Dr.  Gaster,  Mr.  Murray  Rosenberg 
and  Mr.  David  Wolffe,  and  of  the  Propaganda  Committee, 
Mr.  L.  J.  Greenberg  and  Mr.  J.  de  Haas. 

The  Fourth  Zionist  Congress  was  held  in  London  at  the 
Queen's  Hall,  August  13-16,  1900.  London  had  been 
chosen  \vith  a  view  to  further  influence  British  public 
opinion,  seeing  that  in  no  country  had  the  Zionist  propa- 
ganda been  received  more  sympathetically  and  intelligently 
by  the  general  public.  Dr.  Herzl  said  in  his  inaugural 
address  at  the  Fourth  Congress  in  London,  1900  : — 

"  I  feel  there  is  no  necessity  for  me  to  justify  the  holding 
of  the  Congress  in  London.  England  is  one  of  the  last 
remaining  places  on  earth  where  there  is  freedom  from 
Jewish  hatred.  Throughout  the  wide  world  there  is  but  one 
spot  left  in  which  God's  ancient  people  are  not  detested  and 
persecuted.  But,  from  the  fact  that  the  Jews  in  this 
glorious  land  enjoy  full  freedom  and  complete  human  rights, 
we  must  not  allow  ourselves  to  draw  future  conclusions.  He 
would  be  a  poor  friend  of  the  Jews  in  England,  as  well  as  of 
the  Jews  who  reside  in  other  countries,  who  would  advise  the 
persecuted  to  flee  hither.  Our  brethren  here  would  tremble 
in  their  shoes  if  their  position  meant  the  attraction  to  these 
shores  of  our  desperate  brethren  in  other  lands.  Such  an 
immigration  would  mean  disaster  equally  for  the  Jews  here, 
as  for  those  who  would  come  here.  For  the  latter,  with 
their  miserable  bundles,  would  bring  with  them  that  from 
which  they  flee — I  mean  anti-Semitism." 

In  the  course  of  his  address  he  uttered  the  following 
prophetic  words  : — 

'*  The  land  of  Palestine  is  not  only  the  home  of  the 
highest  ideas  and  most  unhappy  nation,  but  it  is  also  by 
reason  of  its  geographical  position,  of  immense  importance 
to  the  whole  of  Europe.  The  road  of  civilization  and  com- 
merce leads  again  to  Asia." 

According  to  the  report  read  at  this  Fourth  Congress  by 
M.  Oscar  Marmorek  *'  they  had  thirty-eight  societies  in 
England  as  against  sixteen  last  year,  and  all  these  Societies 
had  increased  their  membership.  Thanks  to  the  activity  of 
the  English  Zionist  Federation,  Zionism  had  greatly 
prospered  in  England  and  had  won  the  esteem  of  Christians. 
In  Canada  there  was  scarcely  a  town  with  a  Hebrew 
congregation  where  a  Zionist  society  did  not  exist." 


CHAPTER  XLIXb 

England  and  Zionism — Sir  B.  Arnold  in  the  Spectator — Cardinal  Vaughan 
—Lord  Rosebery— The  Death  of  Herzl— David  Wolffsohn— Prof .  Otto 
Warburg — Zionism  in  the  smaller  states. 

The  Uganda  scheme,  which  was  due  to  the  initiative  of 
Joseph  Chamberlain,  led  to  an  intimate  acquaintance 
between  the  Zionist  leader  and  this  great  English  states- 
man. This  project,  as  well  as  the  El  Arish  expedition, 
which  failed  in  consequence  of  technical  difficulties,  made 
Zionism  not  only  a  living  factor  in  Judaism  from  an  inter- 
national standpoint,  but  also  a  political  factor  that  was 
given  consideration  by  one  great  Government,  namely,  that 
of  England. 

Subsequent  events,  instead  of  diminishing,  have  only 
more  firmly  increased  Zionist  confidence  in  the  sympathy  of 
English  public  opinion  for  Palestinian  Zionism.  There  is 
hardly  an  appeal  so  eloquently  written  as  Sir  B.  Arnold's 
address,  published  in  the  Spectator,  October,  1903  :  '*  You 
have  a  country,  the  inheritance  of  your  fathers,  finer,  more 
fruitful,  better  situated  for  commerce,  than  many  of  the 
most  celebrated  places  of  the  globe.  Environed  by  the 
lovely  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  the  lofty  steppes  of 
Arabia  and  of  rocky  Sinai,  your  country  extends  along  the 
shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  crowned  by  the  towering 
cedars  of  the  Lebanon,  the  source  of  rivulets  and  brooks, 
which  spread  fruitfulness  over  shady  dales.  A  glorious 
land  !  situated  at  the  furthest  extremity  of  the  sea  which 
connects  three-quarters  of  the  globe,  over  which  the 
Phoenicians  sent  their  numerous  fleets  to  the  shores  of 
Britain,  near  to  both  the  Red  Sea  and  the  Persian  Gulf  : 
the  central  country  of  the  commerce  between  the  East  and 
the  West.  Every  country  has  its  peculiarity  :  every  people 
their  own  genius.  No  people  of  the  earth  have  lived  so  true 
to  their  calling  from  the  first  as  you  have  done.  The  Arab 
has  maintained  his  language  and  his  original  country  :  on 
the  Nile,  in  the  deserts,  as  far  as  Sinai,  and  beyond  the 
Jordan,  he  feeds  his  flocks.  In  the  elevated  plains  of  Asia 
Minor  the  Turkoman  has  conquered  for  himself  a  second 

xlv 


xlvi  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

country,  the  birthplace  of  the  Osman  :  but  Palestine  has  a 
thin  population.  For  centuries  the  battlefield  between  the 
sons  of  Altai  and  the  Arabian  wilderness,  the  inhabitants 
of  the  West  and  the  half-nomadic  Persians,  none  have  been 
able  to  establish  themselves  and  maintain  their  nationality  : 
no  nation  can  claim  the  name  of  Palestine.  A  chaotic 
mixture  of  tribes  and  tongues  ;  remnants  of  migrations 
from  north  and  south,  they  disturb  one  another  in  the 
possession  of  the  glorious  land  where  your  fathers  for  so 
many  centuries  emptied  the  cup  of  joy,  and  so  where  every 
inch  is  drenched  with  the  blood  of  your  heroes  when  their 
bodies  were  buried  under  the  ruins  of  Jerusalem." 

It  is  obvious  that  these  and  other  similar  appeals  and 
encouraging  statements  made  a  deep  impression  upon 
Zionists.  This  gave  rise  to  the  assumption  that  Zionism 
was  merely  concerned  with  English  interest.  It  is  needless 
to  say  that  such  a  statement  is  as  unfounded  as  the  one 
ascribing  to  Zionism  the  pursuance  of  any  other  political 
interest.  Zionism  is  a  cause  of  humanity  and  justice, 
altogether  remote  from  any  political  speculation  :  it  can 
help  the  Jews,  it  can  be  useful  to  any  country  interested  in 
the  development  of  the  East,  it  can  be  beneficial  to  all  the 
neighbouring  nations.  It  was  only  the  spirit  of  the  Bible 
which  enabled  the  English  people  to  appreciate  the  justice 
and  the  moral  equity  of  the  endeavour  to  raise  up  in  the 
old  land  a  free,  united,  prosperous  and  energetic  Jewish 
nation,  attached  by  the  closest  ties  of  friendship  to  European 
civilization,  carrying  not  only  into  the  East  the  civilization 
of  the  West,  just  as  in  the  Middle  Ages  their  forefathers 
brought  the  torch  of  culture  to  the  West — that  torch  of 
enlightenment  which  they  have  borne  aloft  in  their  journey 
from  the  East,  and  which  has  enabled  them  to  accomplish 
cultural  work  of  their  own. 

Cardinal  Vaughan  referred  in  1902  most  sympathetically 
to  Zionism  in  the  following  words  :  "I  have  always  taken 
a  great  interest  in  the  Jews,  they  were  once  the  chosen 
people.  I  marvel  at  the  strength  they  retain  amid  most 
unfavourable  conditions.  I  admire  their  industry,  their 
domestic  virtues  and  their  mental  force,  and  I  can  only 
wish  success  to  a  plan  which  promises  them  such  great 
advantages." 

Lord  Rosebery  pointed  out,  in  one  of  his  speeches,  that 
the  silent  campaigns  of  commerce  are  at  least  as  decisive  of 
the  fate  of  nations  as  the  noisy  operations  of  the  battlefield. 


THE  BRITISH  AS  COLONIZERS  xlvii 

Even  as  the  spasms  and  convulsions  of  nature,  though  she 
works  through  them,  are  less  important  than  the  slow, 
silent,  everyday  forces,  so  history  is  made  less  by  the  fire 
and  sword  of  the  fighters  than  by  the  humble,  prosaic 
working-classes.  The  Jews  were  aware  of  the  fact  that  not 
by  soldiers  has  the  great  British  Empire  been  built  up,  but 
by  Trading  Companies :  India  by  the  East  India  Company, 
Canada  by  the  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company,  South  Africa  by 
Mining  Companies.  The  East  India  Company  was  in- 
corporated in  1600  ;  a  few  years  later  (1607)  the  earliest 
permanent  settlement  of  Virginia  was  founded.  The 
Pilgrim  Fathers — a  movement  somewhat  similar  to  Zionism 
— began  their  noble  work  in  1620  ;  and  West  Indian  coloniza- 
tion was  inaugurated  with  the  occupation  of  the  Barbadoes 
in  1625.  Half  to  three-quarters  of  a  century  the  work  went 
apace  in  North  America,  colony  after  colony  was  added  to 
the  British  Crown.  Then  other  regions  began  to  attract  the 
British,  and  a  new  era  dawned  with  the  occupation  of 
Gibraltar  in  1704. 

All  the  great  achievements  of  British  peaceful  conquests 
encouraged  the  Zionist  Movement  with  its  trusts  and  funds. 
Cecil  Rhodes,  with  only  a  million  pounds  to  start  with, 
created  Rhodesia  with  its  750,000  square  miles.  The 
British  North  Borneo  Company  has  a  capital  of  £800,000 
and  dominates  over  31,000  square  miles.  The  British  East 
African  Company,  which  administered  200,000  square  miles, 
began  with  the  same  amount  as  the  Jewish  Colonial  Trust, 
namely,  £250,000. 

It  is  true  that  the  Zionist  Palestinian  scheme  presented 
other  difficulties,  but  where  was  any  great  work  undertaken 
which  did  not  present  difficulties  ?  Is  not  the  whole  history 
of  the  Jews  a  struggle  for  existence  amid  the  greatest  of 
difficulties  ?  The  Jews  in  their  normal  condition  were  an 
agricultural  people.  During  the  centuries  of  depression  and 
persecution  they  had  to  abandon  their  old  vocation. 
Dispersed  throughout  all  countries,  yet  fugitives  from  every 
land,  the  Jews,  who  could  call  no  place  their  home,  had  to 
turn  to  commerce  or  to  handicraft  for  a  means  of  livelihood, 
and  were  thus  able  to  carry  about  with  them  everywhere 
that  kind  of  labour  power  that  they  knew  to  be  realizable 
everywhere.  Yet,  inexorable  necessity  as  it  was,  it  was  a 
breaking  with  the  nation's  own  self.  And  is  the  present 
situation  without  its  difficulties  ?  Let  those  answer  who 
know    something    of    the   hardships,    the   privations,    the 


xlviii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

squalor,  the  wretchedness  amid  which  three-quarters  of  the 
Jewish  people  live  throughout  their  lives.  And,  as  to 
financial  means,  even  under  present  circumstances  it  is 
necessary  for  the  continuance  of  the  present  misery,  to 
collect  millions  and  millions,  whereby  indescribable  energies 
are  wasted — without  any  real  help  being  given. 

Inspired  by  these  ideas,  and  with  this  object  in  view,  the 
propaganda  was  continued  when  suddenly,  in  1904,  the 
Zionist  Organization  sustained  the  greatest  loss  ever 
experienced  by  any  Organization.  Herzl  had  worked  too 
hard  ;  his  exertions,  his  experiences  and  his  emotions  had 
been  such  as  to  exhaust  the  strength  of  this  strongest  of 
physical  and  intellectual  giants.  It  was  too  much  for  one 
himian  being  to  bear;  nature  was  unduly  taxed  and  he 
broke  down.  On  the  3rd  of  July,  1904,  Herzl  breathed  his 
last  in  the  villa  "  Home,  Sweet  Home  "  at  Reichenau,  on 
the  Semmering  Mountain,  south  of  Vienna.  His  memory 
will  be  cherished  for  ever  by  the  Jewish  people. 

David  Wolffsohn  (1856 — 1914),  the  Zionist  representa- 
tive and  worker,  who  had  distinguished  himself  since  the 
very  beginning  of  the  movement,  succeeded  Herzl.  David 
Wolffsohn's  career  was  eminently  that  of  a  self-made  man 
of  the  kind  that  old  Dr.  Smiles  would  have  delighted  to 
portray.  A  man  of  attractive  and  imposing  appearance, 
of  a  loving  disposition  and  mild  grace,  and  with  a  real 
sense  of  Jewish  humour,  rare  gifts  of  adaptability  and 
extraordinary  capacity  for  managing  and  leading  forward 
in  active  work,  he  was  a  splendid  type  of  a  self-made  man. 
But,  from  a  Zionist  point  of  view,  lie  was  more  than  that : 
he  was  Herzl's  great  friend  and  confidant.  His  autobi- 
ography is  given  in  Appendix  LXXXIII. 

David  Wolffsohn,  practically  chosen  by  the  Actions  Com- 
mittee and  all  Zionist  authorities,  took  over  the  leadership 
of  the  Zionist  Organization,  during  the  interim  between 
Herzl's  death  and  the  Seventh  Congress  in  1906.  He  had 
first  intended  to  transfer  the  headquarters  to  Berlin,  but 
afterwards  decided  to  give  Cologne,  the  city  of  his  home, 
the  preference.  He  was  assisted  in  this  important  and 
responsible  work  by  two  distinguished  Zionists :  Professor 
O.  Warburg  of  Berlin  and  M.  Jacobus  Kann  of  the  Hague. 
The  activities  of  Professor  Warburg  have  been  described 
elsewhere  in  this  volume  :  they  tended  in  the  direction  of 
colonization,  and  were  almost  wholly  concentrated  upon 
this  domain.     M.  Jacobus  Kann,  a  member  of  an  old  and 


I 


ZIONISM  IN  HOLLAND  AND  BELGIUM      xlix 

highly  respected  banking  firm  in  Holland,  was  more  in- 
terested in  the  financial  institutions  of  the  organization. 
He  joined  the  Zionist  Organization  at  the  very  beginning 
and  has  served  the  Zionist  cause  whole-heartedly  and 
devotedly,  particularly  in  the  founding  of  the  Jewish 
Colonial  Trust,  the  Anglo-Palestine  Company  and  all  the 
other  financial  institutions.  He  travelled  in  Palestine, 
wrote  a  book  [Erez  Israel)  dealing  with  his  impressions, 
and  is  also  active  in  the  Zionist  work  in  his  own  country. 

Holland  has  a  well-organized  and  active  Zionist  Organiza- 
tion, to  which  great  impetus  was  given  by  the  Eighth 
Congress  at  The  Hague,  1909.  M.  de  Liema,  Professor  Oren- 
stein.  Dr.  Edersheim,  M.  Cohen,  M.  Pool  and  many  others 
are  among  the  prominent  leaders.  They  take  a  very  active 
part  in  the  general  organization  work  and  in  that  of  the 
Jewish  National  Fund,  the  headquarters  of  which  at 
present  are  at  The  Hague.  The  Dutch  Zionist  Federation 
has  an  excellent  weekly  paper,  Het  Judischer  Wachter,  which 
has  appeared  regularly  for  several  years,  and  contains  much 
information  concerning  Zionist  and  Jewish  matters  as  well 
as  other  excellent  articles  and  contributions.  It  is  worthy 
of  note  that  Zionism  in  Holland  has  had  for  several  years 
now  a  Zionist  University  Movement — ^with  some  good 
publications — ^which  was  started  by  Orenstein,  Edersheim 
and  others.  Mention  of  Holland  reminds  one  that  a 
place  of  honour  in  Zionist  history  belongs  to  Belgium,  and 
particularly  to  Antwerp,  which  has  been  for  several  years  a 
first-class  Zionist  centre.  Messieurs  Jean  Fischer,  Oscar 
Fischer,  S.  Tolkowsky,  Dr.  Wulf,  Ruben  Cohn,  the  late 
Mehrlender,  Grunzweig  and  many  others,  occupying  impor- 
tant positions  in  the  general  Zionist  Organization,  made 
Zionism  a  living  force  in  Belgian  Jewry.  M.  Jean  Fischer 
is  a  member  of  the  Actions  Committee  and  of  the  great 
financial  institutions  of  Zionism :  he  and  his  friends  have 
taken  an  important  part  in  colonization  undertakings  in 
Palestine  of  which  the  devoted  pioneer  M.  S.  Tolkowsky  is 
the  representative  at  Rechoboth.  M.  Fischer  visited  Pales- 
tine and  wrote  a  book  containing  his  observations.  Belgian 
Zionists  had  also  a  paper  of  their  own,  L'Esperance  (Ha- 
Tikvah),  which  brought  very  valuable  contributions  and 
information. 

In  connection  with  Zionism  the  smaller  countries  of 
Central  and  Southern  Europe,  Switzerland  and  the  Scandi- 
navian countries  also  deserve  special  mention.  Switzerland, 
d 


1  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

the  land  ofjthe  Zionist  Congresses,  has  a  good  organization, 
of  which  Dr.  Camille  Levy,  Dr.  Felix  Pinkus,  M.  Levy  are 
the  most  notable.  They  were  always  very  active  in  propa- 
ganda, had  their  delegates  at  the  Congresses  and  always 
made  Jtheir  regular  contributions.  Denmark  and  Sweden 
have|now  had  for  some  years  a  good  Zionist  Organization, 
and,  of  late,  are  developing  great  activity,  owing  to  the 
Zionist  Office  which  has  been  established  at  Copenhagen. 
Roumania  and  Bulgaria  are  still  more  important  as  great 
centres  of  Zionist  activity.  Roumania  was  almost  equal  to 
Russia  in  the  Choveve  Zion  movement.  Now,  M.  Pineles, 
M.  Schein,  M.  Schwarzfeld,  the  learned  and  well-known 
Dr.  Nacht  and  Dr.  Nemirower,  with  many  other  leaders  are 
at  work  in  that  country. 


CHAPTER  XLIXc 

The  Year  igo6 — The  Pogroms — Emigration — Conder  and  his  Activities — 
An  Emigration  Conference — The  Eighth  Congress — The  Question  of 
the  Headquarters, 

The  year  1906  was  one  of  the  ans  ierribles  in  the  annals  of 
Jewish  history.  It  was  a  year  of  bloodshed  and  terror. 
Not  even  the  dark  ages  extracted  so  heavy  a  toll  of  Jewish 
blood :  something  like  1400  pogroms  took  place  all  over 
the  Ghetto.  In  many  districts  the  Jewish  population  were 
completely  exterminated.  The  number  of  persons  directly 
affected,  that  is  to  say  of  those  whose  houses,  shops,  or 
factories  were  the  objects  of  attack  and  pillage,  reached  a 
total  of  some  200,000  to  250,000.  To  this  number  must  be 
added  that  of  the  clerks,  workmen,  etc.,  indirectly  affected 
by  the  destruction  of  factories  and  shops,  which  could  not 
be  ascertained.  The  casualty  list  was  estimated  at  approxi- 
mately 20,000  murdered  and  100,000  injured.  PubHc 
opinion  was  stirred  up.  Why  had  those  Jews  suffered  ; 
what  sins  had  they  committed  ?  Their  loyalty  and  stead- 
fastness to  Judaism,  instead  of  winning  respect  and  admira- 
tion for  their  faithfulness,  had  called  down  upon  them  a 
treatment  so  immeasurably  atrocious  that  it  outdistanced 
the  conventional  words  of  sorrow  and  suffering  and  tempted 
many  thinking  men  to  ask  whether  the  vaunted  tolerance  of 
the  twentieth  century  was  anything  but  an  extravagant 
dream.  If  other  nations  suffer,  they  afterwards  get  freedom 
and  indemnity.  If  in  i860  the  Christians  in  Syria  had  suffered, 
their  suffering  afterwards  brought  them  an  autonomy.  But 
what  of  the  Jews  ?  Every  day  it  becomes  clearer  that  it  is 
impossible  to  allow  the  Jews  to  remain  a  prey  to  revolution 
and  counter-revolution,  between  which  they  are  crushed 
just  as  the  corn  is  ground  between  the  upper  and  nether 
millstones.  "  Emigration,  then."  But  whither  ?  The  mass 
of  Jewish  emigrants,  in  spite  of  all  Emigration  Committees 
(which  were  established  in  America),  resists  dispersion ;  it 
holds  together  like  a  swarm  of  bees.  In  New  York  and 
elsewhere  gigantic  Jewish  cities  have  sprung  up  that  have 
become  a  menace  to  the  safety  of  the  present  inhabitants  and 

li 


lii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

therefore  to  the  possibiHty  of  further  Jewish  immigration. 
Attempts  made  to  substitute  agricultural  colonies  at  an 
enormous  expense  by  philanthropists  have  met  with  failure 
everywhere  except  in  Palestine,  where  it  seems  that  at  last 
an  effective  form  of  organization  has  been  discovered.  There 
alone  the  immigrant  Jew  finds  himself  at  ease  in  language  and 
customs,  and  to  that  land  he  brings  the  indescribable  im- 
perishable feeling  of  home  that  elsewhere  comes  to  him  but 
slowly  and  gradually. 

Palestine  is  not  far  from  Russia  and  Roumania,  and  is 
unquestionably  so  adapted  for  cultivation  that  as  soon  as 
the  soil  has  been  prepared  the  main  stream  of  present 
emigration  can  be  directed  thither.  And,  further,  it  is  the 
connecting  link  between  the  three  great  human  divisions  of 
the  earth,  while  its  commercial  future  promises  to  be  of  the 
brightest.  It  is  therefore  natural  that  the  Jews,  longing  to 
possess  the  land  of  their  fathers,  should  be  encouraged 
to  immigrate  both  on  political  and  industrial  grounds. 

This  great  and  powerful  problem  has  roused  English  public 
opinion,  but  the  Zionist  propaganda  has  made  considerable 
progress  since  1900.  One  of  the  foremost  English  authorities 
who  supported  a  Zionist  solution  of  the  Jewish  problem  was 
Colonel  Claude  Reignier  Corder,  to  whom  we  have  referred 
several  times  in  this  book.  Some  space  must  be  devoted  to 
a  brief  reference  to  the  activities  of  this  wonderful  man  in 
connection  with  Palestine. 

Colonel  Conder's  name  will  always  be  associated  with  the 
exploration  of  Palestine  and  with  the  history  of  Christian 
sympathy  in  this  country  for  the  colonization  of  Palestine  by 
the  Jewish  people.  No  other  person  has  ever  done  as  much  as 
he  for  the  correct  interpretation  of  the  Bible  with  reference 
to  Palestine.  He  was  born  on  December  29,  1848,  and  was 
trained  for  the  Royal  Engineers.  He  was  associated,  almost 
from  its  creation,  with  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund, 
which  was  founded  in  1865.  He  was  only  twenty-six  when,  as 
a  Lieutenant,  he  went  out  to  join  in  the  survey  of  Western 
Palestine.  He  returned  to  England  in  September,  1875, 
having  surveyed  4700  square  miles.  He  brought  with  him 
a  mass  of  notes,  special  surveys,  observations  and  drawings, 
which  formed  the  bulk  of  the  material  for  a  work  which  may 
be  said  to  have  become  historical :  Tent  Work  in  Palestine. 
It  is  a  book  which  even  now  well  repays  perusal,  if  only  for 
the  light  it  throws  upon  the  geography  and  topography  of 
Palestine,    and    the   many    incidents    and   experiences   it 


COLONEL  CONDER  liii 

records.  The  remaining  1300  square  miles  of  the  survey 
were  finished  by  Lieutenant  (later  Lord)  Kitchener  in  1877. 
The  scientific  results  of  the  work  occupied  some  twenty-six 
memoirs,  one  to  every  sheet  of  the  mapj  The  whole  of 
Western  Palestine  was  mapped  out  on  a  scale  which  showed 
every  ruin  and  waterway,  every  road,  forest  and  hillock. 
More  than  a  hundred  and  fifty  biblical  sites  were  ascertained 
and  from  these  the  boundaries  of  the  tribes  were  worked  out 
and  the  routes  taken  by  the  invading  armies  traced.  The 
other  books  and  memoirs  on  Palestine  which  Conder  pub- 
lished form  a  library  in  themselves.  In  addition  to  the  one 
already  mentioned,  there  are  Heth  and  Moah  and  Memoirs  of 
the  Survey  of  Western  Palestine  in  1883.  This  was  followed 
in  1890  by  Memoirs  of  the  Survey  of  Eastern  Palestine,  The 
Bible  in  the  East  in  1896,  The  Latin  Kingdom  of  Jerusalem 
in  1897,  The  Hittites  and  their  Language  in  1898.  Besides 
these  must  be  mentioned  his  Handbook  to  the  Bible  (1879), 
Primer  of  Bible  Geography  (1884),  and  Palestine  (1891), 
which  contained  in  one  small  volume  a  handy  summary  of 
all  that  was  known  of  the  geography  of  the  country  up 
to  date.  His  last  work,  published  only  a  year  before  he 
died,  was  on  the  City  of  Jerusalem.  Special  notice  is  also 
due  to  his  Judas  Maccabeus  and  The  Jewish  Tragedy,  in 
which  he  deals  with  Jewish  history  from  a  national  point  of 
view. 

Conder  pointed  out  that  Zionists  are  the  natural  leaders 
to  whom  the  destitute  and  oppressed  Jews  turn  for  counsel 
and  guidance,  that  "emigration  has  not  settled  the 
eternal  question,"  and  that  "a  nation  without  a  country 
must  be  content  with  toleration  as  all  that  it  can  expect." 
He,  too,  sees  the  only  solution  in  Palestine,  and  declares 
that  Englishmen  should  be  "  only  too  glad  to  see  Palestine 
increasing  in  civilization  and  prosperity  as  an  outpost  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Egypt."     {See  Appendix  LXXXV.) 

The  Zionist  Organization  called,  in  1906,  mainly  under 
the  pressure  of  the  pogroms,  a  conference  of  represen- 
tatives of  Jewish  organizations  at  Brussels,  to  discuss  the 
question  of  emigration,  particularly  to  the  East.  A  number 
of  organizations — including  the  Anglo- Jewish  Association 
— sent  their  delegates  ;  others,  probably  in  consequence  of 
their  anti-Zionist  tendencies,  declined.  Resolutions  in  favour 
of  investigating  the  condition  of  the  emigration  to  the  East 
were  accepted,  and  a  committee  was  elected  ;  but  nothing 
practical  resulted  from  these  efforts,  except  a  little  "  rap- 


Uv  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

prochement "  between  Zionism  and  the  "  Hilfsverein " 
which,  however,  in  consequence  of  deep  differences  of  prin- 
ciple, was  only  superficial  and  of  a  short  duration. 

The  work  of  the  Zionist  Organization,  without  losing 
sight  of  the  politiccil  aspect,  devoted  itself  more  and  more 
to  the  work  in  Palestine.  The  Eighth  Zionist  Congress  at 
the  Hague,  August,  1907,  with  Wolff sohn  and  Nordau  as 
Presidents,  was  attended  by  a  considerably  increased 
number  of  delegates,  and  among  them  a  number  of  English 
Zionist  leaders.  The  report  says  about  Zionism  in  England : 
"  In  England  the  devoted  zeal  of  the  Zionists  has  removed 
the  difficulties  which  formerly  existed.  The  Federation 
worked  systematically  and  well,  and  the  Movement  has 
received  a  considerable  impetus.  The  old  and  trusted 
workers  co-operate  with  the  younger  spirits." 

The  Ninth  Zionist  Congress  at  Hamburg,  December,  1909, 
with  Wolffsohn  and  Nordau  again  as  Presidents,  was  well 
attended  (about  four  hundred  members — and  for  the  first 
time  in  the  history  of  the  movement,  delegates  were  in 
attendance  from  Turkey).  The  impression  driven  home 
with  irresistible  force  was  the  sustained  and  unflagging 
interest  of  all  present  in  the  movement.  Among  the  English 
delegates  were  :  Dr.  Caster,  Dr.  Samuel  Daiches,  Mr.  Joseph 
Cowen,  Dr.  Chaim  Weizmann,  Mr.  L.  J.  Greenberg,  Mr. 
Herbert  Bentwich,  Mr.  Norman  Bentwich,  Dr.  Fuchs,  the 
Rev.  J.  K.  Goldbloom,  and  Mr.  Leon  Simon. 

The  Congress  found  itself  confronted  with  the  problem  of 
organization.  Several  delegates  were  of  the  opinion  that 
the  task  of  leadership  was  too  difficult  for  a  Small  Actions 
Committee,  consisting  of  three  persons,  and  that  the  head- 
quarters should  be  removed  to  a  larger  centre.  This  view 
was  not  influenced  by  any  personal  sympathies  or  anti- 
pathies :  it  was  dictated  by  considerations  of  an  important 
character.  Others  were  opposed  to  any  cha'nge.  This  was 
an  internal  fight  which  had  to  be  fought  out,  as  in  any 
other  democratic  movement,  with  the  weapons  of  reason 
and  conviction,  and  it  was  fought  out.  This  Congress  could 
not  radically  solve  the  question  and  it  was  left  to  the  next 
one  to  bring  the  solution. 

Zionism,  however,  remained  as  strong  as  ever.  The  dis- 
putes, far  from  being  symptoms  of  weakness,  were  sjmiptoms 
of  growing  interest,  devotion  and  enthusiasm  for  the  common 
cause. 


CHAPTER  XLIXd 

Turkey,  19 10-14 — ^The  New  Turkish  Cabinet  of  1912 — ^The  Balkan  War — 
The  Tenth  and  Eleventh  GDUgresses — Death  of  Wolffsohn. 

We  may  as  well  now  cast  a  glance  at  the  aspect  of; the 
general  political  situation  at  the  period  this  narrative' has 
reached.  Public  opinion  in  England  was  greatly  disap- 
pointed when  the  hist  enthusiasm  for  Turkish  liberties  had 
passed  away.  The  ship  of  state  in  Turkey  began  to  enter 
very  troubled  waters,  and  no  one  saw  safety  ahead.  The 
defeat  of  the  Committee  of  Union  and  Progress,  the  dis- 
placing of  the  Said  Pasha  Cabinet  and  the  downfall  of 
the  other  leaders  of  the  Young  Turkey  party  of  1908, 
followed  by  the  amnesty  of  a  number  of  officials  of  the 
Hamidian  regime,  had  naturally  led  many  in  Europe  to 
believe  that  reaction  had  set  in,  and  that  the  Young  Turks 
had  once  more  been  overthrown  and  were  in  danger  of 
being  stamped  out  by  the  Old  Turks  or  reactionaries.  On 
the  other  hand,  some  careful  observers  asserted  that  the 
new  Cabinet  of  1912  was  the  best  Turkey  had  had  during 
the  past  forty  years,  and  that  it  was  in  no  true  sense 
reactionary,  but  really  constructive  and  progressive.  They 
maintained  also  that  the  Committee  of  Union  and  Progress 
had  begun  to  use  old  methods  and  were  now  hated  by  a 
large  proportion  of  their  former  supporters.  But  all  these 
allegations  were  contradicted  by  rapidly  developing  events. 
Hardly  at  any  time  within  this  generation  had  the  political 
situation  in  Turkey  presented  elements  of  greater  un- 
certainty and  danger  than  in  the  period  1910-14. 

The  greatest  misfortune  was  the  impossibility  of  any 
improvement.  Turkey  undoubtedly  had  the  desire  for 
progress  along  those  lines  which  Europe  professedly  was  so 
anxious  to  see  her  follow  ;  but  she  needed  advice,  guidance, 
credit  and  patience.  She  required  men— advisers,  counsel- 
lors— to  give  her  practical  help  in  carrying  out  the  necessary 
reforms.  But,  unfortunately,  such  a  development  was 
made  impossible  by  the  disturbing  political  events. 

The  Balkan  War  broke  out.     The  Balkan  peoples  took 

Iv 


Ivi  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

their  fate  in  their  own  hands.  They  did  not  look  for 
liberators  from  elsewhere,  and  asked  no  help  in  the  settle- 
ment of  their  differences.  Whenever  the  Balkans  had 
flared  up  and  gone  into  war  before  it  had  generally  been  due 
to  the  fact  that  other  nations  had  drawn  them  into  the 
struggle.  The  vital  difference  of  this  conflict  was  that,  for 
the  first  time  for  centuries,  all  the  peoples  concerned 
thought  themselves  strong  enough  to  decide  their  own 
future  by  the  sword.  A  fierce  struggle  began.  The  out- 
look for  the  Turks  was  most  gloomy  from  the  very  outset. 
The  Turks  w^ere  beaten.  They  were  discarded  by  all  those 
who  in  Europe  had  seemed  to  have  supported  them,  aban- 
doned by  the  Powers  which  once  valued  their  friendship. 
Speculation  as  to  what  would  happen  was  on  everybody's 
lips.  One  thing  was  certain  :  that  the  East  was  getting 
thoroughly  aroused,  and  that  the  developments  led  inevit- 
ably to  a  crisis  unparalleled  in  history.  Meanwhile,  the 
Zionist  Organization  continued  its  work  with  great  energy. 

The  Tenth  Zionist  Congress  at  Basle,  August,  191 1,  with 
Wolffsohn  and  Nordau  again  as  Presidents,  had  an  attend- 
ance of  about  four  hundred  delegates,  including  a  consider- 
able number  of  English  :  Dr.  Gaster,  Mr.  H.  Bentwich,  Mr. 
Jacob  Moser,  Dr.  Samuel  Daiches,  Dr.  Weizmann,  Mr.  J. 
Cowen,  Dr.  Hochman,  Mr.  H.  Sacher,  Dr.  Salis  Daiches, 
Mr.  S.  B.  Rubenstein  and  others.  The  question  left  over 
from  the  previous  Congress  was  settled  at  this  one.  A  new 
Small  Actions'  Committee  was  elected,  and  David  Wdlffsohn 
retained  his  influential  post  as  President  of  the  Council,  and 
from  that  time  again  devoted  his  energies  mainly  to  Zionist 
finances. 

The  Eleventh  Zionist  Congress  at  Vienna,  in  September, 
1913  (preceded  by  an  International  Congress  of  the  Hebrew 
^Language  Revival  Societies),  with  its  attendance  of  five  to 
six  hundred  delegates,  its  enormous  mass  meetings, 
exhibitions,  lectures,  entertainments  and  demonstrations, 
such  as  the  visit  to  Herzl's  grave,  the  Gymnastic  Display 
with  2500  national  Jewish  gymnasts  and  25,000  Jewish 
spectators,  was  the  greatest  Jewish  display  of  forces  that 
had  ever  taken  place.  The  importance  of  practical  work  in 
Palestine,  the  thorough,  serious  and  systematic  treatment 
of  all  colonization  questions,  the  powerful  influence  of  the 
Hebrew  language,  the  great  number  of  intellectuals  present, 
the  great  power  of  the  Students'  movement,  were  new 
elements  which  wer6  apt  to  give  the  calmer  and  older 


DEATH  OF  WOLFFSOHN  Ivii 

Congress  members  the  impression  of  something  chaotic.  In 
reality,  however,  that  was  only  the  way  in  which  the 
growth  of  the  movement,  its  development,  and  many- 
sidedness  found  expression. 

Superficial  observers,  who  have  but  vague  ideas  of 
Zionism,  in  its  narrow  political  and  financial  aspect,  might 
have  been  surprised  at  the  sight  of  this  Congress,  but  those 
who  know  how  Zionism  has  grown  up  out  of  the  Choveve 
Zion  and  literature  and  education,  with  the  University 
movement,  which  we  have  described  elsewhere,  will  under- 
stand why  the  first  "  idyll "  was  bound  to  give  way  to  a 
movement  as  reflected  by  the  Vienna  Congress.  Dr.  Gaster, 
Mr.  J.  Moser,  Mr.  H.  Bentwich,  Dr.  Ch.  Weizmann,  Mr.  J. 
Cowen,  Mr.  L.  Simon,  Mr.  H.  Sacher,  and  many  other  active 
and  well-known  members  of  the  English  Zionist  Federation 
and  of  the  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans  attended  the 
Congress  as  English  Delegates. 

There  was  also  a  large  delegation  (fourteen  members)  from 
Canada.  For  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  the  Canadian 
Zionist  Federation  no  proxies  had  been  given,  as  all  the 
delegates  to  whom  the  Canadian  Federation  was  entitled 
attended  in  person. 

The  general  Organization  has  since  then  been  active  in 
propaganda  work,  in  development  work  in  Palestine 
through  the  '*  Zionist  Office,"  and  also  in  educational  work 
in  that  country. 

The  Organization  sustained  a  great  loss  by  the  death  of 
David  Wolffsohn.  He  had  been  ailing  for  the  past  few  years 
and  died  on  the  15th  of  September,  1914.  He  served  the 
Zionist  Organization  with  unequalled  fidelity,  with  intense 
devotion  and  a  singleness  of  purpose  that  nothing  could 
divert.  His  passionate  affection  for  the  Zionist  idea  never 
wavered.  He  was  proud  of  the  Zionist  institutions  and 
watched  over  them  with  never-ceasing  vigilance.  All 
Zionists  fully  realize  the  great  devotion  to  the  cause  that 
actuated  this  remarkable  man.  Unbounded  industry,  a 
passionate  love  of  the  work  he  had  to  perform,  these  were 
the  characteristics  of  Wolffsohn,  and  won  for  him  wide  and 
deep  sympathy  and  admiration  during  his  life  and  ha\'e 
secured  for  him  a  lasting  and  cherished  memory  in  the 
hearts  of  Zionists  throughout  the  world. 


CHAPTER  XLIXe 

Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild  in  Palestine — Sir  John  Gray  Hill — Pro- 
fessor S.  Schechter — South  African  Statesmen — A  Canadian  States- 
man— Christian  religious  literature  again. 

The  events  in  Turkey  did  not  change  Zionist  convictions 
in  the  least  degree,  nor  lessen  the  faith  in  the  ultimate 
triumph  of  the  cause.  The  colonization  of  Palestine  by 
Jews  is  useful  and  desirable  from  every  point  of  view.  It 
was  as  much  a  necessity  when  Europe  upheld  the  principle 
that  Turkey  was  to  form  an  indissoluble  and  indivisible 
Empire  as  in  different  circumstances.  Among  Jews  them- 
selves it  was  impossible  to  fail  to  notice  the  complete 
change  of  tone  and  spirit  with  regard  to  Zionism.  If  there 
was  still  any  feeling  of  rivalry  between  Choveve  Zion  and 
Zionists,  it  has  vanished  completely  in  recent  years. 
In  this  respect  Baron  de  Rothschild's  visit  to  Palestine  in 
1913  was  significant.  The  Baron,  or  "  Our  Baron  "  as  the 
great  philanthropist  is  affectionately  called  by  the  Pales- 
tinian Jews,  for  whom  he  has  done  so  much,  was  received 
with  royal  honours :  there  were  triumphal  arches,  and 
crowds  of  people  and  school  children  lined  the  streets 
singing  songs  of  welcome.  He  expressed  his  keen  satis- 
faction with  Zionist  work,  and  particularly  with  the  re- 
markable development  of  the  Hebrew  schools  and  the 
spread  of  the  Hebrew  language  in  Palestine. 

The  attitude  of  English  opinion,  that  is  of  real  opinion 
based  upon  knowledge  of  facts  and  circumstances,  remained 
unchangeably  sympathetic. 

For  instance.  Sir  John  Gray  Hill  of  Liverpool,  who  had 
an  intimate  and  direct  knowledge  of  Palestine,  where  he 
used  to  spend  his  holidays  for  many  years,  and  whose 
reflections  and  observations  were  of  great  value,  gave  in  his 
address,  delivered  to  the  Liverpool  Jewish  Literary  Society, 
on  the  30th  of  November,  1913,  a  detailed  analysis  of  the 
work  to  be  done  in  Palestine.  While  admitting  that  ex- 
aggerated hopes  were  liable  to  strong  objections  and  indi- 
cating the  existing  limitations,  he  said  :   "  What  you  can 

Iviii 


SIR  JOHN  GRAY  HILL  Hx 

do  is  to  afford  a  refuge  in  Palestine  to  large  numbers  of 
persecuted  Jews,  and  you  can  teach  them  to  cultivate  the 
soil,  and  to  practise  various  arts  and  crafts  so  as  to  main- 
tain themselves  in  the  home  of  their  fathers.  Now  I  think 
it  is  very  important  that  the  English  Jews  should  take  a 
lead  in  this  endeavour,  because  the  English  Jews  are  the 
leaders  in  thought,  in  position  and  in  common  sense,  and 
have  a  calm  way  of  looking  at  things."  He  opposed  the 
most  erroneous  and  absurd  idea  of  a  contradiction  between 
Jewish  racial  self -consciousness  and  English  patriotism. 
"  I  am  told  that  there  is  some  feeling  amongst  the  English 
Jews  of  there  being  a  want  of  patriotism  in  interesting 
themselves  in  the  Holy  Land.  That  I  do  not  understand. 
A  Scotchman  is  a  Scotchman,  full  of  love  for  his  own  land 
and  his  own  customs,  poetry  and  song,  but  he  is  a  Briton  ; 
so  of  a  Welshman  ;  so  of  an  Irishman  ;  so  of  a  Devonshire 
man ;  so  of  a  Lancashire  man  ;  we  cherish  these  special  local 
feelings,  these  feelings  of  local  pride,  and  yet  we  remain  true 
to  the  Great  Empire  to  which  we  belong."  He  offered  a 
suggestion  about  travelling  to  Palestine. 

"  Now  the  leading  Jews  in  England  cannot,  of  course,  go 
to  live  in  Palestine  altogether,  but  they  might  visit  the 
country ;  and  those  who  can  afford  the  time  might  pass 
a  portion  of  the  year  there,  and,  I  think,  if  they  did 
so  they  would  find  an  immense  interest  in  the  country, 
and  would  be  able  to  help  their  poorer  brethren  far 
better  than  they  can  by  remaining  at  a  distance  from  it. 
Travel,  open,  open  your  mind,  travel  to  the  Holy  Land 
and  see  the  great  vision  of  what  the  past  did  for  us,  that 
amazingly  interesting  country,  without  seeing  which  I 
think  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  understand  in  a  full  and 
proper  way  the  meaning  of  the  Bible ;  at  any  rate,  the 
sights  of  that  land  throw  an  immense  deal  of  light  upon  it. 
Then  there  is  another  reason.  Englishmen  are  very  much 
respected  in  Palestine  ;  they  are  thought  more  highly  of 
than  people  of  any  other  nation.  One  reason  is,  that  it  is 
known  that  England  is  not  seeking  to  exploit  the  country  ; 
England  does  not  seek  for  greedy  concessions,  and  English- 
men, so  far  as  they  have  to  do  with  the  natives,  always  treat 
them  considerately  and  kindly,  and,  I  think,  the  natives 
believe  that  whether  the  Englishmen  are  going  the  right 
way  about  it  or  not,  they  are  trying  to  help  the  native  to 
help  himself." 

Here  he  struck  a  note  which  might  have  seemed  new  to 


Ix  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

him  as  a  spectator  appealing  to  English  Jews.  In  the  Zionist 
literature  and  Press  this  idea  has  frequently  been  expressed. 
Indeed,  Palestine  is  still  the  land  of  poetry  and  enthusiasm, 
but  it  has  ceased  to  be  that  of  mystery  ;  and  though  only 
the  fame  of  its  natural  beauty  has  hitherto  reached  Western 
Europe,  travellers  who  have  recently  visited  Palestine  have 
learned  to  appreciate  the  progress  of  this  country  in 
colonization.  If  anybody  has  hailed  with  enthusiasm  the 
rising  of  this  new  star  in  the  East  on  account  of  its  brilliancy, 
beauty  and  poetical  supremacy,  he  could  discover  on  a 
visit  to  the  country  those  pioneers  of  vigorous  frame,  with 
eagle  eyes  and  well-formed,  combining  the  sternness  of  the 
present  with  the  subtlety  of  the  intellectual  and  the 
simplicity  of  the  child.  The  best  means  of  becoming  a 
Zionist  is — a  visit  to  Palestine.  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  was 
the  first  European  Jew  who  visited  Palestine  as  a  tourist 
and  philanthropist,  and  he  was  an  English  Jew.  That  was 
a  great  traditional  example  for  English  Jewry. 

Sir  John  Gray  Hill  emphasized  the  importance  of  the 
Zionist  Jerusalem  University  scheme  :  **  Now  I  have  to 
speak  of  the  proposal  to  have  a  University  in  Jerusalem. 
That  is  a  proposal,  I  think,  in  which  all  Jews  might  join. 
Any  objection  or  feeling  of  apathy  that  there  is  on  the  part 
of  Jews  for  any  reason  against  Zionism  generally,  cannot 
apply  to  a  Jewish  University.  You  want  a  centre  of  Jewish 
culture  and  instruction  in  Jerusalem.  The  Vienna  Congress 
recently  started  the  scheme  thoroughly  by  a  good  subscrip- 
tion. You  would,  of  course,  teach  Hebrew,  thus  preserving 
the  purity  of  your  language,  and  you  would  also,  I  hope, 
teach  medicine,  arts  and  crafts,  agriculture  and  horticulture. 
Cannot  you  attract  the  attention  of  some  very  wealthy 
Jews  to  this  great  project  ?  Whatever  objections  they  have 
to  Zionist  projects  generally  cannot  possibly  apply  to  this. 
What  a  noble  monument  it  would  be  to  a  millionaire,  or 
group  of  millionaires — those  mighty  kings  of  finance  who 
are  so  powerful  in  Europe — to  erect  and  endow  a  splendid 
University  for  the  Hebrew  race.  If  they  were  appealed  to 
they  would,  I  think,  listen.  Surely  they  would  not  take 
for  tkeir  motto  the  injunction  addressed  by  the  followers  of 
Solomon  to  the  Bride  from  Tyre  :  *  Forget  also  thine  own 
people  and  thy  father's  house.'  No,  that  cannot  be  ;  I 
think  if  the  matter  is  properly  represented  to  them  a 
response  will  come.  I  believe,  also,  that  a  true  and  wise 
view  of  Zionism  is  growing  in  force.    The  cause  is  moving  at 


SOLOMON  SCHECHTER  Ixi 

last.    The  long  period  of  slack  water  has  ended.    The  tide 
has  turned,  although  we  may  not  yet  see  that  it  has  done  so. 

*  For  while  the  tired  waves  vainly  breaking. 
Seem  here  no  painful  inch  to  gain  ; 
Far  back  through  creeks  and  inlets  making. 
Comes  silent  Hooding  in  the  main.'  " 

On  the  other  hand,  an  appreciation  of  the  moral  and 
religious  value  of  the  Zionist  movement  may  be  quoted. 
Speaking  at  a  Zionist  meeting  in  19 14,  in  Cincinnati,  the 
late  Professor  Solomon  Schechter  said :  "  Zionism  is  now 
a  living  fact.  We  must  have  Zionism,  if  we  want  Judaism, 
orthodox  or  reform,  to  continue  to  exist.  Judaism  is  at  the 
present  time  in  a  very  weak  condition,  not  only  in  America, 
but  also  in  Europe.  The  Jew  cannot  live  in  his  own 
atmosphere,  he  is  compelled  to  breathe  the  spirit  of  other 
religions.  ...  The  question  then  arises :  What  is  it  that  can 
preserve  the  Jewish  people  ?  Now  can  Judaism  be  saved 
from  complete  annihilation  ?  Jewish  history  tells  us  that 
the  Hellenist  Jews  who  settled  in  Alexandria  and  other  places 
remained  loyal  to  Judaism,  although  they  had  been  excellent 
Greek  citizens.  .  .  .  But  after  the  destruction  of  the 
Temple,  these  Hellenist  Jews  became  completely  submerged 
by  the  Greeks,  and  nothing  remained  of  their  Judaism. 
That,"  said  Professor  Schechter  in  conclusion,  "  was  why 
Jews  must  have  at  the  present  time  the  Zionist  move- 
ment. Zionism  could  effect  for  the  Jew  a  change  in  his 
material  life,  and  it  could  also  create  for  him  a  Jewish 
atmosphere,  in  which  he  could  breathe  freely  his  religion." 
It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  late  Professor  Schechter  did 
not  join  the  Zionist  movement  during  the  first  years  of  its 
existence,  but  was  then  opposed  to  it.  Being,  however, 
unlike  the  Bourbons,  who  are  said  to  have  learned  nothing, 
and  having  realized  the  wonderful  effects  of  this  movement 
as  far  as  the  revival  of  Judaism  was  concerned,  he  became 
in  the  last  years  of  his  life  a  faithful  Zionist.  This  was  the 
logic  of  a  progressive  mind. 

The  Right  Hon.  J.  X.  Merriman  said  in  an  address 
delivered  on  the  9th  of  July,  1914,  in  opening  the  Zionist 
Bazaar  at  Capetown,  that  "  Zionism  is  a  ramshackle 
movement,  because  it  began  in  a  very  small  way,  and  it 
had  gradually  spread.  This  had  been  achieved  by  the 
general  effort  of  the  people  themselves,  who  had  laudable 
desires.    They  had  settled  a  good  many  people  on  the  land 


Ixii  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

and  had  brought  to  bear  their  remarkable  faculty  of  energy, 
enterprize  and  skill  in  restoring  Palestine  to  its  former 
fertility/'  On  the  following  day  the  Bazaar  was  opened  by 
Sir  Thomas  Smartt,  m.l.a.  :  "  There  could  be  few,"  said 
Sir  Thomas  in  his  eloquent  address,  *'  but  what  admired 
their  great  leader.  Dr.  Herzl,  in  his  lofty  ideal  for  re- 
establishment  as  in  the  days  of  old,  after  many  years  of 
wanderings,  the  ancient  glories  of  their  race — of  establish- 
ing a  nation  which  had  done  more  than  any  other  nation 
for  the  spread  of  religious  thought  throughout  the  world. 
Notwithstanding  the  long  and  dark  ages  of  suffering  and 
tribulation  through  which  the  race  had  passed,  the  love  and 
devotion  to  its  traditions  were  just  as  strong  as  ever.  Their 
young  men  still  continued  to  dream  dreams  and  their  old 
men  to  see  visions  of  that  sun  of  righteousness  which  was  to 
rise  with  healing  in  its  wings.  In  seconding,  Senator  Powel 
said  that  it  was  a  great  satisfaction  to  know  that  the 
Palestine  movement  had  got  beyond  the  stage  of  dreams 
and  visions,  and  was  becoming  an  accomplished  fact.  He 
hoped  that  they  would  never  slacken  their  efforts  in  what 
is  one  of  the  greatest  movements  in  the  world  to-day. 

At  the  General  Conference  of  the  Canadian  Jews  held 
in  Montreal  on  the  14th  of  November,  1915,  which  was 
unique  in  the  annals  of  the  Jews  of  Canada  (for  this  was  the 
first  time  in  their  history  that  the  representatives  of  every 
section  and  every  element  of  the  Canadian  Jewish  Com- 
munity came  together  from  all  parts  of  Canada  to  take  part 
in  a  conference),  a  representative  of  the  Canadian  Govern- 
ment, Mr.  Maighen,  brought  the  Assembly  the  good  wishes 
of  the  Government  for  the  success  of  the  Conference  and 
its  high  appreciation  of  that  spirit  of  brotherhood  which 
had  caused  tliem  to  come  together.  He  spoke  of  the 
history  and  traditions  of  the  Jewish  race  and  of  the 
debt  that  mankind  owed  to  it.  He  referred  to  Jewish 
civilization  as  being  the  most  ancient  that  influenced  the 
world  of  to-day  and  of  the  wonderful  way  in  which  it  had 
endured  in  spite  of  the  ages  of  oppression  its  zealots  had 
suffered.  Speaking  of  the  wish  cherished  so  long  by  the 
Jews  to  regain  possession  of  Palestine,  Mr.  Maighen  gave 
utterance  to  the  following  :  *'  I  think  I  can  speak  for  those 
of  the  Christian  faith  when  I  express  the  wish  that  God 
speed  the  day  when  the  land  of  your  forefathers  shall  be 
yours  again.  That  task  will,  I  hope,  be  performed  by  that 
champion  of  liberty  the  world  over — the  British  Empire." 


ENGLISH  DIVINES  AND  PALESTINE       Ixiii 

This  speech  shows  how,  in  the  minds  of  EngHsh  statesmen, 
the  question  of  rights  for  the  Jews  all  over  the  world,  and 
that  of  a  Jewish  homeland  for  the  nation  are  bound  up  in 
one  great  principle  of  justice  and  freedom. 

To  conclude  the  way  we  began  mention  must  be  made  of 
Christian  religious  literature,  which  continues  to  support 
Zionism  in  its  own  way.  The  Rev.  Earle  Langston  pub- 
lished recently  his  ideas  on  the  subject.  The  Christadel- 
phians  have  published  ample  literature  to  which  the  learned 
Mr.  Walker  has  contributed  extensively.  Mr.  Frank  Janna- 
way,  an  ardent  Christadelphian  whose  interest  in  Jews  and 
their  homeland  dates  back  some  forty  years,  and  who  has 
paid  several  vi^ts  to  Palestine  at  intervals  of  a  few  years, 
and  has  thus  enjoyed  some  splendid  opportunities  of  watch- 
ing the  gradual  development  of  the  Holy  Land,  has  pub- 
lished a  book,  Palestine  and  the  Jews  (1914),  of  which  two 
new  editions,  one  of  them  entitled  Palestine  and  the  Powers, 
have  since  appeared.  His  knowledge  is  wide  and  thorough. 
He  sees  Palestine  as  the  land  of  the  future,  and  every 
new  development  is  to  him  the  fulfilment  of  a  prophecy. 
He  offers  biblical  chapter  and  verse  for  the  happen- 
ings that  have  been  convulsing  the  world,  and  in  a 
way  which  reminds  one  of  the  oldest  English  pro-Zionist 
literature  of  the  seventeenth  century,  which  links  up  the 
position  of  the  present  and  future  aspects  with  sacred  pre- 
diction. His  views  favour  the  Jewish  cause  and  show 
considerable   and  correct   acquaintance  with   the   Zionist 

k movement.  It  must  finally  be  observed  that  during  the 
last  two  years  a  great  number  of  excellent  articles  have 
appeared  in  English  newspapers  and  magazines,  and  some 
also  in  the  French  Press,  in  which  great  sympathy  is 
expressed  with  the  Zionist  cause  from  a  political,  as  well  as 
from  a  humanitarian  point  of  view. 


ZIONISM    DURING    THE    WAR 

1914-1918 

GENERAL    SURVEY 

The  year  1914  will  stand  out  as  the  Great  Divide  in  con- 
temporary history.  It  was  a  year  of  endings  and  beginnings. 
Humanity  left  an  age  behind  it,  and  entered  upon  an  age  in 
which  old  things  have  passed  away  and  all  things  had  to 
become  new. 

Long  feared  and  long  foretold,  yet  never  seriously  ex- 
pected, the  European  War  came  at  last.  Nations,  great 
and  small,  arose  in  their  strength,  and  gathered,  in  an 
avalanche  of  excitement,  all  their  manhood  to  battle,  all 
their  old  age  to  guard,  and  all  their  womanhood,  not  only  as 
in  bygone  days,  to  tend  and  heal  the  wounded  and  sick,  but 
also  to  do  preparatory  work  for  the  fighting  armies.  Gener- 
ations, young  and  old,  rushed  eagerly  to  defend  their 
countries,  leaving  home,  property,  calling  ;  knowing  no  fear 
save  that  here  and  there  one  of  their  fellow-citizens  might 
prove  less  patriotic  than  themselves.  The  world  was 
thrown  back  to  the  moral  level  and  the  ethical  con- 
ceptions of  thousands  of  years  ago  :  man  became  again  a 
wolf  to  man,  as  in  the  Pleistocene  Age.  On  the  one  hand,  the 
vast  and  bloody  epic  produced  a  sort  of  ecclesiastical  mora- 
torium which,  for  the  duration  of  the  war,  annulled  all  moral 
obligations  and  abrogated  the  Ten  Commandments,  while 
on  the  other  hand,  it  developed,  to  the  highest  degree,  all  the 
great  and  noble  feelings — sense  of  honour,  unselfishness, 
magnanimity,  courage.  Nationality,  patriotism,  the  sense 
of  duty,  the  spirit  of  sacrifice,  enthusiastic  heroism  and 
patriotic  martyrdom  filled  the  hearts  and  created  a  new 
atmosphere,  in  which  every  kind  of  human  activity 
was  intensified :  industry,  art,  science,  and  literature. 
This  great  storm,  the  greatest  storm  that  had  ever 
stirred  mankind,  produced  the  greatest  spiritual  tragedy 
the  world  has  ever  known.  The  most  terrible  aspect 
of  the  war  was  not  the  fact  that  Europe  was  being 
bled  white,   that   all  the  amenities    of    civilization  were 

II.— B 


2  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

breaking  down  with  the  strain  of  the  military  operations, 
and  that  each  day  some  new  and  more  brutal  engine  of 
destruction  was  prepared  and  brought  into  use,  but — the 
ethical  conflict  carried  on  with  minds  and  nerves  on  the  rack 
of  tense  emotion  which  not  only  upset  mental  balance  and 
changed  the  outlook  of  peoples,  hitherto  industrious  and 
peaceful,  but  developed  moral  and  social  fears  and  passions 
which  will  not  pass  away  in  a  day.  This  universal  catas- 
trophe would  indeed  have  degraded  the  world  into 
"  a  sort  of  malign  middle  term  between  a  lunatic  asylum 
and  a  butcher's  stall,"  if  it  had  not  finally  become — 
as  it  has  become — "  a  war  against  war.'*  The  peoples 
turned  their  ploughshares  into  swords,  they  ceased  to  make 
useful,  beneficial  rails  and  plates  and  angles  and  girders  of 
their  iron  ore  and  their  coal,  and  they  manufactured  harm- 
ful, destructive  shells  and  guns  to  project  them  to  the 
slaughter  of  the  enemy,  hoping  that  when  the  time  came 
they  would  again  turn  their  swords  into  ploughshares.  They 
realized  that  the  enemy  of  society  is  militarist  despotism, 
and  that  miHtarist  despotism  therefore  must  be  ended,  or  it 
will  end  society.  A  great  moral  idea  arose  out  of  this  war  : 
the  liberation  of  oppressed  small  nations.  Another  great 
moral  idea  arising  from  it  is  the  de-militarization  of  human- 
ity. The  whole  world  is  now  involved  in  a  life  or  death 
struggle  for  righteousness.  This  is  the  justification  for  all  the 
sufferings  and  all  the  sacrifices.  If  this  war  were  not  a  war  of 
principles  and  for  ideals  it  would  be  nothing,  and  could  result 
in  nothing  except  the  further  enthronement  of  the  doctrine 
and  worship  of  force,  and  the  perpetuation  of  the  untold 
misery  and  degradation  which  that  form  of  rehgion  carries 
with  it.  It  should  never  be  forgotten  that  this  was  a  war 
for  liberty  of  the  peoples,  and  in  particular  of  the  small 
peoples. 

This  great  war  has  aggravated  and  made  terribly  clear 
the  position  of  Jewry  and  the  tragic  problem  of  its  exist- 
ence as  a  small  and  oppressed  nationality.  The  war  has 
turned  numerous  Ghetti  of  Galicia,  Bukovina,  Russian 
Poland,  Lithuania,  Courland  and  Roumania  into  heaps  of 
ashes,  and  hell  would  be  pleasant  compared  with  the  situa- 
tion of  great  masses  of  the  Jewish  people.  In  this  war, 
particularly  in  Eastern  Europe,  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
Jews  were  fighting  against  one  another  in  the  hostile  camps 
of  the  belligerent  countries  ;  and  the  significant  factor  is 
that  they  were  not   fighting   because    they   were    forced 


JEWS  BUT  NO  JEWRY  3 

to,  but  from  a  sense  of  supreme  duty.  Even  among  those 
that  were  fighting  in  the  Russian  Army  before  the 
Revolution,  there  were  many  who  were  not  acting  under 
compulsion  :  they  were  giving  of  their  best  and  from  their 
heart.  They  wanted  to  take  their  places  in  the  virile,  the 
over- virile  world — ^which  is  also  their  world,  they  wanted  to 
hve  and  die  taking  their  place  in  the  great  living  society 
which  called  to  them.  The  spirit  of  Europe — rather  the 
spirit  of  present-day  Europe,  which  was  the  spirit  of  obstinate 
conflicts  and  of  extreme  courage  of  devotion — has  seized 
the  Jews  also  :  they  also  have  entered  into  this  tremendous 
catastrophe,  into  this  pilgrimage  through  chaos  towards  a 
new  world. 

But  for  the  Jews  this  war  meant  infinitely  worse  evil  and 
greater  danger  ;  the  nations  were  divided  one  from  another, 
Jewry  was  divided  against  itself ;  each  nation  opposed  its 
fixed  shape  and  character,  untouched  even  by  defeat,  to  the 
overflooding  chaos,  but  the  Jewish  nationality  seemed  to 
be  its  victim,  in  its  own  wavering  and  chaotic  form  of  the 
Diaspora.  It  almost  seemed  as  though  there  existed  Jews, 
and  divided  Jews,  but  no  Jewry. 

And  yet  it  was  not  really  so.  It  was  a  dark  time,  and  the 
storm  was  ghastly  enough,  but  the  lightning  has  revealed 
things  that  might  otherwise  have  remained  hidden.  Rather 
should  we  believe  that  the  time  of  the  greatest  trial  for  Jewry 
denoted  a  high  self-recollection,  and  with  it  the  commence- 
ment of  a  true  gathering  and  union.  In  times  of  great  stress 
men  discover  their  own  deeper  selves.  Great  trouble  some- 
how digs  into  the  very  foundation  of  a  man's  existence,  and 
he  cannot  explore  there  without  finding  what  is  most 
essential  in  him.  When  some  tremendous  trouble  sends  its 
plough  through  his  heart  of  hearts,  then  he  becomes  aware 
of  wonderful  things  he  has  never  suspected  before. 

Now  it  is  well  worth  our  while  to  weigh  all  this  and  to 
make  it  part  of  our  outlook  and  equipment  as  we  face  the 
great  present  events.  Because,  for  one  thing,  it  should  go  a 
long  way  towards  dehvering  us  from  the  worst  of  all  fears — 
the  fear  of  to-morrow  and  the  next  day,  and  all  the  days  that 
the  future  hides.  Nine  out  of  ten  of  us  are  perpetually  spoil- 
ing what  is  happening  by  dread  of  what  may  happen,  so  that 
we  can  all  join  Disraeh  in  saying  that  we  have  had  many 
troubles,  but  the  worst  have  been  those  that  never  happened. 
If  only  we  could  let  the  morrow  be  anxious  for  itself  !  But, 
to  a  large  extent,  we  can,  if  we  will,  school  ourselves  to  it; 


4  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  :  TN3T  T'a'*3'»  ...  * 
(')  Md  'aV  Dnm 

is  a  promise  perpetually  justified  by  the  best  psychological 
findings  and  historic  experience  in  the  Hfe  of  nations.  It  is 
really  the  fact,  that  our  "  day  "  stirs  and  heightens  our 
strength.  Only  when  challenged,  do  we  know  what  we  are 
capable  of.  Modern  psychology  tells  us  that  "  the  human 
individual  lives  usually  far  within  his  limits ;  he  possesses 
powers  of  various  sorts  which  he  habitually  fails  to  use.  He 
energizes  below  the  maximum,  and  he  behaves  below  his 
optimum. ' '  And  to  rise  to  our  maximum  and  optimum  we  need 
some  unusual  stimulus  or  some  unusual  idea  of  necessity. 

Jewish  history  has  revealed  this  truth  several  times.  One 
individual  or  another,  one  small  group  or  another — separated 
from  the  masses  of  the  people — may  fall  away  from  Jewry  ; 
whoever  can  do  that  to-day  has  never  belonged  to  it.  The 
majority,  however,  remain  loyal,  and  are  never  more  loyal 
than  in  times  of  stress.  The  illusion  is  destroyed  that 
a  man  can  live  a  truly  moral  life  in  a  time  of  trial  while 
he  is  only  a  spectator  of  the  life  of  society.  In  the  Jews, 
convulsed  by  the  events  of  the  war,  the  new  unity  of  Jewry 
showed  itself.  The  situation  was  so  serious,  so  full  of  menace 
for  all  that  we  hold  dear,  that  every  thinking  Jew  saw  that 
he  must  in  these  days  help  to  create  and  maintain  the  moral 
energies  which  alone  can  carry  him  through  the  crisis.  At 
this  time  the  Jew  had  a  duty  to  his  country  and  a  duty  to 
Judaism.  To  his  country  he  owed,  as  a  citizen,  duties  which 
could  not  be  shirked.  Every  support  was  to  be  given  to  all 
patriotic  efforts  for  the  prosperity,  the  victory,  and  the 
glory  of  the  country.  To  Judaism  he  owed  the  obligation  of 
securing  and  defending  not  only  the  existence,  but  also  the 
development  and  the  realization  of  its  traditional  ideals,  and 
of  strengthening  its  unity.  The  first  expression  of  this  unity 
was  an  increase  of  self -consciousness.  Jewry  was  affected  by 
the  war,  but  the  essential  problems  of  the  Jews  in  the 
modern  world  were  not  altered  by  the  war. 

When  we  speak  of  Jewry,  we  speak  of  a  living  historic, 
ethnic  and  cultural — although  not  poUtical — nationhood, 
existing  potentially  in  its  unity,  independently  of  the  Jewries 
of  the  countries  in  the  various  forms  of  their  divided  destinies, 
and  their  dissensions  at  the  present  moment.  We  strive  to 
fix  and  to  assure  it — as  far  as  external  conditions  allow  it — 

*  "  .  .  .  And  as  thy  days,  so  shall  thy  strength  be." — Deut.  xxxiii.  25. 


ZIONIST  ORGANIZATION  AND  THE  WAR        5 

in  the  Diaspora.  And  when  we  wish  to  prepare  for  it  a  sort 
of  central  MetropoHs,  an  organic  chef-lieu  in  Palestine — we 
are  not  engaged  in  adding  one  more  nationality  to  the 
existing  nationalities  which  fight  against  and  watch  one 
another  suspiciously.  It  is  not  the  question  of  introducing 
Jewry  into  the  divisions  of  the  nations,  to  be  absorbed  by 
them,  and  thus  to  contribute  to  their  conflicts,  but  it  is 
rather  a  question  of  aiming  at  the  union  of  all  that  is  noble 
and  just  in  the  nations  and  in  ourselves.  We  want  our  own 
centre  of  simple  active  life,  because  the  spiritual  and  in- 
tellectual element  without  the  simple  active  hfe  degenerates 
into  subtlety  and  trickiness.  We  want — at  least,  for  a 
section  of  our  nationahty — normal  life,  with  its  variety  and 
interpretation  of  different  influences  of  Nature.  This  is  a 
question  in  which  every  Jew  should  be  interested,  because 
not  only  does  the  nobility  of  a  nation  depend  on  the  presence 
of  the  national  consciousness,  but  also  the  nobility  of  each 
individual.  Our  dignity  and  our  rectitude  are  proportioned 
to  our  sense  of  relationship  to  something  great,  admirable, 
pregnant  with  possibilities,  worthy  of  sacrifice,  a  continual 
inspiration  by  the  presentation  of  aims  larger  than  everyday 
life  and  personal  ease. 

^\^lat  was  the  attitude  of  the  Zionist  Organization  with 
regard  to  these  great  events  ?  Why  was  the  Zionist  Organ- 
ization more  interested  in  the  war  than  any  other  section  of 
Jewry  ?  And  why  is  Zionism  at  present  more  up  to  date 
than  it  ever  was  ?  In  order  to  answer  properly  these  ques- 
tions we  have  to  cast  a  retrospective  glance  on  the  history 
of  the  last  twenty  years,  and  to  recall  to  the  minds  of  the 
readers  a  few  important  facts  which,  although  dealt  with  in 
this  work  in  previous  chapters,  must  be  again  reviewed  in 
their  connection  with  the  present  political  situation. 

Twenty  years  ago  several  hundred  Jews  from  all  parts  of 
the  world  met  in  the  Swiss  town  of  Basle  and  held  a  congress 
— the  first  Jewish  congress  in  history. 

A  strange  community  of  Jews,  a  representative  assembly 
of  the  great  Jewish  Diaspora — from  the  most  modern  Euro- 
pean writers  to  teachers  in  Talmud  colleges  in  small  Lithu- 
anian towns,  quiet  respectable  citizens  and  fiery  students, 
bankers  and  Hebrew  writers — representing  all  kinds  of 
civilization  and  all  languages — and,  nevertheless,  some  bond 
unified  the  whole. 

At  the  head  sat  a  man  of  the  kind  which  appears  Hke 
meteors  but  once  in  the  course  of  generations — Theodor 


6  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Herzl.  A  sage,  a  hero,  a  leader  of  men,  an  artist  ?  Every- 
thing— even  more  than  everything — the  embodiment  of  an 
idea.  In  the  body  of  this  man  there  existed  a  soul,  and  that 
soul  was  Zionism. 

At  his  side  there  stood  (besides  other  worthies  whose 
titles  to  honour  w^e  may  not  here  Unger  to  mention)  a  tribune 
of  the  people,  in  the  person  of  Max  Nordau — another  famous 
man  only  just  awakened  suddenly  and  with  great  power  to 
his  Jewish  nationahty. 

There  the  veil  was  torn  away  from  the  tragedy  of  the  Jews. 
There  it  was  stated  that  the  Jewish  problem  was  a  disease, 
and  that  against  a  disease  one  should  not  protest  and  struggle 
wildly,  but  one  ought  to  cure  it.  Moreover,  it  was  said  that 
at  times  one  cannot  heal  a  wound  except  by  cauterizing  it. 
And  all  were  agreed  that  it  was  not  a  good  plan  to  postpone 
difficulties,  but  on  the  contrary  that  they  should  be  antici- 
pated. 

Speakers  there  indicated  the  "  Galuth  " — the  serpent  with 
a  thousand  coils.  And  they  pointed  to  the  Land  of  Israel,  to 
freedom,  to  redemption. 

In  the  Land  of  Israel,  it  was  there  affirmed,  Zionism  could 
become  a  hving  reahty. 

Nothing  new  indeed  was  there  discovered.  It  was  simply 
stated  that  two  and  two  make  four. 

Out  of  the  vocabulary  of  modern  poHtical  nomenclature 
the  word  "  national  "  was  adopted.  Is  Zionism  national  ? 
Certainly.  It  can  also  be  called  '*  human  "  ;  perhaps  still 
more  simply,  "  natural."  Let  us  learn,  however,  from 
Nature,  in  its  simpHcity  and  honesty,  which  knows  of  no 
sophistries  nor  manoeuvring. 

We  Jews  have  become  again  children  of  Nature.  There 
exist  species  in  Nature.  The  eagle  does  not  toil  for 
the  pike  nor  the  lion  for  the  cat ;  neither  can  the  light 
of  the  stars  replace  that  of  the  sun.  Each  fulfils  its  own 
purpose,  and  thence  results  the  sum  total.  Behold  the 
trees  and  the  standing  corn — ^would  they  be  so  splendidly 
developed,  so  rich  and  so  fresh  in  their  growth,  if  they 
were  forcibly  mixed  and  mingled  together  so  that  one 
drew  its  sap  from  the  other  ?  They  are  flourishing  and  rich 
and  beautiful,  because  each  keeps  its  own  natural  form  and 
each  draws  its  nourishment  from  the  breast  of  mother  earth. 
"  Give  us  our  country,"  said  the  Zionists.  "  Give  it  to  us 
for  our  exiled  and  wandering  ones,  who  unwilUngly  find 
themselves  mingled  in  the  great  seething  pot  of  assimilation. 


THE  JEWISH  CLAIM 

who  drag  themselves  from  place  to  place.  Give  it  to  us  for 
those  who  long  and  thirst  for  another  kind  of  hfe  ;  our 
garments,  our  bread,  and  our  freedom  we  do  not  wish  to  have 
as  alms.  We  wish  to  work  and  to  obtain  the  fruits  of  our 
honest  labour.  We  love  that  little  country  ;  waters  cannot 
quench  and  streams  cannot  drown  our  love  for  it.  Our  love 
has  the  power  to  move  mountains,  it  is  stronger  than  all 
material  obstacles.  We  demand  a  peaceful  spot  for  our 
future  and  for  our  children  who  are  becoming  lost  to  us. 
Beholding  this  misery,  we  are  wilhng  to  sacrifice  ourselves. 
Even  a  she-wolf  throws  herself  against  danger  to  protect  her 
young  ones.  Shall  our  love  be  weaker  then  than  that  of  a 
wolf  ?  And  shall  those  whom  we  love  be  worse  off  than  the 
offspring  of  animals  ?  We  want  to  rend  asunder  our  chains, 
to  blot  out  the  mark  of  serfdom  upon  us,  and  win  for  our- 
selves true  human  rights,  and  the  privilege  of  hving  equal 
to  others,  by  honest  toil." 

This  was  the  Jewish  claim — the  demand  put  by  Zionists 
to  the  world.  And  then  the  world  turned  against  us, 
especially  the  little  Jewish  world. 

We  shall  not  talk  about  the  levity,  the  insolence,  the 
egotism,  nor  about  those  satiated  folk  who  philosophize 
with  their  stomachs,  nor  about  those  others  who  do  not 
know  their  own  minds,  whose  shallow  little  heads  float  hke 
foam  in  any  current.  We  do  not  talk  about  those  idle  jesters 
who  have  found  another  opportunity  of  showing  the  sad  wit 
of  the  Ghetto  which  takes  pleasure  in  ridicuhng  and  despising 
one's  own  self.  Indeed  even  respectable,  serious  and  honest, 
though  unfortunately  shortsighted  and  obstinate  men,  who 
imagined  themselves  enthusiastic  concerning  Judaism,  kind- 
hearted  but  automatic  leaders  of  Jewish  communal  life  who, 
though  philosophizing  about  mankind,  are  inwardly  divided 
from  their  own  people,  came  to  us  with  **  fatherly  "  advice, 
with  moral  lectures,  with  sonorous  phrases  about  humanity. 
They  wanted  to  destroy  most  quickly,  annihilate  and  ex- 
tinguish the  "  dangerous  chimaera,"  the  "  reaction,"  the 
"  chauvinism,"  the  "  Sabbatai-Zvi'ism,"  the  **  decay  of 
religion,"  "  religious  fanaticism,"  "  tribalism,"  and  all  the 
other  things  they  ascribed  to  Zionism  in  their  political 
delusion  and  contradictory  nomenclature. 

"  You  must  scatter  yourselves  all  over  the  world,"  they 
said,  "  just  as  a  handful  of  seeds,  scattered  by  the  wind, 
germinate,  grow  and  ripen,  all  in  different  spots,  replenishing 
the  earth  with  their  fruits  !     What  do  you  want  with  a 


8  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

country  of  your  own  ?  You  are  made  for  something  better  I 
To  be  priests,  teachers  of  ethics,  missionaries  of  God — that 
is  a  higher  ambition  !  Your  contribution  to  mankind  is 
social  justice  and  the  brotherhood  of  men.  Why  be  a  nation 
and  for  what  purpose  ?  You  will  be  great  in  the  memory  of 
peoples.  You  have  earned  a  golden  throne  in  history's 
temple  of  fame.    You  have  been,  to-day  you  are  no  more  !  " 

The  Zionists  replied :  *'  We  want  to  live.  We  know 
better  than  you  do  what  we  are  able  to  do,  and  how  we  ought 
to  influence  mankind  ;  but  we  do  not  wish  to  abdicate,  we 
do  not  wish  to  be  destroyed  like  a  broken  vessel,  whose 
contents  have  run  out  and  have  drained  into  the  soil  without 
leaving  a  trace.  We  do  not  want  to  be  lost  like  a  falHng  star, 
which  for  a  time  had  shone  brightly  in  space,  only  to  sink 
into  nothingness.  Our  star  is  not  yet  dead.  Our  ambitions 
are  not  very  high,  but  they  are  based  on  reality.  We  do  not 
want  to  be  an  exception,  and  we  want  to  be  excused  from 
such  a  *  priesthood.'  We  want  to  create  a  sound  settlement, 
a  strong  centre  where  we  can  develop  our  own  nature  and 
our  character  to  the  highest  and  purest  perfection.  Should 
the  world  wish  to  learn  from  us  and  accept  our  influence,  we 
shall  place  no  obstacles  ;  on  the  contrary,  we  shall  be  glad 
of  it.  But  to  drag  ourselves  from  place  to  place,  to  be  the 
scapegoat  of  every  '  Azazel,'  and  the  sacrificial  lamb  for 
every  calamity,  to  mix  everywhere  with  others,  to  lose  more 
and  more  that  which  is  our  own  personality,  and  to  imagine 
that  we  are  a  sort  of  schoolmaster  for  everyone — for  such 
imposture  we  are  too  honest,  for  such  megalomania  we  are 
of  too  normal  a  mentaUty,  and,  morally,  too  modest.  We 
do  not  want  to  be  driven  ad  majorem  Dei  gloriam  (for  God's 
greater  glory)  or  to  be  intermingled  with  others.  We  do  not 
want  to  be  like  the  goose  that  was  offered  the  choice  of  being 
either  roasted,  stewed,  or  boiled.  Neither  do  we  wish  to 
have  lavished  upon  us  the  pity  given  to  old  people, 
because  it  is  certain  that  they  will  not  for  long  con- 
tinue to  disturb  the  peace  of  the  living.  We  are  old, 
it  is  true,  but  on  that  account  we  are  experienced. 
From  Pharaoh  and  Balaam  to  the  foreign  Antiochus 
[Epiphanes]  {oh.  164  h.c.e.)  and  our  own  Jason, ^  from  the 
Hellenists  to  the  modern  Assimilationists,  we  have  been 
constantly  invited,  as  the  spider  invited  the  fly  into  her 

»  rein*  or  Jesus,  High  Priest  from  174-171  b.c.e.,  brother  of  the  High 
Priest.     N»3in  =  N^Jin:,  Onias  iii. 


THE  ZIONIST  REPLY 


parlour,  just  to  get  it  entangled  in  her  web  and  afterwards 
to  suck  it  dry.  No  !  a  thousand  times  no  !  And  if  you  say 
the  Land  of  Israel  is  of  no  value  to  any  one,  then  you  are  not 
speaking  in  our  name  !  Speak  for  yourselves  alone  !  For 
you  the  Land  of  Israel  means  perchance  only  a  cemetery,  a 
legend,  an  amulet,  an  archseological  relic  ;  for  us  its  every 
pebble  and  grain  of  sand  is  beloved,  not  only  in  a  spirit  of 
worship  and  of  inactive  enthusiasm,  but  also  as  a  necessity 
to  our  life  labour.  And  if  you  believe  that  the  Jewish  people 
are  of  a  similar  species  to  the  Mammoth  and  the  Mega- 
therium, which  have  been  devoted  to  extinction,  then  please 
speak  only  for  yourselves  !  Perhaps  the  sense  of  Jewish 
nationahty  in  you  has  gone  to  sleep  or  has  even  died 
entirely.  That  is  your  own  affair,  a  personal  question  which 
you  have  to  fight  out  with  your  own  selves.  In  us  it  is  alive, 
suffering,  fighting,  clamouring  !  Zionism  is  the  movement 
of  the  Jewish  people  to  reconstitute  itself  and  to  collect 
again  its  scattered  members,  to  provide  Judaism,  the  Jewish 
spirit,  the  Jewish  soul,  with  a  home  once  again  after  two 
thousand  years  of  exile  and  of  wandering.  Zionism  is  the 
struggle  of  the  Jewish  people  to  preserve  its  existence. 
Zionism  feels  that  the  raison  d'etre  of  Judaism  is  not  ended, 
that  the  Jewish  race  can  still  contribute  its  share  towards 
the  raising  of  humanity,  but  to  enable  it  to  do  so  more 
efficiently,  in  an  organized  form,  and  in  accordance  with  its 
own  natural  affinities  and  historic  traditions,  a  Jewish 
milieu  is  necessary.  To  create  such  a  Jewish  milieu  is  the 
purpose  of  the  Zionist  movement.  Such  a  Jewish  milieu 
can  take  root  in  one  land  and  one  land  only,  for  there  is  one 
land  only  that  has  a  real  glorious  Jewish  history  and  Jewish 
past.    That  land  is  the  Land  of  Israel !  " 

Both  parties  had  exhausted  the  discussion — and,  as  is 
usual  in  such  cases,  did  not  succeed  in  convincing  each  other. 
Then  they  each  went  their  own  way. 

The  Zionists  began  to  build  straightway.  No  other 
colonial  settlement  in  the  world  is  of  nobler  birth  than  ours 
in  Palestine.  Tradition  relates  that  young  Rome  was  fed  by 
a  she- wolf .  Some  day  it  will  be  told  in  legends  that  our  new 
settlement  on  old  foundations  was  fed  by  a  turtle-dove,  by 
love,  faithfulness,  kindhness,  and  brotherhness.  Not  wild 
animals,  but  angels,  stood  round  its  cradle.  Muses  and  Graces 
illuminated  and  crowned  the  morning  star  of  its  noble  child- 
hood. Jewish  thinkers  Hke  Leo  Pinsker,  Perez  Smolenskin, 
David  Gordon;    enthusiastic  leaders  and  many  others — 


10  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

a  kind  of  Jewish  Puritan  pioneers,  the  "  Bilu  " — had  started 
to  build  up  the  settlement  even  before  our  first  and  greatest, 
our  immortal  founder  and  leader  of  modern  Zionism, 
Theodor  Herzl,  had  drawn  up  our  programme,  created  our 
organization,  founded  our  institutions,  and  had  given  us  the 
impetus,  method  and  form  of  the  Zionist  movement. 

The  success  of  a  wonderful,  personal,  magnetic  power,  the 
method  of  large-scale  propaganda,  the  labour  through 
relations  with  Governments  had  for  a  certain  time  given 
Zionism  a  political  bias.  More  considered  and  every- 
day experience,  on  the  contrary,  pointed  to  a  slow  method 
of  practical  labour.  Different  parties  amongst  the  Zionists 
opposed  one  another,  and  we  need  not  be  ashamed  of  that. 
Jews  are  inclined  to  freedom  in  all  their  spiritual  tendencies, 
they  do  not  easily  submit  to  formulae,  they  criticize,  analyse, 
and  search  for  the  truth.  Finally,  the  whole  struggle  was 
reduced  to  a  question  of  tactics.  Whether  one  attempts  to 
reach  the  goal  by  means  of  the  plough,  plantations,  schools, 
literature,  or  propaganda,  it  is  a  question  of  time  and  circum- 
stances. And  the  essential  truth  was,  that  all  means  must 
be  employed. 

What  was  the  result  ?  The  net  balance  was  not  great ; 
forty  settlements,  some  farms,  co-operative  societies,  Tel 
Aviv,  the  new  Achuzoth,  the  Carmel,  the  Pardes,  the 
Aggudath  N'iaim,  modern  machines  ;  new  methods  of  work 
introduced  not  only  among  Jews,  but  also  among  Arabs ; 
malaria  centres  disinfected  ;  the  best  conditions  for  planting 
studied  in  experimental  institutions  ;  our  banks,  the  Bezalel, 
public  health  centres,  the  music  school,  two  well-filled 
secondary  schools,  the  girls'  school  in  Jaffa,  the  Tach'kmoni 
school  in  the  same  place,  the  Petach-Tikwah  school  of 
agriculture,  the  settlement  schools,  the  committee  organiza- 
tion of  the  settlements,  the  workers'  associations,  the 
teachers'  union,  the  Hebrew  newspapers  and  Uterature,  the 
"  Houses  of  the  People  " — these  represent  what  Choveve 
Zion,  Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild  and  the  Zionists  have 
created,  and  what  we  call  the  new  colonization  of  Palestine. 
The  earher  rivalries  have  vanished.  The  ChovevS  Zion  and 
the  Zionists  are  at  one  as  to  the  policy  of  Zionism.  The 
Zionist  Palestine  office  in  Jaffa  is  the  head-quarters  of  the 
work  of  colonisation.  The  struggle  for  Hebrew  has  shown 
how  Palestine  is  becoming  more  and  more  an  intellectual 
centre.  The  visit  of  Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild  to 
Palestine  in   1913  had  set  the   seal   upon   this  unanim- 


VISIT  TO  PALESTINE  ii 

ity.  Even  the  blind  could  perceive  that  a  true  Jewish 
Home  was  in  process  of  estabhshment.  No  further  argu- 
ments were  needed.  The  Jewish  population  in  the 
land,  although  a  minority,  is  the  only  one  that  is 
growing  and  has  grown  during  the  past  generation.  It 
is  the  only  progressive  population  in  the  land,  the  others 
are  stationary  in  regard  to  numbers.  Let  any  one  go  to 
Palestine,  not  on  one  of  Cook's  lightning  tours,  but  as  a  Jew 
to  the  land  of  Israel ;  let  him  remain  in  the  settlements  but 
a  few  weeks — that  will  be  a  certain  cure  for  anti-Zionism. 
If  it  should  happen  that  any  one  could  not  be  cured  even  in 
this  way,  then  he  must  unfortunately  be  regarded  as  incur- 
able. We,  however,  know  of  a  great  many  that  have  been 
cured. 

Thus  the  organization  grew.  It  is  sufficient  to  compare 
the  beautiful  first  Basle  Congress  of  1897  with  the  enormous 
Vienna  Congress  of  19 13  ;  it  is  sufficient  to  compare  the 
phantom  Jewish  National  Fund  of  1899  with  the  existing 
Jewish  National  Fund,  which  can  show  an  annual  income  of 
over  two  miUion  francs  ;  it  is  sufficient  to  compare  the  two 
or  three  Zionist  pamphlets  of  eighteen  years  ago  with  the 
Zionist  press  and  literature  in  existence  to-day. 

Thus  Zionism  has  grown  to  what  it  is  to-day  for  the 
Jewish  people  :  a  spring  of  Hfe,  a  signpost,  the  foundation 
of  a  mighty  edifice. 

In  a  few  words  the  author  can  give  the  essence  of  the 
personal  impressions  which  he  received  during  the  course  of 
his  three  months'  stay  in  Palestine,  in  1913,  before  the  war : 
a  model  factory  of  modern  Jewish  national  Hfe ;  a  nursery 
for  rearing  the  fruitful  parent-stems  for  the  blossoming  tree 
of  a  living  Hebraism  ;  a  laboratory  for  sociological  experi- 
ments in  self-help  and  self-government  in  Jewish  economic 
life  ;  a  compendium  of  elements  and  corner-stones  for  the 
erection  of  the  Home  ;  a  systematic,  laborious,  slow  pre- 
paration of  the  preliminary  conditions  for  a  great,  healthy, 
original  Jewish  province  ;  the  genesis  of  a  new  world,  natur- 
ally with  many  defects,  with  many  premature  and  unripe 
attempts,  but  that  was  just  most  beautiful  and  most 
natural  in  people  who  search  and  strive  and  venture.  And 
all  this  was  enhghtened  by  a  clear  understanding,  and  glowed 
with  a  youthful  national  enthusiasm.  That  is  what  Jewish 
colonization  in  Palestine  is. 

Do  not  try  and  count  it  over  !  The  wisdom  of  the  multi- 
plication table  is  too  dull  to  be  able  to  estimate  it.    Do  not 


12  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

try  and  weigh  it !  On  the  great  scales  of  history  a  single  unit 
sometimes  weighs  down  a  hundred  thousand  !  Enjoy  it,  as 
one  enjoys  art,  or  as  the  free  soul  becomes  intoxicated  with 
and  rejoices  in  freedom.  As  musical  natures  become  en- 
raptured with  music,  so  national  natures  become  enraptured 
with  national  life. 

And  if  you  will  have  net  results,  then  do  not  forget  one 
thing,  namely,  that  all  this  has  been  done,  not  by  the  entire 
Jewish  people,  but  by  a  small  handful  of  Jews.  When  this 
small  handful  has  become  the  entire  people,  then  this  edifice 
will  grow  even  grander.  Palestine  is  a  land  that  stretches 
forth  its  hands  to  the  future.  For  two  thousand  years  it  has 
been  ravaged  by  war  and  by  misgovernment,  until  a  country 
that  was  once  famous  throughout  the  world  for  its  fertility, 
has  become  a  desert  land,  degenerate  from  lack  of  culti- 
vation. According  to  the  statistics  of  the  Ottoman  Board 
of  Trade  less  than  9  per  cent  of  the  area  of  European  Turkey 
has  been  brought  under  cultivation,  and  still  less  of  Turkey 
in  Asia.  There  are  in  Palestine  twenty-seven  inhabitants 
to  the  square  kilometre,  and  in  the  valley  of  the  Jordan  four  ; 
while  in  the  irrigated  districts  of  neighbouring  Egypt  ten 
thousand  are  concentrated  within  the  same  area.  Why 
should  not  Palestine  be  resettled  hke  Egypt  ?  Why 
should  it  not  be  made  a  happy  home  for  an  unfortunate 
people  ? 

Now  the  Zionists,  after  twenty  years  of  work,  plead  their 
case  again.  They  have  not  succeeded  in  putting  an  end  to 
the  "  Galuth."  Their  opponents  maintain  that  they  had 
overestimated  their  strength.  Perhaps  so,  but  this  does 
not  prove  that  their  labours  have  been  to  no  purpose.  They 
have  laid  a  few  foundation  stones,  they  have  shown  the 
way. 

They  defend  their  cause  in  the  midst  of  a  hell-fire.  Our 
ancient  people  that  has  lived  so  long,  has  now  experienced 
the  greatest  of  wars,  such  as  has  never  been  in  the  world 
before.  We  hve  to-day  in  the  most  critical  period  of  the 
world's  history.  It  has  been  our  lot  to  share  in  the  greatest 
drama  which  humanity  has  as  yet  lived  through,  not  only  as 
spectators,  but  also  as  actors.  The  history  of  this  world  war 
is  written  in  letters  of  blood  on  the  ancient  and  holy  parch- 
ment, on  the  brow  of  the  Jew.  No  seismograph  has  indi- 
cated beforehand  the  coming  of  this  earthquake,  of  this  out- 
burst of  the  volcano  of  the  nations.  But  one  thing  the  Zionists 
have  foreseen :  the  force  of  national  consciousness ;  the  flood 


LAMENT  OF  THE  DEAD 


13 


of  hate,  our  pitiful  situation,  which  cause  every  storm  to 
tear  away  the  ground  from  under  our  feet. 

Herzl  had  written  his  first  pamphlet  under  the  influence 
of  the  Dreyfus  affair.  That  cry  of  twenty  years  ago  thunders 
now  in  unison  with  the  cries  of  mothers,  wives,  orphans, 
from  underneath  the  pyres  and  ruins  which  in  their  brutal 
reaUty  leave  the  worst  imaginings  of  a  Jeremiah  far  behind. 
The  dead  arise  from  their  graves,  covered  with  blood, 
trampled  in  the  dust,  with  the  fiery  name  of  God,  the 
*'  Shaddai,"  on  their  pale  foreheads,  and  they  demand  to  be 
heard.    They  lament,  and  say  : 

"Vainly  we  strove  to  secure  a  little  life — we  could  not 
grasp  it.  Withered  with  sufferings,  with  pain  and  injury, 
shivering  and  frozen  with  cold,  we  used  to  hug  the  earth 
closely,  but  it  would  not  give  us  warmth.  We  were  teachers 
of  the  most  ancient  peoples,  but  death  and  insult  were  the 
recompense  paid  us  by  our  pupils.  We  shone  like  the  stars, 
but  we  were  treated  like  silkworms,  which  have  to  die,  so 
soon  as  they  have  spun  the  fine  web  of  their  threads,  so  soon 
as  they  have  drawn  forth  and  sacrificed  their  life-blood — 
they  have  fulfilled  their  duty,  and  farewell ! 

"  On  our  shoulders  we  bore  the  burdens  of  our  masters' 
interests,  just  as  the  sea  bears  the  Httle  fishing-boats  on  its 
waves.  We  were  more  faithful  in  guarding  their  property  than 
dogs  are.  For  the  labour  which  we  performed,  for  our  hard 
and  humble  services,  for  the  sacrifice  of  all  our  strength  on 
their  altars,  for  the  resigned  and  patient  suffering  of  all  the 
tortures  of  exile,  we  did  not  receive  even  the  reward  of 
protection  extended  to  the  beast  of  burden,  to  the  cow,  or 
to  the  sheep  for  its  wool.  Deprived  of  all  human  rights,  even 
stripped  of  the  scantiest  rags  of  toleration,  we  wandered  and 
fell  under  the  iron  yoke  of  serfdom,  like  a  weary  and  im- 
potent herd  of  cattle  driven  over  rocks  and  brambles.  They 
felled  us  as  a  forest  is  felled,  and  we  went  down  without  the 
slightest  possibility  of  suitable  self-protection,  with  the  dull 
thud  of  an  old  oak  prostrated  by  a  storm,  yet  with  the  pain 
of  bereaved,  insulted  and  humbled  human  beings.  We  are 
the  victims  not  of  the  war,  but  of  the  '  Galuth/  Let  no 
one  talk  to  us  about  Belgium,  Serbia.  Theirs  is  the  well- 
known  scourge  of  mankind  taking  the  shape  of  tyranny, 
militarism,  war.  Had  we  suffered  only  from  these  things, 
then  we  should  have  suffered  but  in  common  with  others! 
Our  misery,  however,  is  of  a  peculiar  kind.  It  is  a  double 
misery  :   we  suffer  with  the  rest,  and  in  addition  we  suffer 


14  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

specially  as  a  people  without  a  country.  Belgium  and 
Serbia  and  Montenegro  are  nations  with  countries  of  their 
own  ;  they  cannot  be  annihilated,  they  must  be  restored. 
We  envy  Belgium  in  her  misfortune,  and  sorely  assailed 
Serbia ;  we  behold  the  strength  and  health  of  the  Polish 
peasant.  Truly,  he  has  been  ruined  for  the  time  being,  but 
he  has  his  country,  and  though  he  has  been  driven  away  ten 
times  by  the  fury  of  war  he  will  return,  and  once  again  plant 
himself  on  his  native  soil,  where  his  golden  corn  will  grow 
again.  Not  only  could  he  not  be  uprooted,  but  he  will  re- 
gain more  than  he  had  lost :  a  new,  free,  independent 
Poland  ! 

"  Ever)^where  the  rights  of  nations  are  triumphant.  Let  it 
not  be  said  that  only  countries  that  had  been  stolen  fifty  or 
a  hundred  years  ago  shall  be  returned  to  their  former  lawful 
owners.  Whoever  says  so,  falsifies  history,  either  intention- 
ally or  unintentionally.  The  right  of  the  Greeks  to  Greece  is 
also  a  right  which  has  remained  through  thousands  of  years. 
The  right  of  the  Armenians  to  Armenia  has  also  been  sup- 
pressed by  force  throughout  the  centuries.  And  yet  these 
rights  will  be  granted.  Let  it  not  be  said  either,  that  a 
nation  robbed  of  the  country  must  have  remained  on  its 
native  soil,  or  otherwise  it  will  have  lost  its  rights.  That  is 
not  true.  More  Greeks  live  outside  Greece  than  in  Greece, 
and  there  are  still  other  nations,  the  majority  of  whose 
citizens  dwell  outside  the  frontiers  of  their  old  home.  Nor 
let  it  be  said  that  it  is  sufficient  to  grant  equal  rights  to  man- 
kind. Were  not  equal  rights  given  to  the  Greeks — and 
yet  the  problem  was  not  solved  till  Greece  redeemed  herself  ! 

"We,  the  orphans,  the  disinherited,  the  playthings  in 
history's  sports,  the  step-children  of  a  world  founded  on 
nationaUties — we  summon  the  world  before  the  high  court 
of  history. 

"  For  two  thousand  years  past  they  put  us  off  with  excuses 
and  false  promises.  Civilization  has  been  progressing  for 
thousands  of  years  :  mankind  now  flies  loftier  than  the  eagle^ 
and  dives  deeper  than  the  Leviathan.  Has  it  become  better 
for  us  ?  Have  we  not  remained  the  same  scapegoats  from 
the  time  of  Rome  to  the  Crusades,  from  these  to  the  '  Haida- 
maks,'  and  from  them  to  the  Pogroms  of  the  present 
day  ? 

"  We,  the  wandering  souls,  demand  our  rest.  Enough  of 
wanderings  and  being  bandied  about !  Give  us  back  our 
body,    our    country !     We   want  to   be   equal   with   the 


THE  IMMORTAL  RIGHT 


X5 


rest,  suffer  with  the  rest,  fight  with  the  rest,  hve  with 
the  rest." 

Thus  lament  the  dead,  teaching  the  Hving.  Will  the  world 
not  Hsten  to  them  ? 

"  What  do  you  wish  ?  "  the  Zionists  are  asked.  They 
reply  :  We  want  a  home  in  the  land  of  Israel.  On  the  day 
of  Judgment,  when  every  historical  right — from  the  smallest 
to  the  greatest — is  announced,  elevated,  proclaimed,  and 
demanded  ;  when  even  the  weakest,  the  most  doubtful 
claims  of  half-forgotten  and  but  recently-awakened  httle 
peoples,  based  on  old,  torn,  ambiguous  and  now  scarcely 
legible  documents  and  traditions,  assert  themselves  and  de- 
mand rights  of  ownership  ;  when  history  takes  its  place  as 
judge  on  the  throne  of  justice,  and  the  national  territorial 
idea  is  accepted  as  the  world's  code,  in  order  to  resolve  every 
doubt  and  to  arbitrate  every  dispute ;  when  the  great  in  power 
penitently  declare  that  every  injustice,  especially  towards 
suffering  peoples,  must  be  righted  ;  when  these  things  come 
to  pass,  then  (we  Zionists  say)  the  Jewish  people  is  in 
duty  bound  to  proclaim  its  old,  holy,  historical  right  to  the 
heritage  of  its  heroes,  its  prophets,  its  civilization,  its 
religion,  its  language,  and  its  labours ! 

It  is  an  ancient  right,  but  it  has  not  lapsed.  It  is  the 
ancient  oath,  the  ancient  covenant.  No  right  has  been 
earned  more  honourably.  None  has  been  paid  for  with  more 
and  nobler  blood.  None  is  so  highly  estabhshed  and  deeply 
founded. 

In  order  not  to  lay  itself  open  to  a  verdict  of  letting  its 
claim  go  by  default,  the  Jewish  people  will  have  to  proclaim 
its  immortal  right  to  the  land  of  Israel.  It  is  the  sacred  duty- 
right  of  loyal  children  towards  their  parents.  Not  to  demand 
the  land  of  Israel  means  that  we  tacitly  waive  our  rights  to 

^it,  and  this  means  a  waiving  of  our  rights  to  everything  : 
tradition,  honour,  justice,  the  law  of  Moses,  and  the  general 
historical  idea. 
We  don't  trust  a  man  who  denies  his  mother,  however 
much  of  a  patriot  he  may  be  in  his  country.  He  is  an 
opportunist,  but  no  patriot,  because  patriotism  is  ideahsm. 
Nothing  will  daunt  us  in  our  resolve  to  proclaim  solemnly 
our  historical  right  and  to  demand  it  with  all  our  energy. 
Do  not  trouble  us  with  intimidations,  on  the  score  of  a  pos- 
sible growth  of  anti-Semitism,  and  so  on !  These  fears  are 
senseless.  Anti-Semitism  is  a  consequence  not  of  Zionism,  but 
of  the  "  Galuth."    Those  who  have  the  courage  of  their  con- 


i6  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

victions  and  a  sense  of  honour,  are  not  to  be  influenced  by 
craven  fears.  Our  duty  it  is  to  proclaim  our  right,  and  we 
shall  fulfil  this  duty.  Will  this  bring  us  sufferings  ?  Good  : 
we  are  prepared  for  that.  Martyrs  from  of  old  as  we  are,  we 
have  been  through  fire  and  water  during  thousands  of  years, 
we  have  been  the  target  of  every  attack,  the  victims  of  every 
persecution,  and  we  fear  no  chicanery  when  it  is  a  question 
of  fulfiUing  a  holy  duty  of  our  conscience. 

Whoever  understands  Zionism,  knows  it  is  not  our  inten- 
tion to  raise  conflicts.  We  stand  for  a  peaceful  movement. 
We  began  in  a  time  of  peace  and  we  desire  to  renew  our  work 
and  substantially  to  enlarge  it,  in  the  coming  time  of  peace. 
We  did  not  wish  to  harm  anyone,  to  wrong  anyone,  and  we 
wish  to  do  so  still  less,  if  possible,  now  than  before.  We  wish 
to  make  our  country  a  model  of  social  justice  and  human 
brotherhood  ;  the  spirit  of  our  prophets  shall  fill  our  land, 
and  the  ancient  Hebrew  genius  shall  there  have  its  dwelling- 
place. 

We  certainly,  not  less  than  all  the  other  Jews  and  all  just 
men,  are  strongly  interested  and  are  anxious  that  we,  wher- 
ever we  live,  wherever  we  are,  and  wish  to  be  citizens, 
should  have  our  rights  secured.  Where  the  Jews  are  not  yet 
emancipated,  they  shall  be  emancipated  ;  where  they  are 
but  half  emancipated,  their  emancipation  shall  be  completed 
and  perfected  ;  and  where  they  are  already  emancipated, 
their  emancipation  shall  be  in  no  way  checked  or  diminished. 
This  question  of  rights  we  had  better  formulate  in  the  follow- 
ing manner :  Not  that  rights  should  be  given  us,  but  that 
our  rights  shall  no  longer  be  filched  away,  restricted 
and  encroached  upon  wherever  we  have  our  domicile, 
wherever  we  fulfil  our  duties,  and  bear  all  burdens 
in  order  to  defend  the  soil  of  the  country  to  the  death  ; 
wherever  we  work,  live,  and  die  together  with  its  other  in- 
habitants. Not  that  we  should  be  emancipated,  but  that 
people  should  emancipate  themselves  from  the  instinct  of 
persecution,  from  mahce,  from  envy,  which  find  expres- 
sion in  various  forms  :  in  pogroms,  in  boycott,  in  social 
ostracism,  in  open  or  masked  disabihties  ;  that  we  should 
not  be  shut  up  in  cages  like  wild  animals,  whether  it  be  in 
the  brutal  form  of  SiGheUo,  a  "  pale  of  settlement,"  or  in  the 
more  subtle  form  of  social  exclusion  and  coldly  poHte  hypo- 
critical repulse  :  whether  it  be  finally,  in  that  cunning  form 
not  of  Anti-Semitism,  but  of  Asemitism  which  declares 
that,  as  in  the  case  of  poisons,  the  country  can  at  best 


A  POLITICAL  PROBLEM  17 

absorb  only  a  limited  quantity  of  Jews,  while  any  excess  is 
dangerous. 

If  the  civilized  world  really  intends  to  make  an  end  of  war, 
then,  also,  this  war  against  the  Jews  must  not  be  over- 
looked. It  is  a  war  in  time  of  peace,  a  war  that  has  not  the 
heroic  character  of  a  struggle  between  two  opponents  equal 
in  arms,  but  the  character  of  a  systematic  and  brutal 
oppression  of  the  weak  by  the  strong. 

That  is  the  problem  of  the  rights  of  the  Jews  in  the 
countries  of  the  Diaspora  1 

Some  sophists  have,  in  their  speculative,  casuistical  way, 
evolved  a  strange  doctrine.  They  assert,  that  when  the 
'  Jews  surrender  their  claims  to  the  land  of  Israel,  when  they 
deny  their  own  nationality,  then  they  will  "  receive  rights." 
Pedants  and  arm-chair  theorists  as  they  are,  they  paint  in 
their  luxurious  imagination  a  picture  that  recalls  the  classical 
example  of  Paris  with  the  apple  :  in  one  hand,  Palestine  ; 
in  the  other,  rights  in  the  Diaspora.  And  as  they  point  to 
this  picture,  they  cry  out  to  the  Jews  :  Choose  !  One  or  the 
other ! 

Such  pictures  may  please  children,  but  not  grown-up 
men — since  children  are  innocent  and  do  not  understand  the 
laws  of  logic.  There  are  no  two  kinds  of  truth,  nor  of  justice, 
only  one.  If  justice  is  done  to  us,  then  our  right  to  Palestine 
will  be  recognized,  and  we  shall  also  be  left  in  peace  in  the 
Diaspora. 

Be  assured  the  Land  of  Israel  will  not  injure  our  situa- 
tion in  the  Diaspora.  Only  Zionism,  not  self -betrayal,  is 
calculated  to  lend  us  authority  and  prestige  in  the  world. 
Avoid  the  old  error,  avoid  renunciation,  stand  true  to  your 
flag,  to  righteousness,  like  men  ! 

We  are  asked.  What  are  your  politics  ?  Others  say  that 
pohtics  should  be  indeed  excluded.  Zionism  must  be  only 
either  colonization  or  a  spiritual  movement.  We  must  be 
Zionists  in  colonization,  in  the  spirit,  and  in  religion.  In 
what  each  says,  there  is  some  truth.  The  error  Hes  only  in 
the  fact  that  in  each  of  these  assertions,  a  partial  truth 
claims  to  represent  the  whole  truth.  Zionism  is  not  a  part ; 
it  is  the  totality,  the  sum,  the  synthesis  of  these  efforts. 

However  little  Zionists  wish  to  enter  into  politics  they 
cannot  close  their  eyes  to  the  fact  that  Zionism  is — at  least, 
in  part — a  pohtical  problem.  However  spiritual  its  argu- 
ments, its  origins  and  its  motives  may  be,  however  meta- 
physical its  aims  may  be,  and  however  much  its  methods 


i8  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

may  accordingly  strive  to  remain  pure,  neverthless,  it  is 
concerned  with  the  problem  of  people  desiring  to  settle  in  a 
particular  country,  under  a  particular  form  of  social  life. 
They,  consequently,  have  to  strive  for  a  certain  degree  of 
political  self-government,  whether  it  be  high  or  low,  and 
thus  they  must  come  into  relations  with  other  groups  and 
states  already  in  existence,  already  formed,  already  in 
possession  and  having  rights.  The  boundaries  of  rights  will 
have  to  be  drawn  up,  and  these  will  soon  become  frontiers  of 
existing  spheres  of  influences,  and  these  again,  later  on,  will 
need  to  grow  to  new  forms.  Even  if  Zionism  should  devote 
itself  entirely  and  with  absolute  exclusiveness  to  spiritual 
matters,  its  centre  of  colonization  will  have  a  political  aspect, 
which  must  be  developed  as  such.  It  is  a  good  thing  that 
the  war  has  thrust  political  temptations  upon  Zionism. 
Nothing  can  become  of  greater  advantage  to  it,  than  that 
it  should  always  grow  more  clearly  conscious  of  being  some- 
thing practical,  the  creator  of  hfe,  of  being  conditioned  and 
Hmited  by  frontiers,  and  not  that  it  should  simply  fill  the  role 
of  redressing  grievances  from  a  single  point. 

The  Zionist  policy  must  always  be  controlled  by  the 
national  idea.  Great  changes  will  arise  in  the  poHtical 
situation  in  the  world,  the  extent  of  which  cannot  as  yet  be 
surveyed  in  detail.  But  one  thing  is  already  certain  ;  the 
national,  the  historical  idea  will  be  victorious.  The  people 
that  suffer  most,  the  small  and  weak  people,  must  weigh  on 
the  scales  of  the  coming  changes  in  proportion  not  only  to 
their  physical  strength,  but  also  to  their  moral  strength,  and 
in  proportion  to  the  intensity  of  their  will-power  and  self- 
determination — and  this  will-power  and  this  self-determin- 
ation, although  at  all  times  needing  and  capable  of  de- 
velopment, develops  most  rapidly  under  the  influence 
of  such  moments  as  the  present.  The  first  preliminary 
condition  for  poHtical  success,  therefore,  is  self-determina- 
tion and  will-power.  The  first  and  most  important  poHtical 
task  is  the  awakening  of  will-power.  Only  then  commences 
the  poHcy  of  finding  support  in  the  outer  world.  And  under 
this  head  we  know  of  one  policy  only,  namely,  truth — 
absolute  and  unconditional  truth.  Out  of  love  for  it 
Zionists  desire  to  be  just  to  aU  men,  even  to  their  opponents. 
This  may  be  disagreeable  to  short-sighted  people,  but  it 
does  not  trouble  Zionists.  Should  truth  beckon  in  one  direc- 
tion and  the  greatest  successes  in  the  other,  Zionists  should 
without  a  moment's  hesitation  choose  rather  the  former 


NO  OPPORTUNIST  POLICY 


19 


and  exclaim,  "  Away  with  falsehood/'  Only  truth  can  be 
of  service  to  us  ;  wherever  any  shadow  whatsoever  falls  upon 
that,  there  can  be  no  place  for  us. 

No  cause  that  is  unjust,  even  if  at  the  first  glance  it 
appears  to  bring  immediate  help,  and  is  advanced  by  people 
who  wish  us  well,  is  worthy  of  Zionist  support,  and,  likewise, 
every  righteous  cause,  even  though  it  appears  to  be  against 
us,  and  is  put  forward  by  people  who  are  indifferent  and 
even  opposed  to  us,  is  deserving  of  our  support.  For  high 
above  the  plans  dictated  by  benevolence  or  malice,  stands 
the  loftiest  cause  which  so  rules  it  that  injustice  cannot  help 
Zionism,  and  that  justice,  on  the  contrary,  must  help  it. 

It  is  sometimes  pointed  out  that  certain  among  those  who 
profess  sympathy  for  Zionism  do  not  exactly  belong  to  the 
most  trusty  friends  of  the  Jews,  while,  on  the  contrary,  many 
so-called  Liberals  seem  to  be  opposed  to  Zionism.  Truly, 
we  say  to  you  :  this  is  of  no  concern  to  us.  Personal  motives 
have  no  interest  for  us ;  we  do  not  sit  in  judgment  upon 
individuals.  We  are  neither  flattered  by  friends  nor  deterred 
by  the  envious.  The  Zionist's  only  concern  is  the  righteous 
cause. 

The  Zionist  policy  is  one  of  principles,  and  not  an  oppor- 
tunist pohcy.  A  poHcy  founded  on  principles  can  only  base 
itself  on  truth.  The  assistance  of  strangers  can  be  of  service 
to  us  only  when  it  sees  in  us  the  truth,  sees  us  as  we  really 
are,  as  we  are  in  the  continuity  of  our  history,  in  our  numbers, 
in  our  distress  and  in  our  hopes.  Not  the  plans  of  any  in- 
dividual, whether  personal  or  general,  only  fideHty  to  the 
axioms  of  international  morality  can  help  us.  And  if  it  be 
possible  to  obtain  such  assistance,  then  it  can  be  attained 
only  through  a  leading  policy  of  true  equaUty,  but  never 
through  assimilation,  which  is  opposed  to  the  truth. 

Truly,  to  be  on  an  equaUty  with  others  means  the  solving 
of  our  problem  on  national  fines.  That  in  the  highest  sense 
is  equaHty  of  opportunity.  If  the  principle  of  self-determin- 
ation is  appHed  to  all,  then  it  must  be  applied  to  us  too.  If 
historical  rights  are  recognized,  then  ours  must  also  be  recog- 
nized. It  is  right  and  fair  that  Armenia  should  become 
Armenian  ;  it  is  just  as  right  and  fair  that  the  Land  of  Israel 
should  become  Israelitish.  Grant  equal  rights  and  com- 
pensatory justice  ;  all  else  is  hatred,  cowardice,  hypocrisy, 
ambiguity. 

The  error  of  Jewish  policy  since  the  beginning  of  the  last 
century  lay  in  the  fact  that  it  was  an  opportunist  policy. 


20  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

We  tried  to  please  different  parties,  to  utilize  political 
situations.  Perhaps  this  was  formerly  an  opportunity — ^we 
have  now  outgrown  this  standpoint.  Human  progress,  Hke 
every  development,  advances  ever  further  and  further. 
Every  new  advance  leads  to  a  new  stage  that  could  be 
reached  only  through  the  earlier  stages,  and  every  new  stage 
when  reached  has  been  reached  only  to  be  left  behind  in  its 
turn.  As  soon  as  a  stage  has  been  reached,  the  time  has 
once  more  arrived  for  leaving  it.  That  is  the  essential 
reason  why  the  Jewish  problem  has  now  become  a  national 
problem.  Hence  it  is  the  purest  childishness  to  wish  to  solve 
the  problem  by  the  means  adopted  by  the  Sanhedrin  in  Paris, 
in  1806. 

It  is  not,  however,  to  be  supposed  that  because  Zionists 
hold  to  a  policy  of  principles  they  are  on  this  account  in- 
capable of  profiting  from  favourable  opportunities,  of  utilizing 
a  fortunate  moment,  that  may  come  and  bring  more  with  it 
than  many  years  of  hard  toil.  "  Whoever  wants  to  sail  to 
the  new-discovered  isles  must  use  the  winds  as  they  blow." 
The  centre  of  gravity  Hes  in  the  Jews  alone,  in  their  will- 
power, in  the  independence  of  their  spirit. 

The  Jewish  people  have  seen  the  dominion  of  Eg5^t, 
Assyria,  Babylon  and  Rome,  and  still  survive.  Under  the 
standards  of  Zion  the  Jewish  people  will  rise  to  new  Hfe. 

What  ought  Jews  to  do  ?  To  this  question  we  answer : 
In  these  serious  times  all  Jews  should  be  united,  all  Jewish 
organizations,  parties  and  communities  should  set  to  work, 
by  all  lawful  means,  through  the  press,  hterature,  propa- 
ganda and  personal  connections,  to  attain  the  recognition 
of  a  national  home  for  our  people  in  the  Land  of  Israel; 
and  at  the  same  time  to  carry  through  the  abolition 
of  all  injustice  against  the  Jews  in  the  countries  of  the 
Diaspora. 

And  in  view  of  the  enormous  importance  of  the  already 
existing  Jewish  colonization  in  Palestine  for  our  future,  and, 
also,  of  the  salvation  of  the  Jewish  people  from  want  and 
misery  accentuated  by  the  war,  the  greatest  possible  assist- 
ance must  be  given  to  Palestine  and  to  the  suffering  masses 
of  Jews  in  the  Diaspora.  For  the  sake  of  these  causes,  and 
especially  for  the  first,  the  Zionist  Organization  all  over  the 
world  should  not  only  be  maintained,  but  also  placed  in  a 
position  to  develop  and  enlarge  its  activities. 


ZIONIST  PROPAGANDA  IN  WARTIME         21 


ZIONIST   PROPAGANDA   IN   WARTIME 

In  the  above  the  Zionist  policy  has  been  sketched. 
Experience  has  by  this  time  shown  that  in  spite  of  the  in- 
credible difficulties  of  all  kinds,  Zionism  has  not  only  not 
lost  its  power,  but  has  also  actively  developed  its  work. 

The  present  war  has  not  affected  the  unity  of  the  Zionist 
idea  nor  has  it  affected  the  unity  of  the  Zionist  Organization. 
As  the  Organization  was  established  on  the  federative 
principle,  it  was  found  possible  to  continue  the  essential 
work  of  the  movement  by  utiHsing  the  separate  organiza- 
tions of  the  different  countries.  The  work  of  propaganda 
and  the  collection  of  funds,  so  far  from  diminishing, 
actually  made  great  progress.  The  societies  already  in 
existence  continued  their  work  very  effectively,  and  a 
considerable  number  of  new  societies  came  into  being.  Die 
Welt,  the  central  organ  of  the  movement,  had,  however,  to 
be  suspended  ;  but  a  series  of  new  Zionist  pubUcations  made 
their  appearance.  The  Zionist  press — ^in  Russia  particularly 
— ^made  great  headway.  The  Zionist  weekly,  Razswiet, 
which  is  published  in  the  Russian  language,  increased 
its  circulation  threefold.  Three  new  daiUes,  Ha'am  in 
Hebrew,  Das  Togblatt  and  Der  Telegraf  in  Yiddish,  were 
established,  and  rapidly  attained  a  circulation  comparable 
to  the  great  European  daily  papers.  A  crowd  of  new 
journalists  and  publicists  accepting  the  Zionist  platform, 
joined  the  old  guard  of  writers  and  workers  in  the  cause. 
The  Yiddish  Press  in  Poland,  which  numbers  its  readers  by 
the  hundred  thousand,  put  themselves  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Zionist  movement.  One  in  particular,  which  had  hitherto 
been  territorialist,  and  only  lukewarm  towards  Zionism, 
declared  openly  its  acceptance  of  the  Zionist  programme. 
In  England  Zionist  activity  in  press  and  literature 
made  remarkable  progress,  such  as  had  scarcely  been 
imagined  possible  in  this  country.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that, 
quite  apart  from  the  Zionist  Press  proper,  the  Jewish  non- 
Zionist  Press  evinced  a  much  keener  interest  in  the  move- 
ment. The  world's  general  Press,  in  all  languages,  devoted 
to  Zionism  an  amount  of  space  second  only  to  the  events  of 
the  war.  The  mere  fact  that  at  a  time  such  as  the  present, 
when  the  world  is  in  the  throes  of  a  universal  struggle, 
and  every  nation  is  concerned^  for  its  own  safety,  and 
even  existence,  so    much    interest  was    directed    to    our 


22  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

movement  throws  a  dazzling  light  upon  the  naive  absurdity 
of  the  anti-Zionist  assertion,  that  the  whole  movement  is 
nothing  more  than  an  Utopia. 

The  Zionists  have  long  realized  the  need  of  public 
meetings  and  discussions.  The  Zionist  movement  is 
the  only  Jewish  national  and  democratic  movement 
to  attach  great  importance  to  the  free  exchange  of 
opinions  and  to  break  down  the  somewhat  autocratic 
method  of  conducting  Jewish  affairs  in  favour  with  the 
Kehillah  leaders.  It  was  the  first  movement  to  replace  the 
dry  bones  of  bureaucracy  by  the  introduction  of  universal 
Jewish  suffrage  as  a  means  of  dealing  with  Jewish  pubhc 
affairs.  As  the  Zionist  movement  in  pre-war  times  found 
full  expression  in  conferences  and  public  meetings,  it  was  to 
be  feared  that  the  War,  by  reducing  greatly  the  facilities  of 
communication  and  intercourse,  would  seriously  affect  this 
form  of  activity.  But  this  was  not  the  case.  The  long  record 
of  the  meetings  and  conferences  held  since  the  outbreak  of 
the  war,  and  which  by  no  means  exhausts  the  total  number, 
gives  some  notion  of  the  vast  scope  of  this  form  of  propa- 
ganda. 

We  will  make  a  short  survey  of  the  most  important 
dates  in  Zionist  activity  during  the  course  of  the  war,  in 
chronological  order. 

Conferences. 
September,  1915. 

Zionist  Conference — Dordrecht — Holland. 

Roumania.  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Roumanian 
Zionist  Federation,  November  7th  and  8th,  held  in 
Galatz.  Country  divided  into  four  districts  for 
Zionist  work  :   Galatz,  Bucharest,  Jassy,  Foscani. 

Canada.  General  Jewish  Conference  held  in 
Montreal,  November  14th  and  15th,  together  with  the 
Annual  Meeting  of  the  Canadian  Zionist  Federation, 
presided  over  by  Clarence  de  Sola. 

December  ^th,  1915. 

West  Austrian — Galician — and  Bukowina  Zionist 
Conferences  (Adolf  Stand  in  the  chair) .  Resolutions : — 
"  The  Assembly  expects  to  see  the  Jewish 
problem  discussed  at  the  peace  conference,  and 
trusts  that  the  Actions  Committee  will  find  suit- 
able means  and  ways  to  create  a  united  manifesta- 
tion of  the  Jews  of  all  countries  for  the  demand  of 


CONFERENCES  IN  1915-1916 


23 


securing  for  the  Jews  their  civil  and  political 
equality  of  rights  all  over  the  world,  and  in  the 
nationality  states  also  recognition  of  their  national 
existence. 

"  The  Actions  Committee  is  asked  to  prepare 
everything  in  a  suitable  manner,  in  order  that 
the  interests  of  poUtical  Zionism  may  be  secured 
before  the  Forum  of  the  future  Peace  Congress." 
December  26th  and  2yth,  1915. 

Holland.     At  Nymegen  one  hundred  and  twenty 
delegates  attended. 
December,  1915. 

Manchester.    Conference  of  EngUsh  "  Poalei  Zion." 
Delegates  from  all  parts  of  the  country  attended. 
January  1st,  1916. 

England.    Conference  convened  by  E.Z.F.  attended 
by  Rabbis,  delegates  of  Synagogues,  Friendly  Societies 
and  Trade  Unions. 
January  ^th,  1916, 

America.    Annual  Conference  of  the  Federation  of 
"  Knights  of  Zion,"  at  Chicago.    The  Federation  has 
fifty-three    active    branches    and    three    thousand 
members. 
January,  1916. 

Australia.     Annual   Conference   of    the   Sydney 
Zionist  Society. 
February  6th,  19 16. 

America.      Annual    Convention    of    the    Zionist 
Council  of  Greater  New  York. 
February  i^th,  1916. 

England.      Annual    Conference    of    the    English 
Zionist  Federation  at  Manchester. 


1916. 


Mizrachi.  The  Annual  Conference  of  the  **  Miz- 
rachi"  was  held  at  Chicago,  May  26th-30th.  The 
*'  Mizrachi "  of  America  comprises  one  hundred  and 
three  associate-societies  and  twenty-four  synagogues. 
The  membership  is  six  thousand. 

Some  of  the  principal  American  Rabbis  attended 
the  Conference. 

A  special  Palestine  Bureau  was  created.  A  new 
union,  called  "  Achi  Samach,"  was  formed,  for  the 
encouragement  of  the  sale  of  Palestinian  products. 


24  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

1916. 

Bombay.  A  Meeting  of  the  Magen  David  Congrega- 
tion was  held  at  Bombay.  The  proceedings  were  all  in 
Hebrew.  Sir  Jacob  EHas  Sassoon,  Bart.  (1844-1916), 
was  re-elected  president. 

May  zSth  and  2gth,  19 16. 

Scandinavia.  The  Twelfth  Annual  Conference  of 
Scandinavian  Zionists  was  held  at  Copenhagen. 
Thirty-one  delegates  from  all  parts  of  the  country 
were  present.  Various  resolutions  were  passed,  ex- 
pressing confidence  in  the  work  of  the  Central 
Executive. 


1916. 
1916. 

1916. 


Switzerland.  A  Conference  of  the  Swiss  Zionist 
Federation  was  held  at  Berne  on  June  ist. 

South  Africa.  The  Annual  Conference  of  the 
South  African  Zionist  Federation  was  held  at 
Johannesburg  on  April  30th.  Over  one  hundred 
delegates  were  present. 


Canada.  "  Poalei  Zion  "  of  Montreal  had  a  series 
of  Conferences  on  June  2nd-4th. 

America.  Conference  of  American  Zionist  Federa- 
tion held  at  Philadelphia  on  July  2nd.  Over  five 
hundred  delegates  present. 

July  Sth,  1916. 

Conference  at  New  York  of  the  "  Young  Judea.'* 
The  membership  is  three  thousand  five  hundred. 

September  i^th-i^th,  1916. 

Poland.    A  Zionist  Conference  was  held  in  Warsaw, 
attended  by  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  delegates 
from  Warsaw  and  the  PoUsh  provincial  cities. 
The  following  resolution  was  passed  : — 

"  I.  That  the  Central  Committee  estabUsh  a 
special  Palestine  Office,  to  gather  information 
and  material  with  respect  to  the  present  situation 
in  Palestine  and  with  respect  to  the  possibiUties 
for  work  after  the  war. 

"2.  That  it  elaborate  this  material  and  spread 
it  within  wide  circles.  Further,  it  has  to  organize 
pioneer  groups,  who  are  willing  to  go  to  Palestine, 


CONFERENCES  IN  1916 


25 


as  well  as  to  work  out  a  scheme  tor  the  preparation 
of  these  pioneers." 

September,  1916. 

Russia.  "  Poalei  Zion  "  Conference — the  first 
since  the  outbreak  of  the  war.  Resolution  passed  : — 
"  That  we  agitate  among  the  Jewish  masses  in- 
structing them  the  only  solution  for  the  Jewish 
problem  is  the  creation  of  a  Jewish  Home  in 
Palestine." 

September  18th,  1916. 

Conference  of  Zionist  speakers,  held  at  New  York. 

Bohemia.  The  Annual  Conference  of  Bohemian 
Zionists  was  held  at  Prague  on  November  ist. 

America.  Zionist  Students'  Organization  of  America 
held  its  Second  Annual  Conference,  November, 
1916. 

November  i4thr-igth. 

America  ''  Poalei  Zion "  Conference  at  Boston. 
Attended  by  one  hundred  and  nine  delegates  from  the 
United  States  and  Canada. 

(During  the  year  two  thousand  new  members 
had  been  enrolled.  Juvenile  Societies,  with  eighteen 
branches  and  over  one  thousand  members,  had  been 
formed.) 


1916. 


1916. 


England.  On  December  24th  and  25th  the  Order  of 
Ancient  Maccabeans  held  their  Annual  Grand  Beacon 
Meeting  in  Manchester.    Resolution  : — 

"  That  this  Grand  Beacon  Meeting  reiterates  its 
loyalty  to  the  Zionist  programme,  as  endorsed  from 
Congress  to  Congress,  and  expresses  the  hope  that 
the  time  may  not  be  far  distant  when  our  brethren 
will  be  accorded  full  civil  and  poHtical  rights  all 
over  the  world,  and  that  the  order  co-operate  with 
bodies  that  strive  for  the  above  objects." 

Holland.  The  Seventeenth  Annual  Conference  of 
the  Dutch  Zionist  Federation  was  held  at  the  Hague 
on  December  24th  and  25th,  1916. 

About  one  hundred  and  twenty  delegates  were 
present,  including  representatives  of  the  *'  Poalei 
Zion''  and  the  Belgian  Zionist  Federation. 


26  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

The  Dutch  Federation  comprises  twenty-six 
societies,  with  a  total  membership  of  one  thousand 
six  hundred  and  sixty. 

Collections  :  Palestine  Fund,  11,453  j^.  ;  Central 
Fund,  913/. ;  National  Fund,  10,709/. 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 


Poland.  The  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Warsaw 
Zionists,  held  on  January  nth,  attended  by  a 
thousand  shekel  payers. 

America.  In  March,  a  Conference  of  Jewish 
Socialist  Workers  was  held  in  New  York,  and  attended 
by  four  hundred  delegates.  The  Basle  programme 
was  adopted. 

Mizrachi.  Over  two  hundred  delegates  attended 
the  ''Mizrachi"  Convention  at  Pittsburg,  where  the 
dehberations  extended  for  over  five  days.  Fifty  of 
the  most  prominent  orthodox  Rabbis  of  the  country 
attended.  The  "  Mizrachi  "  has  a  hundred  and  nine- 
teen branches  in  ninety-five  cities  spread  over  twenty- 
eight  States. 

America.  "  Knights  of  Zion  "  held  their  Twen- 
tieth Annual  Convention  at  MinneapoUs  and  St. 
Paul.  The  '*  Knights  of  Zion "  had  seventy-six 
societies  with  a  membership  of  four  thousand  two 
hundred. 

America.  Hebraists  Convention  took  place  in 
New  York  on  February  loth,  nth  and  12th.  Many 
Hebrew  scholars  from  all  parts  of  the  country  were 
present. 

America.  The  Eleventh  Annual  Meeting  of  the 
Zionist  Council  of  New  York  was  held  on  February 
i6th,  attended  by  eighty-eight  delegates,  represent- 
ing thirty  societies. 

England.  The  Annual  Conference  of  the  E.Z.F. 
was  held  in  February  in  London.  About  sixty 
delegates  were  present. 


CONFERENCES  IN  1917 


27 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 

1917. 
1917. 
1917. 


1917. 
1917. 


Switzerland.  The  Swiss  Zionist  Federation  held  a 
Conference  at  Berne  on  February  i8th.  Thirty-five 
delegates  attended. 

Russia.  On  March  28th-30th  there  was  held  a 
Conference  of  the  Central  Institutions  of  the  Zionist 
Organization.     About  fifty  delegates  attended. 

Conference  of  all  Russian  Zionist  Organizations, 
held  in  Moscow,  April  3rd.  Dr.  E.  W.  Tschlenow 
presided. 

Greece.  On  April  9th  a  Mass  Meeting,  attended 
by  over  three  thousand  persons,  was  held  at 
Salonica.  After  addresses  delivered  by  several 
speakers,  a  resolution  was  passed  urging  the  restora- 
tion of  the  oldest  nation  and  its  regeneration  in 
Palestine. 

Belgian  Zionists.  On  April  29th  the  Belgian 
Zionist  Federation  held  a  Conference  at  Scheveningen, 
Holland. 


Australia. 
March  i8th. 

England. 
May  20th. 


Annual    Meeting    held    at    Sydney, 


Special  Conference  E.Z.F.  in  London, 


Russia-Turkestan.  Early  in  May  a  Conference  of 
Turkestan  Zionists  was  held  at  Samarcand.  The 
delegates  were  both  Ashkenazi  and  Sephardi.  Thirty 
delegates  attended,  besides  delegates  for  the  Bokhara 
Jews,  and  two  hundred  guests. 

A  Zionist  Central  Committee  was  formed  for 
Turkestan. 

Poland.  June  3rd-5th.  Conference  of  Zionist 
Central  Committee  for  Poland,  held  in  Warsaw. 

Russia.  On  May  24th  (O.S.)  the  Seventh  Con- 
ference of  Russian  Zionists  was  held  at  Petrograd, 
and  was  attended  by  five  hundred  and  fifty-two  dele- 


28  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

gates,  representing  one  hundred  and  forty  thousand 
shekel  payers,  from  six  hundred  and  forty  towns 
and  villages.  Eleven  delegates  came  from  Siberia. 
Bokhara  and  Mountain  Jews  were  represented. 
Twenty-four  delegates  were  soldiers  coming  by  special 
permission  of  the  Commander-in-Chief,  who  got  free 
passes.  Five  hundred  guests  came  from  the  country 
and  one  thousand  guests  from  Petrograd  were 
present.  Ninety  representatives  of  Russian  papers 
were  present.  The  Foreign  Secretary,  Tere- 
tschenko,  sent  greetings  and  best  wishes  for  complete 
success. 

Dr.  E.  W.  Tschlenow's  speech  was  reprinted  in 
half  a  million  copies  for  the  soldiers. 

A  meeting  of  Zionist  Women  was  held  in  the  hall 
of  Kiew  University  in  May.  More  than  one  thousand 
five  hundred  Jewish  women  attended. 


1917. 


1917. 


In  1913  there  were  only  twenty-six  thousand 
shekel  payers  in  Russia — nov/  one  hundred  and 
forty  thousand.     Resolution  passed  : — 

"  The  Seventh  Zionist  Russian  Conference  pro- 
claims its  firm  conviction  that  the  nations,  in  sett- 
ling the  bases  of  the  new  national  and  political  life, 
shall  be  conscious  of  the  clearly  manifested  will  of 
the  Jewish  people  to  colonize  Palestine  again  as 
their  national  centre,  and  that  they  shall  create 
conditions  enabling  the  unhindered  evolutions  and 
concentration  of  all  Jewish  forces,  for  the  purpose 
of  bringing  about  a  regeneration  of  Palestine." 

A  representative  body  of  the  Jewish  people  should 
be  admitted  to  the  approaching  Peace  Conference, 
which  shall  obtain  attention  for  the  historic  and 
national  rights  of  the  Jewish  people. 


America.  Independent  Order  "  Brith  Shalom  " 
held  their  Thirteenth  Annual  Conference  in  Atlantic 
City  on  June  13th.  Over  six  hundred  delegates 
were  present.  The  resolution  passed  commenced 
thus: — 


I9I7. 


I9I7. 


igiy. 


1917. 


CONFERENCES  IN  1917  29 

"  Whereas  the  Independent  Order  has  adopted 
the  Zionist  platform  in  spirit  and  in  fact,  and  has 
pledged  itself  to  the  furtherance  of  all  principles 
it  stands  for,  etc.,  etc." 


America.  The  Twentieth  Conference  of  American 
Zionists  opened  at  Baltimore  on  June  24th.  Over  a 
thousand  delegates  were  present. 

1917. 

America.  Twentieth  Annual  Convention  of  Pro- 
gressive Order  of  the  West  was  held  at  Detroit, 
Michigan.  The  Order  has  a  membership  of  twenty 
thousand,  and  declared  its  allegiance  to  the  Zionist 
cause. 


1917. 


1917. 


America.  Conference  of  "  Young  Judeans."  One 
hundred  and  twenty-five  delegates  present,  repre- 
senting five  thousand  members.  The  "  Young 
Judeans"  collected  3500  dollars  for  the  Jewish 
National  Fund. 

England.  Union  of  Jewish  Friendly  Societies, 
comprising  fifty  thousand  members,  adopt  the  Basle 
programme. 

Conference  of  the  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans, 
held  at  Manchester,  July  17th.  Membership  of  the 
Order  2200. 

Canada.  The  Fifteenth  Annual  Conference  of 
Canadian  Zionists  took  place  at  Winnipeg  in  July. 
Delegates  from  seventy-seven  towns,  of  three  hundred 
and  fourteen  Jewish  organizations,  attended. 

The  Governor  of  Manitoba  came  to  the  Conference, 
and  expressed  his  sympathy  with  Zionism. 

Russia.  Poalei  Zion.  Conference  in  Kiew — Sep- 
tember 8th.  More  than  one  hundred  and  sixty 
delegates  attended. 

Greece.  Salonica.  Great  Meeting,  attended  by 
three  thousand  persons  at  Salonica,  on  9th  of  Ab. 


30  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

1917. 

America.  The  "  Mizrachi  "  in  America  celebrated 
in  August  the  Six-hundred-and-fiftieth  Anniversary 
of  the  First  Settlement  in  Palestine  by  R'  Moses  ben 
Nachman  (Ramban).  The  **  Mizrachi "  started  a 
Fund  of  100,000  dollars,  to  aid  Colonization  and 
Industrial  Development  in  Palestine. 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 


1917. 


Poland.  The  Third  Delegates'  Conference  of  the 
Zionist  Organization  in  Poland  was  opened  in  Warsaw 
on  October  28th,  1917.  More  than  three  hundred  and 
sixty  delegates  attended,  representing  forty  thousand 
shekel  payers. 

Poland.  Fifth  Conference  of  the  "  Poalei  Zion" 
of  Poland,  was  held  in  Warsaw.  Over  forty-four 
delegates,  representing  twenty-six  towns,  partici- 
pated in  the  Conference.  The  Organization  had 
forty-six  district  groups,  with  a  membership  of  eight 
thousand. 


America.  September  5th.  Conference  of  Rabbis 
resolved  to  appeal  to  various  powers,  particularly 
President  Wilson,  asking  them  to  give  their  consider- 
ation to  the  question  of  the  Restoration  of  Palestine 
to  the  Jewish  people. 

England.  In  October,  Zionist  Demonstrations 
took  place  all  over  the  country.  In  seventy-one 
synagogues,  one  hundred  and  twenty-three  lodges 
and  associations,  and  in  fifty-four  Zionist  societies, 
resolutions  were  passed  requesting  the  British  Govern- 
ment to  use  its  best  endeavours  to  bring  about  a 
Restoration  of  Palestine  as  a  National  Home  for  the 
Jewish  people. 

Holland.  Congress  of  Jews  resident  in  the  Nether- 
lands, held  in  Amsterdam  on  November  i8th,  for 
considering  emancipation  of  Jews,  recognition  of 
national  rights  in  national  States,  and  national 
concentration  of  the  Jewish  people  in  Palestine. 


THE  JEWISH  NATIONAL  FUND  31 

One  of  the  most  popular  of  Zionist  funds  is  the  Jewish 
National  Fund.  This  Fund  is  outside  the  realm  of  dis- 
cussion, and  deals  exclusively  with  hard  facts,  i.e., 
financial  contributions  from  all  parts  of  the  world.  The 
Jewish  National  Fund  is  in  a  very  real  sense  an  index  of 
the  people's  will.  It  would  seem  that  the  terrible  misery 
of  the  Jewish  masses  occasioned  by  so  many  expulsions, 
evacuations,  and  loss  of  Ufe  and  property  would  have  had 
the  effect  of,  if  not  entirely  cutting  off  this  source  of  revenue, 
at  least,  seriously  reducing  it.  In  point  of  fact,  the  reverse 
is  shown  by  the  figures. 

The  income  of  the  Fund  during  the  last  few  months  of  the 
year  1914  and  during  the  year  1915,  was  about  two-thirds  of 
the  previous  years.  But  in  the  year  1916  the  National  Fund 
received  about  1,000,000  francs,  which  equals  the  amount  in 
1913.  During  the  first  half  of  1917  the  average  monthly  con- 
tributions were  doubled.  The  latest  date  up  to  which  exact 
figures  for  the  various  countries  are  available  is  September 
1st,  1917.  During  the  eight  months  from  January  to 
September,  1917,  more  than  1,300,000  francs  had  been  re- 
corded. During  the  last  four  months  of  the  year  approxi- 
mately the  same  amount  was  received,  that  is,  the  contribu- 
tions were  doubled  once  more  in  relation  to  the  immediately 
preceding  rate.  At  the  present  moment  the  contributions 
to  the  National  Fund  amount  to  about  150,000  francs  per 
month. 

The  results  attained  by  the  National  Fund  must  be  at- 
tributed to  the  general  growth  of  the  Zionist  movement  as 
well  as  to  the  effective  organization  of  its  propaganda,  to  the 
popularity  of  its  fundamental  idea — the  acquisition  of  land 
as  National  property — and  the  importance  attached  by 
Jewry  at  large  to  the  role  that  the  National  Fund  will  have 
to  discharge  in  the  forthcoming  colonization  of  Palestine. 

Contributions  to  the  Jewish  National  Fund  from  the 
different  countries  in  the  year  1917  were  as  follows : 
Russia,  Rbl.  475,312  ;  United  States,  $73,502  ;  Holland, 
Fl.  28,767 ;  England,  £1396  is.  lod. ;  Argentina,  Pesos 
13.378 ;  Canada,  $4056 ;  South  Africa,  £639  8s.  4d.  ; 
Switzerland,  Frs.  11,572  ;  Belgium,  Frs.  8,329 ;  France 
(including  Tunis),  Frs.  6,978  ;  Egypt,  £255  lis.  4d.  ;  Greece, 
Frs.  6,425 ;  Sweden,  Kr.  2,542 ;  Denmark,  Kr.  2,447. 
Various  countries,  about  Frs.  600,000.  The  total  amounts 
to  Frs.  1,747,278.  At  the  rate  of  exchange  before  the  war 
it  would  be  Frs.  2,730,011. 


32 


THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 


THE  JEWISH  NATIONAL  FUND 

Statistical  Table  of  Annual  Income  in  Francs 


Country, 

1914. 

1915. 

1916. 

United  States     .      .      . 

I97>3ii 

291,604 

268,317 

Russia 

184,334 

30,120 

81,336 

Holland    . 

10,662 

13,972 

35,921 

Argentine 

4,196 

4,334 

22,807 

England   . 

24>655 

12,061 

20,766 

Roumania 

15,532 

23,997 

19,021 

South  Africa 

27,511 

21,905 

15,001 

Scandinavia 

807 

1,715 

4,886 

Canada     . 

21,951 

23,129 

10,296 

Switzerland 

3,854 

3,748 

7,296 

Greece 

5,755 

4,545 

4,410 

Belgium    . 

10,472 

— 

4,161 

Egypt.     . 

2,845 

832 

3,382 

France 

2,115 

1,862 

2,992 

Far  East . 

1,377 

280 

2,562 

Australia  and 

New  Zealand 

3,305 

1,080 

1,915 

Italy   .     .     . 

1,630 

2,641 

1,312 

Portugal  . 

— 

280 

937 

Brazil       .      . 

1,430 

1,082 

125 

New  Zealand 

— 

522 

Other  countries 

224,962 

197,597 

425.110 

744,704 

636,784 

933,075 

With  regard  to  the  Zionist  Organization,  it  must  be  stated 
that  some  of  its  functions,  particularly  those  which  were 
centralized  in  the  headquarters,  such  as  the  periodical  meet- 
ings of  the  Greater  Actions  Committee  and  the  permanent 
contact  and  co-operation  between  the  members  of  the 
Inner  Actions  Committee,  had  to  be  suspended.  The  Zionist 
Congress,  the  chief  organ  of  the  movement,  which  elects  the 
executive  of  all  the  officers  of  the  movement,  to  decide  all 
questions  of  poUcy,  could  not  be  held  owing  to  the  war,  and  as 
a  result  the  position  had  to  remain  as  settled  by  the  Congress 
of  1913.  As,  however,  the  events  of  the  war  threw  upon  the 
Organization  not  less  but  very  much  more  responsibility 
than  previously,  and  confronted  the  existing  executive  with 
problems  of  the  greatest  urgency  and  importance,   new 


RELIEF  WORK  33 

instruments  had  necessarily  to  be  created  to  meet  the  new 
situation  and  to  carry  on  the  work  of  the  movement. 

In  America,  where  the  movement  began  to  spread  with 
great  rapidity,  the  American  Provisional  Committee  for 
General  Zionist  Affairs  was  formed  in  1914,  very  soon  after 
the  outbreak  of  the  war,  and  conducted  the  affairs  of  the 
movement  with  great  skill.  Their  efforts  in  connection  with 
Palestine  rehef  were  beyond  all  praise,  and  constitute  one 
of  the  brightest  pages  in  the  history  of  the  movement. 

In  Copenhagen,  also,  a  Bureau  was  opened,  which 
rendered  invaluable  services  to  the  cause. 

ZIONISM  AND    JEWISH    RELIEF  WORK 

The  greater  part  of  the  practical  work  of  the  Zionist 
Organization  consisted  of  Relief  Work  for  Jewish  sufferers 
from  the  war.  The  terrible  catastrophe  which  fell  upon 
Russian  Poland,  GaUcia,  Bukovina,  Lithuania,  Zamut  and 
Courland,  affected  the  Jews  in  a  unique  way.  Hundreds  of 
towns  and  villages,  in  which  Jewish  inhabitants  had  dwelt 
and  woven  into  their  lives  the  threads  of  their  own  charac- 
teristic customs  for  many  generations,  in  which  they  had 
faithfully  preserved  their  ancient  spiritual  treasures  in  spite 
of  misery  and  poverty,  which  had  been  a  perennial  source 
of  inspiration  and  a  rich  storehouse  for  the  Judaism  of  the 
whole  world,  which  had  nourished  and  sustained  almost  the 
whole  House  of  Israel  in  the  Diaspora,  suddenly  became  a 
field  of  slaughter  and  the  arena  of  the  grimmest  struggle  in 
the  world's  history.  Troops  in  numbers  never  seen  before, 
with  weapons  of  destruction,  threatening  to  reduce  the 
world  to  ashes,  passed  Hke  angels  of  destruction  to  and  fro 
over  the  battlefields,  leaving  not  a  stone  intact,  not  a  blade 
of  grass,  or  a  hving  man  or  beast.  Thus  far  the  wounds  and 
misfortunes  which  befell  the  Jews  were  no  different  from 
the  wounds  and  misfortunes  of  the  other  inhabitants.  But 
there  must  be  added  the  special  Jewish  affliction  in  these 
countries,  the  persecution  and  the  fierce  anti- Jewish  feehng 
which  were  the  special  characteristics  of  the  ancient  regime 
in  Russia,  which  was  wont  to  take  advantage  of  every  op- 
portunity of  avenging  itself  on  the  Jews,  attacking  them  and 
holding  them  up  to  scorn  on  every  kind  of  pretext  and  false 
accusation.  This  made  the  war  a  specially  terrible  pheno- 
menon for  the  Jews  :  it  produced  a  war  within  a  war. 

The  war  called  upon  the  Jews  to  make  sacrifices  in  equal 
measure  with  all  the  other  inhabitants  of  these  countries ; 

II.— D 


34  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

their  youth  and  their  strength  were  laid  on  the  altar  of  the 
land  of  their  birth  ;  they  also  bore  the  burden  of  all  the 
taxes  and  payments  which  the  other  inhabitants  had  to  bear ; 
they  put  forward  tremendous  efforts  as  tradesmen  and 
workers,  as  doctors  and  nurses  ;  they  were  active  workers 
in  all  departments  directly  and  indirectly  connected  with 
the  war.  Yet  side  by  side  with  this  they  had  to  face  an  in- 
sufferable hatred,  they  had  to  wage  a  separate  war  with  the 
powerful,  who  strove  to  reduce  to  nothingness  the  Httle 
remnant  which  the  war  itself  could  not  utterly  destroy. 

That  this  impression  became  current  among  the  Jews  was 
inevitable,  in  consequence  of  an  old  phenomenon  which 
appeared  before  them  in  a  new  guise.  We  refer  to  the 
curious  mixture  of  expulsion  and  evacuation,  of  pogroms 
and  slaughters,  of  which  they  were  the  victims.  They  were 
accustomed,  from  long  and  bitter  experience,  to  expulsions 
from  without  the  pale  of  settlement  into  the  regions  of  the 
pale,  from  villages  to  towns,  and  to  the  suffering  occasioned 
by  the  Russo-Turkish  and  Russo-Japanese  wars  ;  but  these 
expulsions  occurred  when  conditions  in  Russia  itself  were 
almost  normal,  and  when  the  Jews  who  were  left  untouched 
by  the  decree  of  expulsion  were  able  to  render  assistance  to 
their  unfortunate  brethren.  The  combination  of  the  two 
forms  of  trials,  of  war  and  of  persecution  by  their  fellow- 
citizens,  was  more  than  even  a  nation  inured  to  suffering 
could  bear.  It  was  as  though  this  nation,  which  had  been 
a  wanderer  from  time  immemorial,  had  only  just  begun 
its  wanderings.  They  were  no  ordinary  wanderers — not 
merely  expelled  and  outlawed ;  but  they  were  taken  and 
hurled  as  out  of  the  middle  of  a  sling  from  province  to  pro- 
vince and  from  district  to  district.  Railway  carriages  were 
not  enough  to  hold  them,  so  they  were  transported  in  cattle- 
trucks,  the  doors  of  which  were  locked  to  prevent  escape  on 
the  way.  The  cattle-trucks  were  not  sufficient  to  cope  with 
the  numbers  and  horse-vans  were  impressed,  and  as  the 
horse-vans  were  not  sufficient,  even  though  the  Jews  paid 
their  last  kopecks  for  places  in  them,  they  were  sent  on  foot. 
Bands  of  wanderers — consisting  of  women,  children,  aged, 
weak,  sick  and  infirm — were  accordingly  dragged,  driven, 
knouted  along  every  kind  of  road  and  over  every  kind  of 
obstacle,  not  like  cattle  beneath  the  watchful  eye  of  the 
herdsman,  not  even  Uke  animals  led  to  the  slaughter,  on 
whom  some  mercy  is  taken  because  they  can  be  used,  but 
simply  like  wild  beasts  pursued  by  huntsmen  ;  whoever  fell 


THE  RUSSIAN  EVACUATIONS  35 

by  the  way  fell  without  attention,  whoever  fell  sick  was 
ruthlessly  left  behind.  Families  were  split  up,  and  that  iron 
bond  which  unites  parents  and  children  was  snapped ;  infants 
died  of  starvation  pressed  against  their  mothers'  shrivelled 
breasts ;  weary  old  greybeards  grew  faint  and  stumbled  on 
the  way  and  died  without  the  last  consolation  of  old  age, 
without  seeing  around  them  their  offspring  whose  souls  were 
bound  up  with  their  own  ;  tender  infants  were  deserted 
without  anyone  to  take  pity  on  them,  and  the  clamour  went 
forth  from  one  end  of  the  earth  to  the  other,  "  Where  is  my 
father  ?  "    "  Where  is  my  child  ?  '' 

This  tragedy  was  not  included  among  the  necessary 
tragedies  of  the  war :  it  was  a  Jewish  tragedy.  When  Belgium 
was  ruined,  her  Jews  too  were  ruined.  Had  the  catastrophe 
to  the  Jews  in  Poland  and  Lithuania  been  of  such  a  kind  it 
would  have  found  a  place  in  the  general  history  and  not  in 
the  separate  history  of  the  Jews.  When,  however,  bands  of 
thousands  of  Jewish  fugitives  came  to  Warsaw  from  the 
inland  towns,  in  rags  and  tatters,  footsore,  hungry  and 
despairing,  it  was  impossible  to  regard  them  simply  as 
victims  of  the  war,  because  it  was  only  the  Jews  who  came. 
They  were  not  victims  of  the  war,  they  were  victims  of  the 
Galuth,  these  thousands  and  tens  of  thousands  of  Jews  who 
were  suddenly  transplanted  from  the  midst  of  their  old  homes 
in  Lithuania.  When  whole  congregations,  including  inmates 
of  their  Homes  for  the  Aged,  of  their  hospitals,  and  even  of  the 
asylums  were  evacuated,  it  was  impossible  to  believe  that  this 
was  mihtary  tactics  or  a  measure  of  precaution,  for  it  was 
only  the  Jewish  congregations  who  were  forcibly  and  sud- 
denly removed  in  this  extraordinarily  cruel  manner.  In 
many  places  it  happened  that  the  expelled  Jews  before  they 
left  were  able  to  see  with  their  own  eyes  other  people  enter- 
ing and  taking  possession  of  the  shops  which  they  had  left 
behind  them.  There  was  no  connection  between  these  suffer- 
ings and  the  events  of  the  universal  war.  These  were  inci- 
dents in  the  special  campaign  which  had  been  waged  against 
the  Jews  before  the  war.  For  centuries  the  Jews  had  been 
Hving  in  these  places.  Brest-Litovsk  and  Grodno  were  not 
only  cities  in  which  there  were  fortresses  for  the  Czar's  army 
and  his  Tchinovniks.  They  were  also  centres  of  Jewish  Hfe, 
wherein  the  Tor  ah  dwelt,  cities  of  the  Jewish  "  Council  of  the 
Four  Provinces,"  cities  which  emanated  intellectual  light 
over  all  the  Diaspora,  cities  with  institutions  of  Jewish 
congregations,   with    Yeshihoth,   with  schools,   with  syna- 


36  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

gogues  and  houses  of  learning,  with  old  cemeteries,  whose 
tombstones  recorded  the  happenings  to  Jews  for  many 
generations.  All  that  was  destroyed  and  all  the  Jews  who 
lived  and  thrived  in  them  have  been  uprooted  and  scattered, 
and  that  which  they  left  behind  them  wiped  out,  and  no  one 
knows  if  these  towns  will  ever  be  rebuilt,  and  even  if  they 
are  rebuilt  will  the  Jews  and  their  communities,  with  their 
learning  and  their  traditions,  ever  be  restored  ? 

Accordingly  there  was  but  one  cry,  one  intense  and  bitter 
cry,  which  was  heard  from  one  end  of  the  world  of  Jews  to 
the  other,  a  cry  for  help.    "  Save  all  who  can  yet  be  saved." 

The  Jewish  people  had  realized  that  it  was  unwise  to 
depend  upon  governments  or  to  rely  on  philanthropic  effort 
in  general.  The  needs  of  the  Jews  were  great  and  peculiar, 
so  that  only  Jews  themselves  could  help  their  brethren. 
This  help  appeared  to  be  necessary  in  two  directions  :  im- 
mediate pressing  help  and  permanent  prevention.  Im- 
mediate pressing  assistance  consisted  in  sending  money, 
provisions  and  clothes  to  save  Jewish  Hves  from  hunger, 
disease  and  want,  to  help  them  to  find  work  and  means  of 
UveHhood  in  the  places  to  which  they  have  been  driven,  as 
well  as  in  the  places  in  which  they  have  remained.  But  at 
the  same  time,  people  began  to  realize  more  and  more  that 
the  real  help  for  the  Jews  would  be  to  rescue  them  from  the 
unnatural  conditions  which  cause  them  to  be  the  scapegoat 
for  whatever  punishment  comes  upon  the  world.  A  people 
which  dwells  in  its  own  land  is  also  wont  to  be  smitten  by 
the  sword  and  the  fortunes  of  war,  but  it  is  not  accustomed 
to  complete  destruction.  When  a  nation  has  its  own  land 
and  its  own  soil  beneath  its  feet,  to  which  it  is  attached,  all 
the  winds  of  Heaven  cannot  move  it  from  its  place,  no 
weapon  can  permanently  destroy  it.  A  whole  nation  cannot 
be  driven  by  oppressors  from  its  country,  and  even  though 
for  generations  the  hand  of  the  oppressor  He  heavy  upon  it, 
the  day  is  sure  to  come  in  which  its  fetters  fall  away,  and 
once  again  it  can  breathe  freely.  Not  so  with  a  nation  which 
floats  in  the  air  :  it  cannot  rise  in  time  of  trouble,  for  every 
passing  wind  carries  it  away  like  chaff  and  makes  it  turn 
like  the  wheel  of  a  windmill.  Every  page  of  Jewish  history 
teaches  this  lesson,  and  the  present  war  has  served  but  to 
emphasize  it.  Therefore  if  we  wish  to  prevent  this  evil  and 
to  obviate  such  convulsions  in  the  future,  we  must  estabUsh 
for  the  remnant  of  this  people  a  firm  foundation  and  a  safe 
shelter  in  the  land  of  their  fathers.    Thus  once  again  the 


RELIEF  WORK  37 

flame  of  war  and  the  terrible  sufferings  of  our  brethren  have 
revealed  the  truth  of  the  Zionist  idea  in  all  its  strength  and 
clarity  as  being  the  only  true  solution  of  the  Jewish  problem, 
that  problem  whose  consequences  are  written  in  the  blood 
of  myriads  of  our  brethren. 

History  will  relate  that  the  present  generation  of  Jews 
rose  to  the  height  of  its  responsibility  in  comprehending 
both  these  duties  equally.  Once  again  there  was  revealed 
the  strength  of  the  Jewish  quahty  of  mercy.  The  Jews  of 
Russia  and  Poland  did  their  duty.  With  their  young  ones 
and  their  elders  they  threw  themselves  into  the  work  of 
relief  :  in  many  places  it  was  the  Zionists  who  were  the  most 
ardent  in  this  work.  The  Zionist  Organization  had  during 
the  last  generation  become  a  school  of  discipline  and  com- 
munal work,  from  which  came  forth  initiators  and  leaders. 
It  is  not  our  wish,  however,  to  make  in  this  respect  any 
distinction  between  Zionists  and  non-Zionists.  Many  who 
stood  far  removed  from  the  camp  returned  to  their  brethren  : 
all  sections  of  Jews  united  :  the  icy  cloak  of  indifferentism 
was  melted,  the  divisions  between  the  observant  and  the 
Liberals  were  obliterated.  The  shadow  of  sectarian  faction 
disappeared,  and  on  the  scene  appeared  one  people.  History 
will  relate  that  American  Jewry,  that  vigorous  young  branch 
of  the  Jewish  tree,  made  a  mighty  superhuman  effort  and 
performed  wonders  surpassing  the  imagination.  It  was  not 
charity,  but  greatness.  Voluntary  effort  went  as  far  as  self- 
imposed  taxation.  The  history  of  Jewish  unity  has  never 
had  a  chapter  more  beautiful,  more  sublime,  more  uplifting. 
America  was  not  alone — a  similar  spirit  rested  upon  the 
Jews  of  every  country,  and  not  only  with  regard  to  relief 
work,  but  also  in  the  more  permanent  work  of  prevention, 
which  was  Jewry's  second  duty.  The  second  duty  was  to 
watch  over  and  safeguard  the  Jewish  colonies  in  Palestine, 
the  colonies  from  which  will  spring  the  National  Home.  It 
was  necessary  to  provide  the  Palestinian  Jews  with  food, 
and  to  support  the  colonization — this  small  heritage  of  ours, 
this  child  of  our  sorrow,  conceived  in  anguish  and  in  holiness. 
The  difficulties  were  enormous.  Palestine  was  cut  off  from 
the  whole  world,  by  the  sea  on  the  West  and  the  desert  on 
the  East,  without  a  government  able  or  wiUing  to  help  ; 
the  New  colonization  is  a  young  plant  needing  tender  care — 
the  Old  communities  are  poor  and  helpless.  If  in  such  cir- 
cumstances Palestinian  Jewry  was  not  entirely  wiped  out, 
we  must  thank  the  Jewish  nationahst  heart,  which  was 


38  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

awakened  in  our  brethren  in  every  country,  and  especially 
in  America. 

THE  RUSSIAN   REVOLUTION 

The  downfall  of  the  Czardom  in  Russia  was  undoubtedly 
one  of  the  greatest  events  in  the  world's  history.  Russia 
entered  into  a  period  of  revolution  which  seemed  to  bring 
with  it  all  the  blessings  of  right  and  liberty.  The  restrictions 
affecting  nationalities  and  creeds  were  removed.  But  far 
from  destroying  Zionism,  the  new  liberty  gave  it  an  immense 
stimulus. 

In  Moscow  a  Zionist  District  Committee  was  formed, 
comprising  many  Provinces :  Astrakhan,  Vladimir,  Vologda, 
Voronesh,  Kazan,  Kaluga,  Kostrooma,  Kursk,  Moscow, 
Nijni-Novgorod,  Simbirsk,  Smolensk,  Tambov,  Tula,  Ufa, 
Jaroslav,  and  the  Don  District. 

At  Odessa,  a  Zionist  demonstration  took  place.  Entire 
battalions  of  Zionist  soldiers  bore  through  the  town  blue 
and  white  banners,  with  the  motto  : — 

"  Liberty  in  Russia,  Land  and  Liberty  in  Palestine." 

A  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  men  followed  these  banners, 
to  which  the  Military  Governor  of  Odessa  insisted  on  showing 
honour  publicly. 

Zionist  meetings  were  also  held  at  Minsk,  Saratov,  Juriev, 
Kharkov,  Nijni-Novgorod,  Ekaterinburg,  Homel,  Pros- 
kurov,  Baku  Dubrovno,  Riazan,  Ekaterinoslav,  Moscow, 
etc. 

At  Kieff,  when  the  procession  approached  the  Town 
Hall,  the  Zionist  flag  was  hoisted  on  the  balcony, 
where  the  "  Hatikvah "  was  played  by  the  municipal 
orchestra. 

At  Berdicheff  fifteen  thousand  Jews  marched  through  the 
principal  streets  carrying  Zionist  banners.  The  Municipahty, 
the  Administration  Executive  of  the  town,  and  the  chiefs 
of  Ukraine  National  Organizations,  greeted  the  Zionist 
demonstrators. 

In  Turkestan  and  Bokhara  the  Zionist  movement  made 
remarkable  progress.  The  entire  Sephardi  element  has 
adhered  to  the  movement.  The  Ashkenazim  and  Sephardim 
worked  together  peacefully  at  the  great  Zionist  Conference 
held  at  Samarcand.  A  meeting  of  five  thousand  Jews  was 
held  there,  and  a  resolution  adopted  in  favour  of  a  Jewish 
Palestine. 

In  Moscow,  in  the  Great  Hall,  a  Jewish  Mass  Meeting 


THE  RUSSIAN  REVOLUTION  39 

took  place.    Dr.  E.  W.  Tschlenow  was  elected  president. 
The  following  resolution  was  adopted  : — 

"  The  Jewish  Mass  Meeting  in  Moscow  salutes  freedom 
with  great  joy.    We  are  firmly  convinced  that  the  Con- 
stituent Assembly,  which  is  to  be  elected  by  universal 
suffrage,  will  establish  in  Russia  a  thoroughly  democratic 
administration,  and  that  not  only  civil  rights,  but  also 
national  rights,  national  autonomy,  and  a  free  national 
evolution,  will  be  secured  to  the  Jewish  as  well  as  to  all 
other  peoples  of  Russia.    The  Meeting  resolves  to  convoke 
a  general  Jewish  Congress  in  Russia." 
The  Conference  at  Petrograd  on  May  24th,  1917,  received 
official    recognition.      The    Minister    for    Foreign    Affairs, 
M.   Teretschenko,   wished   the   Conference   success   in   its 
deliberations. 

Dr.  Tschlenow  delivered  an  Address,  in  the  course  of 
which  he  said,  among  other  things  : — 

**  We  beg  the  Provisional  Government  to  believe  that  it 
may  fully  depend  upon  our  forces  and  our  support  in  its 
heroic  efforts  directed  toward  the  strengthening  of  the 
freedom  and  greatness  of  Russia. 

*•  What  is  necessary,  and  what  we  strive  for,  is  to  create 
a  national  territorial  centre  for  our  scattered  people.  The 
construction  of  that  centre  is  already  begun,  and  it  will 
continue.  The  centre  will  gradually  be  filled  by  the  forces 
and  means  of  the  Diaspora. 

"Who  of  you  has  not  keenly  followed  for  the  last  year 
and  a  half  the  life  of  the  youngest  branch  of  the  Jewish 
people  :  the  American  ?  Hundreds  of  thousands  of  working 
men  are  unified  in  their  demand  for  national  rights  in  the 
Diaspora  and  an  autonomous  centre  in  Palestine.  The 
New  York  Kehillah,  representing  a  million  and  a  quarter 
Jews,  comes  forward  with  the  same  slogan.  Finally,  the 
powerful  Congress  movement,  embracing  the  entire  three 
million  Jewry,  is  to  close  the  coming  autumn  with  most 
important  decisions.  Weigh  all  the  facts,  and  you  will 
agree  that  the  harmony  of  which  we  dream  is  already 
coming  to  pass.  With  hope  and  with  love  we  follow  the 
work  of  our  Trans-oceanic  champions,  and  send  to  them  our 
brotherly  greetings. 

"  But  what  could  not  have  been  prophesied  and  what  fills 
our  hearts  with  untold  joy  and  pride,  is  the  attitude  towards 
our  ideal  on  the  part  of  the  broad  stratas  of  Jewry,  which 
has  revealed  itself  since  the  time  of  the  Great  Revolution. 


40  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"From  all  corners  of  our  great  Russia  come  to  us,  to- 
gether with  cheers  of  joy  over  the  emancipation,  assurances 
of  unshattered  faith  in  the  eternal  ideal — the  renaissance  of 
our  native  Palestine.  Old  and  young,  rich  and  poor,  from 
the  front  and  from  the  rear,  orthodox  and  free-thinkers, 
declare  in  one  voice  :  *  Now,  even  now,  freed  from  the 
chains  of  slavery,  shall  we  be  able  zealously  and  gladly  to 
give  ourselves  to  the  service  of  our  ideals  ?  ' 

''  I  cannot  refrain  here  from  underscoring,  with  the  feeling 
of  deepest  recognition,  the  invaluable  services  which  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  has  so  nobly  and  warmly 
shown  to  our  pioneers.  The  noble  President  of  the  United 
States  has  acted  from  motives  of  humanity  and  brotherly 
relation  of  peoples,  but  at  the  same  time,  also,  from  deep 
sympathy  in  our  regeneration.  The  noble  impulses  of  America 
have  found  a  worthy  instrument  in  the  person  of  the  former 
Ambassador  Morgenthau,  that  faithful  son  of  the  Jewish 
people,  whose  services  in  these  hard  years  Jewry  will  not  forget. 

"  But  all  this  time,  while  working  and  building,  we  have 
not  lost  sight  of  the  basic  point  inscribed  upon  our  banner — 
the  public,  legal  character  of  the  hearth  which  we  are  creat- 
ing. We  are  convinced  that  the  moment  has  come  for 
reiterating  our  programme. 

"  We  deem  it  necessary  that  the  nations  called  upon  to 
establish  the  standard  of  the  future  national  political  life 
should  reckon  with  the  definitely  expressed  will  of  the  Jewish 
people,  to  populate  and  regenerate  Palestine  as  its  national 
hearth.  We  deem  it  further  necessary  that  all  obstacles 
should  be  removed  from  our  path,  and  that  guarantees  and 
conditions  should  be  created  which  will  ensure  the  un- 
obstructed and  speedy  development  of  our  work  in  the  land." 

The  Conference  was  attended  by  five  hundred  and  fifty- 
two  delegates  from  six  hundred  and  forty  towns.  There 
were  delegates  from  Turkestan,  Bokhara,  and  the  Crimea. 
In  addition,  there  were  present  five  hundred  visitors  from 
provincial  towns  and  over  one  thousand  one  hundred  visitors 
from  Petrograd. 

A  unique  historic  document  was  placed  before  the  Con- 
vention when  the  Chairman  read  the  full  text  of  the  Military 
Order  of  the  Day,  issued  and  signed  by  General  Alexeieff, 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Western  Front,  permitting  the 
Jewish  soldiers  to  elect  from  their  number  delegates  to  the 
Convention,  and  furnishing  passes  and  transportation  to  the 
delegates  to  facilitate  their  presence  at  the  gathering. 


THE  PETROGRAD  CONVENTION  41 

The  spokesman  of  the  soldier-delegates  read  the  following 
resolution,  which  had  been  adopted  by  his  colleagues  : — 

"  We — Jewish  soldier-delegates  from  the  Army — who 
participate  in  this  Convention,  avow  to  the  Convention, 
and  to  the  Jewish  people  : 

"  Hundreds  and  thousands  of  Jews  are  in  battle  in  the 
Russian  Army.  In  a  time  of  outlawry  and  terrible  perse- 
cution, under  the  burden  of  false  accusations,  the  Jewish 
soldiers  fulfilled  their  full  military  duty.  In  the  ocean  of 
blood  poured  out  by  the  heroic  Russian  Army,  there  is  no 
little  of  Jewish  blood. 

"  Now,  having  become  free  citizens  of  Russia,  and 
fully  privileged  members  of  the  Army,  the  Jewish  soldiers 
will  continue  their  efforts  in  a  new  spirit  of  enthusiasm. 
Believing  that  the  strengthening  of  the  revolution,  and 
the  strengthening  of  the  peoples  in  Russia  can  be  accom- 
plished only  through  the  union  of  all  the  peoples  and  by 
a  strong  discipline  in  the  free  army,  the  Jewish  soldiers 
declare  triumphantly  that  they  are  prepared  to  follow  the 
call  of  the  revolutionary  democracy  to  defend  Russia 
against  her  enemies. 

*'  We  beheve  that  the  Russian  democracy,  which  has 
assumed  the  task  of  freeing  all  the  peoples  of  the  world, 
will  understand  the  strivings  of  our  people,  and  will 
support  Jewry  in  its  efforts  to  create  a  national  centre  for 
the  Jewish  people,  on  its  historic  soil,  Palestine." 

The  Conference  carried  the  following  resolutions  : — 

Considering  first  that  the  Jewish  people,  in  view  of 
its  disposition  and  dispersion  all  over  the  world,  can  re- 
create for  itself  conditions  for  the  normal  development  of 
its  national,  cultural,  and  economic  life,  only  through  the 
restoration  of  a  national  autonomous  centre  in  its  historic 
home,  Palestine, 

"  Secondly,  that  the  Jewish  nation  has  never  severed 
its  ties  with  its  ancient  home,  and  has  always  longed  for 
it,  and  that  its  moral  and  historic  right  to  Palestine  is  in- 
contestable and  irremovable, 

"  Thirdly,  that  the  aspirations  of  the  Jewish  nation, 
so  manifested,  fully  coincide  with  the  great  principle  of 
self-definition,  of  freedom  and  independence  for  the 
development  of  all  nations  proclaimed  by  the  democracies 
and  governments  of  all  countries  : 


4^  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"The  Zionist  Conference  in  Russia  unanimously  ex- 
presses its  firm  belief  that  when  estabHshing  the  basis  of 
the  future  national  and  political  life,  the  nations  will 
recognize  and  count  with  the  clearly-stated  will  of  the 
Jewish  nation  for  the  resettlement  and  rebirth  of  Palestine 
as  its  national  centre,  and  will  consequently  create  condi- 
tions guaranteeing  the  free  and  successful  development 
of  the  concentrated  Jewish  forces  and  of  the  restoration 
of  Palestine. 

"  To  ensure  the  concrete  and  full  manifestation  of  the 
will  of  the  Jewish  nation,  the  Conference  considers  it 
necessary  first  to  organize  among  the  Jews  a  referendum 
on  the  question  ;  secondly,  to  lay  before  the  All- Russian 
Jewish  Congress  the  question  of  Jewish  claims  in  Palestine ; 
and  thirdly,  to  claim  the  admission  of  a  representative  of 
the  Jewish  nation  at  the  future  peace  conference,  to  be 
held  upon  the  closing  of  hostilities,  for  the  expression  of 
the  wishes  of  the  Jewish  nation,  and  for  the  defence  of  its 
historic  and  national  rights  and  interests." 

The  same  spirit  was  revealed  also  by  the  Jews  of  Poland. 
In  May,  1917,  a  Zionist  Conference  was  held  in  Warsaw, 
attended  by  nearly  four  hundred  delegates  representing  a 
large  number  of  committees,  synagogues,  societies  and 
groups  consisting  of  all  classes  of  the  Jewish  population. 
A  sort  of  plebiscite  was  arranged  among  the  Jews  of  Poland, 
with  a  view  to  ascertaining  their  attitude  towards  Zionism. 
The  plebiscite  resulted  in  the  acceptance  of  a  resolution  in 
favour  of  Zionism. 

All  these  and  many  other  facts  prove  that  the  Zionist 
idea  has  made  great  progress  among  the  Jewish  masses. 
But  under  the  new  circumstances  Zionism  required  more 
than  the  usual  propaganda  :  it  required  work,  pohtical  work. 

POLITICAL  ACTIVITIES   IN    ENGLAND    AND  THE   ALLIED 
COUNTRIES 

The  introduction  into  this  book  of  a  comprehensive 
account  of  the  various  demarches  on  behalf  of  the  Zionist 
cause  recently  undertaken  in  English  political  circles,  and 
also  in  allied  countries,  is  rendered  difficult  by  the  following 
considerations.  In  the  first  place,  the  publication  of  pour- 
parlers which  have  taken  place,  and  of  schemes  which  have 
been,  or  are  to  be,  submitted,  is  impossible,  because  they  are 
still  in  progress,  and  their  final  issue  is  dependent  on  further 


THE  POLITICAL  WORK  43 

developments.  In  the  second  place,  the  author  feels  great 
embarrassment,  being  compelled  to  break  the  rule  hitherto 
observed  of  avoiding  any  reference  to  his  own  share  in  the 
work  of  the  movement.  In  this  section,  however,  he  has 
participated  so  directly  in  the  demarches  referred  to  that  it 
was  quite  impossible  to  speak  of  them  at  all  without  refer- 
ring occasionally  to  his  share  in  the  political  activities. 

A  glance,  however,  at  recent  political  efforts  appeared  in- 
dispensable, in  order  to  bring  the  history  of  Zionism  up  to 
date.  But  there  is  no  claim  that  the  following  account  is 
more  than  an  outline  of  the  most  important  events.  With 
these  provisos  we  pass  to  the  facts  themselves. 

It  was  at  once  clear  that  England  was  destined  to  play  a 
most  important  part  in  Zionist  pohtics.  London  from  the 
beginning  was  the  financial  centre  of  the  Zionist  Organiza- 
tion and  the  Mecca  of  poUtical  Zionism.  Even  at  the  time 
of  the  Choveve  Zion  Movement  England  was  regarded,  as 
it  were,  as  the  country  that  stands  between  the  "  Galuth  " 
and ' '  Salvation. ' '  When  the  idea  of  Palestine  had  begun  to  be 
popularized  among  the  Jews  of  Russia  and  Poland — long 
before  the  name  "  Zionism  "  had  become  current — Disraeli's 
Tancred  and  George  Eliot's  Daniel  Deronda  were  translated 
into  Hebrew.  The  name  of  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  was  in  the 
mouth  of  all  Jews  in  Eastern  Europe,  and  his  journeys  to 
Palestine,  in  connection  with  his  great  plans,  had  long  since 
grown  legendary.  English  Jews  were  valued  because  of 
this  famous  individual ;  they  were  considered  simply  as 
national  Jews,  whether  they  really  were  so  or  not.  From 
a  distance  the  observer  did  not  recognize  the  mediocrity,  the 
parochialism  and  dissensions  ;  he  saw  the  summits  only, 
and  they  appeared  splendid.  A  man  Uke  Albert  Goldsmid, 
who  was  an  English  colonel  and  also  a  national  Jew, 
appeared  to  be  a  type  such  as  could  hardly  be  found  in  any 
other  country.  That  was  rich  material  for  the  Jewish 
imagination,  which  fed  upon  it  and  made  it  much  greater 
than  the  truth.  It  was,  however,  not  imagination,  pure  and 
simple  ;  a  sound  political  instinct  was  also  at  work  here. 
The  Jewish  Ghetto  had  for  long  prophesied  that  it  is  Eng- 
land's destiny  to  decide  the  fate  of  Palestine,  and  however 
much  one  may  smile  at  the  speculations  of  Ghetto  poUticians, 
these  had,  nevertheless,  in  their  quick-wittedness  understood 
much  that  is  sometimes  hidden  from  professional  politicians. 
Moreover,  this  was  not  the  politics  of  the  Ghetto  only.  Herzl 
did  not  know  the  Ghetto,  and  received  no  information  from 


44 


THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 


it ;  notwithstanding  this,  all  roads  led  him  to  London.  It 
was  in  London  that  he  for  the  first  time  in  his  Hfe  publicly 
took  part  in  Jewish  Hfe.  At  a  later  period  again,  the  offer  of 
Uganda  was  made  by  the  EngHsh  Government ;  the  El- 
Arish  Expedition  was  organized  by  England.  Zionist 
finance  was  EngUsh,  and  EngHsh  was  the  Zionist  pohtical 
outlook. 

In  the  pre-war  period  the  Zionist  Organization  had  every- 
where sought  connections.  True  to  its  programme,  desiring 
a  charter  from  the  Ottoman  Government,  with  the  approval 
of  the  great  Powers,  it  worked  without  intrigue  and  adventure, 
honestly  anxious  to  get  this  charter  with  the  approval  of  all 
nations.  In  this  matter,  England  always  took  the  first  place. 
Herzl  and  his  followers  had  worked  zealously  in  England.  This 
work  was  continued  after  Herzl's  death.  The  author  also, 
in  his  capacity  as  member  of  the  Zionist  Executive,  visited 
this  country  several  times.  The  impressions  gained  here 
were  always  stimulating  and  interesting,  but  the  Zionist 
question  was  not  prominent. 

The  question  became  prominent  with  the  outbreak  of  the 
war.  The  thought  lay  uppermost,  that  the  work  must  be 
carried  on  here  in  England,  that,  if  possible,  it  must  be  con- 
centrated here.  If  this  thought  was  evident  to  the  Zion- 
ists of  other  countries,  was  it  any  wonder  that  it  deeply 
stirred  the  EngHsh  Zionists  ?  Thus  it  happened  that  this 
thought  found  an  excellent  champion  and  representative  in 
the  person  of  Dr.  Chaim  Weizmann.  He  took  counsel  with 
his  colleagues  in  England,  and  together  with  them  began  to 
consider  the  question  of  what  was  to  be  done  in  England, 
in  order  to  make  the  political  problem  of  Zionism  a  problem 
of  the  day.  The  idea  that  England  was  the  most  important 
centre,  and  offered  the  most  promising  prospect  of  success, 
was  neither  new  nor  the  opinion  of  a  single  party ;  it  had 
become  rather  the  property  of  the  whole  Zionist  Organiza- 
tion. But  it  was  now  something  entirely  different  from  what 
it  used  to  be  formerly.  Formerly  Zionism  was  an  abstract 
idea  ;  in  spite  of  all  Herzl's  great  achievements,  the  problem 
remained  merely  a  project.  It  is  the  poHtical  problem  we 
are  talking  about,  because  the  inteUectual  and  practical 
labour  of  Zionists  for  Palestine  had  been  a  reaHty  during  the 
whole  time  of  the  Choveve  Zion  and  the  Zionist  movements. 
Now,  however,  political  Zionism  has  also  become  a  reality. 
If  the  war  has  taught  us  anything  at  all  it  surely  is  this, 
that  nothing  is  more  fatal  than  an  attitude  of  indifference 


THE  WORK  IN  ENGLAND  45 

towards  problems  of  international  politics.  The  practical 
and  intellectual  members  of  the  Zionist  Organization,  too, 
who  used  to  look  down  upon  politics,  have  chajiged  their 
attitude  towards  them.  Formerly,  they  may  have  been 
entirely  or  partially  right — the  intellectual  were  undoubtedly 
right  in  proclaiming  that  the  spiritual  in  Zionism  must  be 
the  soul  of  the  whole  movement,  and  the  practical  ones  also 
were  right  in  establishing  the  early  colonies,  and  it  is  only 
a  pity  that  more  considerable  progress  was  not  made — but 
now  all  were  agreed  that,  in  consideration  of  the  new  possi- 
bilities, the  movement  must  come  into  relation  with  the 
political  forces,  and  the  establishment  of  actual  relations 
constituted  a  great  many-sided  and  responsible  work,  which 
had  to  be  carried  out,  at  first  in  England,  but  also  partly  in 
other  countries  of  the  Entente. 

One  of  the  most  distinguished  representatives  of  the 
Zionist  idea  in  this  country  is  the  Very  Rev.  Dr.  Moses 
Gaster,  the  late  Haham  of  the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  Jews' 
congregations  in  England,  who  from  early  youth  occupied 
a  respected  and  influential  position,  in  the  time  of  Choveve 
Zion  as  well  as  in  Zionism,  and  devoted  himself  also  with 
great  zeal  to  the  poHtical  question  of  Zionism.  He  also 
represented  the  view  that  a  wide  field  for  political  efforts 
lay  open  here,  and  he  freely  gave  his  time  and  his  eloquence 
in  the  service  of  the  cause.  In  this  direction  he  was 
very  active,  especially  in  the  earlier  stages. 

The  Very  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  Herman  Hertz,  Chief  Rabhi  of 
the  United  Congregations  of  the  British  Empire,  has  evinced 
a  sympathy  with  the  Zionist  Movement  which  at  certain 
pregnant  moments  was  equivalent  to  declaring  himself  at 
one  with  Zionism.  His  affiliation  with  the  Zionist  idea  goes 
back  to  Choveve-Zion  days,  and  subsequently  he  became  one 
of  the  founders  of  the  **  South  African  Zionist  Federation." 
The  Spiritual  Leader  of  British  Jewry  has  ever  been 
a  sincere  friend  of  the  movement,  and  on  various  decisive 
occasions  has  championed  the  idea,  defending  it,  explaining 
it,  and  encouraging  it.  In  the  new  development,  especially 
in  the  months  preceding  the  "  Declaration,"  his  help  in  con- 
nection therewith  has  been  of  far-reaching  and  lasting 
importance. 

The  inspiring  spirit  and  the  driving  force,  he  who  most 
successfully  had  made  many  distinguished  non- Jewish 
personahties  famihar  with  Zionism  and  who  championed 
with  all  his  energy  and  enthusiasm  a  Zionist  political  pro- 


46  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

gramme  in  England,  was  Dr.  Chaim  Weizmann.  In  the  very 
earliest  months  of  the  war  he  began  to  collect  the  threads 
for  the  poHtical  work,  to  rouse  the  Zionist  circles  with 
which  he  was  in  touch,  to  revive  old  connections  in  non- 
Jewish  circles  and  to  form  new  ones,  to  prepare  for  negotia- 
tions— in  a  word,  to  open  up  the  work  that  was  destined 
later  on  to  become  a  properly-organized  programme.  Herein 
he  had  the  support  of  a  group  of  enthusiastic  and  deeply 
S5mipathetic  Zionists,  and  was  strengthened  and  stimulated 
in  his  initiative  by  them.  The  first  attempts  to  confer  with 
the  Government  representatives  about  Zionism  were  made  : 
the  impressions  were  satisfactory.  One  foresaw  that  this 
contained  the  germs  of  promising  possibiHties.  These  im- 
pressions led  to  the  conclusion  that  mere  discussions  alone 
were  not  sufficient,  but  rather  that  it  was  necessary  to 
formulate  plans.  In  order  to  formulate  plans  and  in  order 
to  obtain  authority  from  the  Zionist  Organization  to  submit 
these  plans  (for  such  appeared  to  be  the  next  step)  it  would 
be  necessary  to  establish  a  centre  in  London,  and  to  obtain 
the  necessary  representative  powers.  It  would  also  be 
necessary  to  write  more  about  Zionism  :  to  publish  books, 
to  undertake  propagandist  work — in  another  and  more  direct 
manner.  The  means  were  also  considered  to  win  over 
the  non-Zionist,  perhaps  even  the  anti-Zionist,  Jewish 
elements.  All  these  aims  were  discussed,  weighed,  and 
elaborated  by  a  small  circle.  It  was  not  the  whole  of 
English  Jewry,  it  was  not  even  the  then  existing  English 
Zionist  Federation  ;  it  was  really  a  circle  of  a  few  Zionists, 
mostly  intellectuals  who  corresponded  with  Dr.  Weizmann, 
and  met  and  took  counsel  with  him. 

From  that  time  forward  the  Zionist  idea  began  to  occupy 
the  attention  of  the  English  Press.  The  question  became 
topical,  the  old  EngHsh  traditions  found  new  expression. 
Most  people  had  no  conception  that  they  were  speaking  in 
the  spirit  of  old  traditions — for  few  knew  of  this  remote 
chapter  in  Engish  history — but  they  did  it  unconsciously, 
which  makes  their  action  perhaps  even  more  valuable. 
Many  a  journalist  among  the  elite  of  the  intellectuals  not 
only  gave  assistance  to  the  cause  of  Zionism  in  the  Press, 
but  went  a  step  further,  and  helped  vigorously  in  the  political 
work.  In  connection  with  this  matter  the  name  of  the 
doyen  of  English  journalism,  Mr.  C.  P.  Scott,  Editor  of  the 
Manchester  Guardian,  may  be  especially  mentioned.  Since 
the  very  beginning  Mr.  C.  P.  Scott  has  given  the  whole 


THE  WORK  IN  ENGLAND  47 

problem  a  very  careful  and  sympathetic  attention,  and  was 
an  influential  mediator  between  Zionists  and  leaders  of 
British  politics.  He  and  Dr.  Weizmann  had  conversations 
with  some  personalities,  who  strengthened  them  in  their 
hopes  that  the  ground  was  favourable  for  Zionism.  Other 
Zionist  workers  in  England  also  shared  their  view,  and 
Dr.  Gaster,  too,  in  conjunction  with  Dr.  Weizmann,  had 
some  important  conversations  with  English  leaders.  The 
impressions  which  both  had  formed  confirmed  the  hope 
that  Zionism  has  a  great  future  in  England. 

We  can  by  this  time,  without  committing  any  indiscretion, 
take  this  opportunity  of  mentioning  one  of  the  influential 
personahties  who  had  given  great  and  never-to-be  forgotten 
services  in  the  cause  of  the  Zionist  idea,  that  is  the  Rt.  Hon. 
Herbert  Samuel,  late  Home  Secretary,  who  unites  in  him- 
self the  brilUant  qualities  of  an  EngHsh  statesman  with  an 
enthusiastic  attachment  to  Judaism,  but  had  never  yet  taken 
an  active  part  in  essentially  Jewish  affairs.  His  wonder- 
ful energy,  his  distinguished  talents  and  his  patriotic  zeal 
had  for  long  been  devoted  to  the  services  of  the  country, 
and  both  in  the  Asquith  ministry  and  in  Parliament  he  formed 
one  of  the  most  distinctive  figures.  Although  he  directed 
his  activities  exclusively  to  questions  of  Home  administra- 
tion, he  turned  his  mind  also  from  the  commencement  of 
the  war  to  the  great  poHtical  problems  of  foreign  politics, 
and  when  the  opportunity  was  offered  to  become  more 
acquainted  with  the  Zionist  idea,  this  idea  won  his  sympathy, 
and  he  championed  it  with  the  full  force  of  his  convictions. 
It  is  sufficient  to  mention  the  words  contained  in  his  speech 
at  the  Demonstration  of  December  2nd  at  the  London  Opera 
House  :  "  that  he  has  stood  for  Zionism  not  only  in  the 
Cabinet,  but  also  outside  it."  These  were  modest  words. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  he  has  not  only  stood  for  Zionism,  but 
he  has  also  done  much  to  elucidate  Zionist  questions.  He 
merits  truly  a  page  of  honour  in  the  history  of  Zionism. 

For  the  sake  of  historical  accuracy,  other  distinguished 
persons  must  be  mentioned  as  well.  We  refer  to  some 
members  of  the  famous  House  of  Rothschild.  Volumes 
could  be  written  concerning  what  Baron  Edmond  de  Roths- 
child has  done  for  colonization  in  Palestine.  Far  removed 
from  political  activity  and  unwilling  to  play  any  official  part 
in  the  Zionist  Organization,  devoted  with  love  and  attach- 
ment to  his  country,  France,  and  at  the  same  time  inspired 
with  the  loftiest  sentiments  for  Judaism,  this  Nestor  of  true 


48  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

philanthropy  cherishes  a  love  for  the  idea  of  regenerating 
Palestine  that  cannot  be  too  highly  valued.  That  he  has  made 
this  ideal  one  of  the  most  beautiful  traditions  of  his  family 
is  shown  by  the  fact  that  his  son,  James,  has  followed 
the  example  of  his  father.  This  stimulating  and  instruc- 
tive example  could  not  fail  to  influence  the  other  branches 
of  this  great  family  also.  The  late  Lord  Rothschild  of 
London,  who  stood  at  the  head  of  organized  EngUsh  Jewry, 
was  long  regarded  as  an  opponent  of  Zionism.  But  this 
opposition  was  not  a  matter  of  principle,  it  was  simply 
determined  by  circumstances  :  the  obstacles  appeared  to 
him  insurmountable,  and  that  was  the  only  reason  for  his 
opposition.  In  view  of  the  different  circumstances  caused 
by  the  war,  he  revised  his  former  opinions,  and  shortly  before 
his  death  he  began  to  take  an  interest  in  Zionism.  Following 
this  lead,  other  members  of  this  family  also  have  taken  up  a 
favourable  view  towards  Zionism,  and  this  view  grew  to  a 
complete  aUiance  with  the  Zionist  Organization  on  the  part 
of  the  present  Lord  Rothschild. 

In  connection  with  this  development,  the  very  great 
services  of  Dr.  Weizmann  in  this  same  direction  must  be 
mentioned.  Shortly  before  the  outbreak  of  war  Dr.  Weiz- 
mann had  given  much  attention  to  the  project  of  founding  a 
University  in  Jerusalem.  This  project,  which  met  with  great 
approval,  not  only  in  Zionist  circles  but  also  elsewhere, 
brought  him  into  closer  relations  with  the  House  of  Roths- 
child, and  this  did  much  to  make  the  members  of  this  family 
more  closely  acquainted  with  Zionism. 

This  was  the  position  at  the  beginning  of  the  war.  The 
outlook  was  promising,  and  a  sound  start  had  been  made. 
But  all  this  was  waiting  for  development,  for  deepening,  for 
actualization.  The  English  Zionist  Federation,  being  a 
local  organization,  could  neither  speak  in  the  name  of  the 
great  masses  of  Zionists  of  the  Entente  countries  nor  could 
it  undertake  the  great  political  labour  of  propaganda  organ- 
ization. Thus  it  happened  that  on  the  part  of  Dr.  Weizmann, 
Dr.  Gaster,  and  others,  the  invitation  was  sent  forth  to  the 
main  organization  to  delegate  two  of  its  representatives  to 
London. 

There  was,  however,  still  another  matter  which  caused 
the  coming  of  the  delegates  of  the  general  Zionist  Organiza- 
tion in  London  to  appear  necessary.  Although  the  Organ- 
ization remained  uniform  in  its  principles  and  aims,  an  actual 
collaboration  of  Zionists  throughout  the  world  in  the  pre- 


THE  WORK  IN  ENGLAND  49 

existing  form  had  to  be  set  aside  for  the  time  being.  The 
greatest  numbers  of  Zionists  Hve  in  Russia  :  there  exist  the 
persons  who  are  especially  called  to  make  Palestine  their 
home,  and  there  also  the  majority  of  the  most  distinguished 
Jewish  nationaUsts  and  the  leading  spirits  of  a  Hebrew 
culture  are  most  strongly  represented.  The  great  Jewish 
community  in  America,  which  unites  the  intensity  of 
national  consciousness  of  Russian  Jews  with  the  fresh  spirit 
of  liberty  of  the  New  World,  constitutes  even  more  and  more 
a  reservoir,  not  only  of  powerful  material  resources,  but  also 
of  great  organizing  motive-power,  of  influential  initiative 
and  endeavour,  which  are  doubtless  destined  to  play  a 
decisive  part  in  the  solution  of  the  Zionist  problem.  When, 
in  addition  to  these  facts,  it  is  realized  that  the  great  re- 
sources for  the  colonization  of  Palestine  have  been  contri- 
buted from  Paris,  by  Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild,  where 
also  the  headquarters  of  the  Jewish  Colonization  Association 
are  situated,  which  has  the  disposal  of  the  millions  of  the 
late  Baron  de  Hirsch,  and  which,  if  the  issues  in  Palestine  are 
favourable,  is  destined  to  develop  its  colonizing  activities 
in  this  direction  :  when  finally  the  fact  is  remembered  that 
London  is  the  centre  of  all  financial  institutions,  then  it  will 
be  easily  understood  that  the  whole  situation  has  brought 
England  to  a  place  of  first  importance  in  the  matter  of 
Zionist  activities,  that  it  seemed  a  logical  necessity  that 
certain  representatives  of  the  Organization  had  to  move 
their  residence  and  their  work  hither,  so  as  not  only  to 
maintain  what  already  existed,  but  also  to  prepare  system- 
atically the  conditions  for  the  new  and  rich  possibilities, 
together  with  the  distinguished  personal  factors  already  at 
work  here. 

In  conclusion,  one  more  circumstance  must  be  mentioned, 
the  importance  of  which  is  also  not  to  be  under-rated. 
Though  for  a  long  time  the  Zionist  Organization  had  en- 
deavoured to  make  Zionism  the  cause  of  the  entire  Jewish 
people,  the  consciousness  of  the  need  for  unity  grew  as  the 
war  progressed.  It  was  very  desirable  that  those  Jews 
who  did  not  consider  themselves  organized  Zionists,  should 
co-operate  in  the  realization  of  many  practical  plans.  All 
the  peoples  involved  in  the  war  had  managed  to  create 
among  their  parties  a  so-called  "  Union  Sacree,"  and 
to  form  a  united  front.  Why  should  this  be  impossible  to 
the  Jews  ? 

Soon  after  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  the  Zionist  leaders 


I 


50  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

in  England  had  attempted  to  come  to  an  understanding  with 
those  indifferent  to  their  cause  and  with  the  so-called  anti- 
Zionists,  in  order  to  render  possible,  without  renouncing  the 
principles  of  Zionism,  collaboration  in  working  out  a  practical 
scheme  in  Palestine. 

All  these  motives  led  the  leaders  of  English  Zionism 
to  request  the  general  organization  to  delegate  here  two  of 
their  representatives — namely,  Dr.  Tschlenow  of  Moscow 
and  the  author,  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  in  the  important 
work  to  be  done  in  this  country.  They  arrived  in  London 
shortly  before  the  end  of  the  year  1914. 

Space  does  not  allow  us  to  describe  the  work  of  these 
three  years  in  detail ;  we  must  therefore  confine  our  atten- 
tion to  the  chief  features.  In  the  course  of  the  first  few 
months  the  work  consisted  in  a  searching  test  of  the  attempts 
in  hand  :  this  test  yielded  a  perfect  agreement  and  a  verifi- 
cation of  all  reports  made.  In  the  early  months  of  1915 
there  were  new  conferences  with  many  leading  personalities, 
with  favourable  results.  In  March,  1915,  Dr.  Tschlenow, 
Dr.  Weizmann,  and  the  author  went  to  Paris,  after  Dr. 
Weizmann  had  previously  visited  Paris  again  and  again  on 
Zionist  business.  Attention  was  then  confined  to  Jewish 
circles,  and  so  far  as  non- Jewish  circles  were  concerned  a 
certain  general  enquiry  appeared  to  be  necessary.  At 
the  same  time,  attempts  were  made  through  conferences 
with  a  group  of  leading  Jewish  personalities  in  London  who 
stood  aloof  from  Zionism,  to  bring  about  an  understanding. 
The  Zionist  delegation  which  was  in  charge  of  these  nego- 
tiations and  this  correspondence  was  composed  of  Dr. 
E.  W.  Tschlenow,  Dr.  Moses  Gaster,  Mr.  Joseph  Cowen,  Mr. 
Herbert  Bentwich,  and  the  author.  As  an  understanding 
just  then  appeared  impossible,  the  negotiations  were  post- 
poned until  further  notice.  Dr.  Tschlenow  shortly  after- 
wards left  England,  after  a  stay  of  five  to  six  months,  and 
returned  to  Russia.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Zionist  Com- 
mittee in  Copenhagen  and  at  the  Zionist  meetings  that  took 
place  in  Russia,  Dr.  Tschlenow  was  able  to  report  that  the 
poUtical  efforts  in  England  had  filled  him  with  the  best 
hopes.  The  Author  remained  in  England  and  devoted  him- 
self, in  addition  to  propaganda,  to  the  political  task  in  which 
Weizmann's  unwearied  efforts  became  more  and  more  im- 
portant. The  period  1915-1916  was  more  one  of  prepara- 
tion than  one  of  execution  :  Zionism  had  to  be  strengthened 
from  within,  the  societies  in  London  and  the  Provinces  had 


THE  WORK  IN  ENGLAND  51 

to  be  maintained,  new  societies  had  to  be  created,  pamphlets 
and  books  had  to  be  written  and  pubHshed  ;  externally, 
the  work  consisted  in  finding  new  sympathisers,  and  in  an 
enhghtening  propaganda  wherever  a  proper  opportunity 
offered  itself.  The  correspondence  with  the  Zionist  leaders 
and  organizations  in  Russia  and  America  became  more 
active  and  the  relations  ever  closer.  In  London  a  number  of 
talented  young  Zionist  writers  and  workers  had  grouped 
themselves  round  the  leaders  ;  many  books  and  many 
pamphlets  which  were  pubhshed  during  this  period  had  won 
great  popularity  for  the  Zionist  writers  and  publicists  who 
had  already  proved  their  worthiness,  such  as  Major 
Norman  Bentwich,  who  subsequently  became  the  first 
Procureur-General  of  Palestine  under  the  British  occupa- 
tion, and  Messrs.  Paul  Goodman,  Albert  M.  Hyamson, 
Samuel  Landman,  Harry  Sacher,  Leon  Simon ;  new 
personalities  joined  them,  as,  for  instance,  Semmi  Tol- 
kowsky  and  others.  The  temporary  stay  in  London  of 
many  prominent  Zionists  of  Russia  and  Palestine,  such  as 
Boris  Goldberg  of  Wilna,  and  recently  the  agriculturist, 
Jacob  Ettinger,  and  the  manager  of  the  Anglo-Palestine 
Company,  David  Levontin,  who  both  came  over  from 
Palestine,  and  the  great  intellectual  influence  exercised  by 
Achad  Haam,  who  freely  gave  his  invaluable  advice  in 
every  important  question — all  these  have  done  very  much 
to  make  London  the  real  centre  of  Zionist  work. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  year  19 16  several  months  were 
spent  in  drafting  outlines  and  projects  for  the  purpose  of 
drawing  up  a  Zionist  programme  which  should  be  as  clear  as 
possible  and  correspond  with  the  present  conditions,  in 
which  efforts  Dr.  Weizmann  and  the  author  were  supported 
by  a  number  of  notable  colleagues.  Already  in  1915  the 
work  had  commenced  on  the  projects  and  memoranda,  the 
drafting  of  which  received  many  contributions  from  several 
members ;  and  the  work  was  continued  from  that  time 
onwards.  A  committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  Gaster,  Dr.  Weiz- 
mann, Mr.  Herbert  Bentwich,  Mr.  Joseph  Cowen,  and  the 
author,  had  towards  the  end  of  1916  outUned  a  preliminary 
sketch  of  a  programme  which  was  afterwards  discussed  in  a 
further  committee.  This  programme  was  intended  to  serve 
as  a  foundation  for  the  official  representations  which  were 
then  in  view.  At  the  same  time.  Dr.  Weizmann  was  con- 
stantly occupied  independently  in  preparing  the  ground  for 
the  coming  official  proposals,  by  conferences  and  propaganda ; 


52  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

this  he  was  able  to  do,  thanks  mostly  to  his  personal  con- 
nections, though  he  always  acted  in  conjunction  with  the 
author. 

The  7th  of  February,  1917,  constitutes  a  turning-point  in 
the  history.  Shortly  before  this  date  Lieut. -Colonel  Sir  Mark 
Sykes,  Bart.,  M.P.,  had  communicated  with  Dr.  Weizmann 
and  the  author  on  the  question  of  the  treatment  of  the 
Zionist  problem.  Sir  Mark  Sykes,  who  is  a  distinguished 
authority  on  oriental  matters  and  who  had  earlier  given 
attention  to  the  Arab  question,  was  entrusted  with  the  study 
of  the  Zionist  problem.  In  conjunction  with  a  representa- 
tive of  the  French  Government,  M.  Georges  Picot,  he  had 
devoted  great  attention  to  the  question,  and  both  had  had 
first  conversations  with  Dr.  Moses  Gaster.  At  the  commence- 
ment of  the  year  1917  Sir  Mark  Sykes  entered  into  closer 
relations  with  Dr.  Weizmann  and  the  author,  and  the  discus- 
sions held  with  the  latter  led  to  the  meeting  of  February  7th, 
1917,  which  marks  the  commencement  of  official  negotia- 
tions. Besides  Sir  Mark  Sykes,  the  following  took  part  in 
this  meeting :  Lord  Rothschild,  Mr.  Herbert  Bentwich, 
Mr.  Joseph  Cowen,  Dr.  M.  Gaster  (at  whose  house  the 
meeting  took  place),  Mr.  James  de  Rothschild,  Mr.  Harry 
Sacher,  Right  Hon.  Herbert  Samuel,  m.p..  Dr.  Chaim  Weiz- 
mann, and  the  author.  The  deliberations  yielded  a  favour- 
able result,  and  it  was  resolved  to  continue  the  work. 
For  further  regular  consultations  with  Sir  Mark  Sykes 
and  M.  Georges  Picot,  the  author  was  chosen.  Discussions 
on  questions  connected  with  the  Zionist  programme 
took  place.  In  consequence  of  these  negotiations  and 
of  the  great  importance  of  the  Zionist  question  to  all  the 
Governments  of  the  Entente  Powers,  the  author  was  called 
to  Paris  in  March,  1917,  by  the  French  Government.  On 
the  22nd  of  March  he  was  received  at  the  Ministry  of  Foreign 
Affairs  in  Paris,  where  he  outUned  the  principles  of  the 
Zionist  programme.  He  received  the  assurance  that  the 
French  Government  regarded  the  programme  very  favour- 
ably, and  was  authorized  to  inform  the  Zionist  Organiza- 
tions of  Russia  and  America  of  this  result  by  telegraph. 

After  a  stay  of  one  month  in  Paris,  during  which  the 
author  got  into  touch  with  the  leading  Jewish  circles,  he 
went  to  Rome,  where  he  devoted  himself  to  the  same  task. 
The  conferences  which  he  had  with  the  leading  Italian  Jews 
led  to  the  happy  result  that  the  programme  laid  before 
them  by  the  author  was  accepted.     With  regard  to  the 


THE  WORK  IN  FRANCE  AND  ITALY  53 

question  of  the  Holy  Places,  it  was  considered  advisable  to 
enter  into  negotiations  with  the  Vatican.  The  Author  had 
conferences  with  the  Cardinals  (especially  with  Cardinal 
Gasparri),  and  on  the  loth  of  May  he  was  received  in 
an  audience  by  the  Pope.  These  conferences  led  to 
a  most  satisfactory  attitude  on  the  part  of  the  Vatican  to- 
wards Zionism.  Between  the  12th  and  the  i8th  of  May,  the 
author,  together  with  the  President  of  the  Jewish  Com- 
munity in  Rome,  Commendatore  Sereni,  was  received 
several  times  at  the  Italian  Consulta,  and  by  the  then 
Prime  Minister  Boselli,  and  he  was  assured  that  the  ItaUan 
Government,  in  conjunction  with  the  Allied  Powers,  would 
support  the  Zionist  programme.  He  was  authorized,  just 
as  in  Paris,  to  telegraph  this  result  to  the  Russian  and 
American  Zionist  organizations. 

Having  returned  to  Paris,  the  author  was  received  on 
May  28th  by  the  then  Prime  Minister  Ribot,  and  after  that 
remained  another  month,  during  which  various  negotiations 
were  conducted.  He  then  received  a  document  addressed 
to  him,  a  statement  from  the  French  Government,  the  text 
of  which,  translated  from  the  French  original,  runs  as 
follows  : — 

,<  3jj^  "  Paris,  June  4,  1917. 

''You  were  good  enough  to  present  the  project  to 
which  you  are  devoting  your  efforts,  which  has  for  its 
object  the  development  of  Jewish  colonization  in  Palestine. 
You  consider  that,  circumstances  permitting,  and  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  Holy  Places  being  safeguarded  on  the  other 
hand,  it  would  be  a  deed  of  justice  and  of  reparation  to 
assist,  by  the  protection  of  the  Allied  Powers,  in  the  renais- 
sance of  the  Jewish  nationahty  in  that  Land  from  which  the 
people  of  Israel  were  exiled  so  many  centuries  ago. 

"The  French  Government,  which  entered  this  present  war 
to  defend  a  people  wrongfully  attacked,  and  which  continues 
the  struggle  to  assure  the  victory  of  right  over  might,  can 
but  feel  sympathy  for  your  cause,  the  triumph  of  which  is 
bound  up  with  that  of  the  Allies. 

"  I  am  happy  to  give  you  herewith  such  assurance. 

"  Please  accept,  Sir,  the  assurance  of  my  most  distinguished 

consideration.  ,^.       ,,    ^  ^ 

(Signed)  Jules  Cambon. 

"M.   N.    SOKOLOW, 

Hotel  Meurice,  Paris." 


54  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

From  this  statement  it  is  clearly  seen  : — 

(i)  that  hereby  the  question  of  Zionism  is  recognized  as  one 
of  those  concerning  small  and  persecuted  nations ; 

(2)  that    the   principle   of    the    recognition    of    Jewish 

nationahty  and  its  historical  right  to  Palestine  is 
here  accepted ;  and 

(3)  that  the  French  Government  is  prepared  to  support 

this  movement. 

In  the  meantime,  the  Zionists  in  England — and  especially 
their  political  leader,  Dr.  Weizmann — had  continued  the 
work  with  great  zeal  in  this  country.  After  his  return,  the 
author  again  took  a  share  in  this  work.  The  great  develop- 
ment which  the  political  and  propagandist  work  had  in  the 
interval  made  in  England,  led  to  the  estabHshment  of  a  larger 
consultative  committee  and  to  the  opening  of  new  offices,^ 
and  a  year  earlier  Dr.  Weizmann  had  been  elected  Presi- 
dent of  the  English  Zionist  Federation,  and  this  did  much 
to  bring  new  life  into  the  Federation.  Two  periodicals  were 
founded,  the  monthly  Zionist  Review,  in  London,  and  the 
weekly  Palestine,  published  by  the  British  Palestine  Com- 
mittee, Manchester,  and  Zionism  reached  a  popularity  such 
as  it  never  previously  had  in  this  country. 

CONFERENCE   OF  ENGLISH  ZIONIST  FEDERATION  IN  I917 

A  Special  Conference  of  Delegates  from  the  Constituent 
Societies  was  held  in  London  on  the  20th  of  May,  1917,  with 
the  President,  Dr.  Chaim  Weizmann,  in  the  chair.  The 
Conference  was  called  partly  in  consequence  of  the  disturbing 
news  that  had  been  received  from  Palestine  and  partly  in 
order  that  a  communication  on  the  poUtical  situation,  as 
it  affected  the  Jewish  National  Movement,  might  be  made  to 
the  societies  through  their  delegates.  The  Conference  occu- 
pied the  whole  of  the  day  and  was  very  largely  attended.  It 
was  opened  by  the  Chairman  with  an  address,  in  which  he 
reviewed  the  situation.    He  said  : — 

"  Grave  and  great  events  have  taken  place  since  we  met 
last — events  which  will  affect  deeply  the  fate  of  Jewry  all 
over  the  world.  The  first  event  of  colossal  magnitude  was 
the  Russian  Revolution.  By  a  miracle,  in  one  night  the 
chains  and  fetters  which  have  enslaved  a  great  nation  of 
150  to  160  milUons  for  centuries  have  been  broken,  and  a  free 
Russia  has  emerged.    It  has  become  almost  a  current  phrase 

*  Ziottiit  Organization,  London  Bureau,  Empire  House,  175  Piccadilly,  W. 


SPEECH  OF  DR.  CHAIM  WEIZMANN  55 

in  the  Press  that  it  was  a  '  bloodless  '  revolution,  but  those 
who  know  Russia,  those  who  have  lived  in  Russia,  know 
very  well  that  although  the  last  act  of  the  drama  was  com- 
paratively bloodless,  much  blood  has  been  poured  out  during 
many  years,  and  it  was  this  outpouring  of  blood  which  has 
prepared  the  dramatic  developments  which  we  witnessed 
two  months  ago.  And  we  Jews  know  that  in  this  stream  of 
blood  there  was  a  considerable  fraction — a  very  considerable 
fraction — of  Jewish  blood.  It  was  common  knowledge  in 
the  years  1905  and  1906  that  there  was  not  a  single  Jewish 
family  in  Russia  which  had  not  paid  the  toll  in  the  form  of 
a  son  or  a  daughter  or  a  relative  to  the  Moloch  of  Russian 
Tsardom.  All  those  Jews  who  have  bought  so  dearly  free- 
dom for  themselves  and  for  the  rest  of  Jewry,  will  go  down 
in  history  as  heroes,  as  saints,  and  our  hearty  congratulations 
and  wishes  go  out  to  all  those  who  have  fought  for  the 
Russian  Revolution,  and  to  those  who  are  going  to  carry  on 
the  work  under  the  new  regime.  It  is  clear  that  an  event 
like  this  cannot  pass  without  convulsions.  It  is  marvellous 
that  things  should  go  in  Russia  as  they  do  now,  but  it  is 
equally  clear  that  the  fate  of  Jewry,  the  fate  of  the  Zionist 
Movement,  largely  depends  upon  stable  conditions  in  that 
part  of  the  world,  and  it  will  be,  I  am  sure,  an  honourable 
task  for  the  Zionist  Organization  all  over  the  world,  and 
especially  for  our  friends  in  Russia,  to  contribute  as  much 
as  it  is  in  their  power  to  the  stabilization  of  conditions  in 
Russia.  Some  of  us— some  of  our  friends  even,  and  especi- 
ally some  of  our  opponents — are  very  quick  in  drawing  con- 
clusions as  to  what  will  happen  to  the  Zionist  Movement 
after  the  Russian  Revolution.  Now,  they  say,  the  greatest 
stimulus  for  the  Zionist  Movement  has  been  removed.  Russian 
Jewry  is  free.  They  do  not  need  any  places  of  refuge  some- 
where outside  Russia — somewhere  in  Palestine.  Nothing 
can  be  more  superficial,  and  nothing  can  be  more  wrong,  than 
that.  We  have  never  built  our  Zionist  Movement  on  the 
sufferings  of  our  people  in  Russia  or  elsewhere.  Those  suffer- 
ings were  never  the  cause  of  Zionism.  The  fundamental 
cause  of  Zionism  was,  and  is,  the  ineradicable  national 
striving  of  Jewry  to  have  a  home  of  its  own — a  national 
centre,  a  national  home  with  a  national  Jewish  life.  And 
this  remains  now  stronger  than  ever.  A  strong  and  free 
Russian  Jewry  will  appreciate  more  than  ever  the  strivings 
of  the  Zionist  Organization.  And  truly  we  see  it  even  now. 
Russian  Jewry  is  formulating  its  national  demands  in  a 


56  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

proud,  open,  free  way,  which  may  well  serve  as  an  example 
and  an  encouragement  to  the  free  Western  communities  of 
Jewry.  You  have  all  read  of  meetings  which  have  taken 
place  all  over  Russia — of  a  meeting  which  took  place  only 
recently  in  Moscow,  and  was  attended  by  seven  thousand 
Jews.  Many  Western  Jews  could  learn  from  these  meetings 
how  a  free  and  proud  Jew  ought  to  speak.  We  therefore  look 
forward  with  confidence  to  the  future  of  Zionism  in  Russia. 

"  Now  what  are  our  hopes  ?  How  do  we  think  they  will 
be  realized  ?  Of  course,  I  do  not  propose  to  prophesy  in  this 
assembly,  but  I  shall  try  to  outline,  as  much  as  it  is  possible 
to  do  so,  what  are  our  plans,  and  how  we  think  we  shall  be 
able  to  carry  them  out.  And  before  I  do  so  let  me  do  away 
with  one  or  two  what  I  may  perhaps  call  misunderstandings, 
or  what  may  be  called  wrong  phrases.  One  reads  con- 
stantly in  the  Press  and  one  hears  from  our  friends,  both 
Jewish  and  non- Jewish,  that  it  is  the  endeavour  of  the 
Zionist  Movement  immediately  to  create  a  Jewish  State  in 
Palestine.  Our  American  friends  went  further  than  that, 
and  they  have  even  determined  the  form  of  this  State,  by 
advocating  a  Jewish  Repubhc.  While  heartily  welcoming 
all  these  demonstrations  as  a  genuine  manifestation  of  the 
Jewish  national  will,  we  cannot  consider  them  as  safe  states- 
manship. Strong  as  the  Zionist  Movement  may  be,  full  of 
enthusiasm  as  the  Zionists  may  be,  at  the  present  time,  it 
must  be  obvious  to  everybody  who  stands  in  the  midst  of 
the  work  of  the  Zionist  Organization,  and  it  must  be  ad- 
mitted honestly  and  truly,  that  the  conditions  are  not  yet 
ripe  for  the  setting  up  of  a  State  ad  hoc.  States  must  be 
built  up  slowly,  gradually,  systematically  and  patiently. 
We,  therefore,  say  that  while  a  creation  of  a  Jewish  Common- 
wealth in  Palestine  is  our  final  ideal — an  ideal  for  which  the 
whole  of  the  Zionist  Organization  is  working — the  way  to 
achieve  it  lies  through  a  series  of  intermediary  stages.  And 
one  of  those  intermediary  stages  which  I  hope  is  going  to 
come  about  as  a  result  of  this  war,  is  that  the  fair  country  of 
Palestine  will  be  protected  by  such  a  mighty  and  a  just 
Power  as  Great  Britain.  Under  the  wing  of  this  Power 
Jews  will  be  able  to  develop,  and  to  set  up  the  administrative 
machinery  which,  while  not  interfering  with  the  legitimate 
interests  of  the  non- Jewish  population,  would  enable  us  to 
carry  out  the  Zionist  scheme.  I  am  entitled  to  state  in  this 
assembly  that  His  Majesty's  Government  is  ready  to  support 
our  plans. 


SPEECH  OF  DR.  CHAIM  WEIZMANN  57 

"  I  would  further  like  to  add  that  the  support  of  the 
British  Government,  when  given,  will  be  in  conjunction  and 
agreement  with  the  Allied  Powers.  Our  friend,  chief,  and 
leader,  Mr.  Sokolow,  who,  owing  to  important  Zionist  duties, 
is  prevented  from  attending  this  meeting,  has  been  both  in 
France  and  in  Italy,  and  from  both  these  Governments  he 
has  received  assurances  of  full  sympathy  and  full  support. 
One  of  the  important  problems  to  be  considered  in  connec- 
tion with  the  future  settlement  of  Palestine  is  the  dehcate 
question  of  the  Holy  Places.  I  need  hardly  say,  in  this 
Jewish  assembly,  that  we  Jews  will  be  meticulously  and 
scrupulously  careful  to  respect  the  sentiments  of  any 
rehgious  group  or  sect  in  Palestine.  It  is  not  for  us  to  discuss 
how  this  complicated  question,  which  forms  an  important 
point  in  international  relations,  is  going  to  be  settled.  We 
trust  to  the  fairness  and  justice  of  the  nations  which  are 
going  to  build  up  a  better  world  after  this  catastrophe,  that 
they  will  see  to  it  that  the  arrangements  made  are  fair  and 
satisfactory  to  everyone.  We  have  assurances  from  the 
highest  Catholic  circles  that  they  will  view  with  favour  the 
estabhshment  of  a  Jewish  national  home  in  Palestine,  and 
from  their  religious  point  of  view  they  see  no  objection  to  it, 
and  no  reason  why  we  should  not  be  good  neighbours.  And 
good  neighbours  I  hope  we  shall  be. 

"  Let  us  now  turn  our  attention  for  a  few  minutes  to  the 
internal  situation.  Confident  as  we  are  of  our  final  success, 
we  cannot  help  feeling  some  disappointment  at  the  fact  that 
the  whole  of  Jewry  does  not  stand  united  at  this  present 
critical  moment.  Ladies  and  Gentlemen,  it  is  not  only  a 
matter  of  regret,  but  it  is  a  matter  of  deep  humiUation  to 
every  Jew  that  we  cannot  stand  united  in  this  great  hour. 
But  it  is  not  the  fault  of  the  Zionist  Organization.  It  is, 
perhaps,  not  the  fault  of  our  opponents.  It  must  be  attri- 
buted to  the  conditions  of  our  life  in  the  Dispersion,  which 
has  caused  in  Jewry  a  cleavage  difficult  to  bridge  over  even 
at  a  time  Hke  this.  It  is  unfortunate  that  there  still  exists 
a  small  minority  which  disputes  the  very  existence  of  the 
Jews  as  a  nation.  But  there  need  be  no  misgivings  on  that 
account ;  for  I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  if  it  comes 
to  a  plebiscite  and  a  test,  there  can  be  no  doubt  on  which 
side  the  majority  of  Jews  will  be  found.  And,  ladies  and 
gentlemen,  I  warn  you  that  this  test  is  bound  to  come — and 
come  sooner,  perhaps,  than  we  think.  You  will  have  to 
show,  and  in  this  solemn  hour  I  call  upon  you  to  prepare  for 


58  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

it,  that  with  all  your  heart  and  mind  you  stand  united  behind 
those  leaders  whom  you  have  chosen  to  carry  out,  at  this 
critical  hour  of  the  world's  history,  this  work.  We  do  not 
want  to  give  the  world  the  spectacle  of  a  war  of  brothers. 
We  are  surrounded  by  too  many  enemies  to  give  ourselves 
this  luxury.  But  we  warn  those  who  will  force  an  open 
breach  that  they  will  find  us  prepared  to  stand  up  united  in 
the  defence  of  the  cause  which  is  sacred  to  us.  We  shall  not 
allow  anybody  to  interfere  with  the  hard  work  that  we  are 
doing,  and  we  say  to  all  our  opponents,  '  Hands  off  the 
Zionist  Movement  \' " 

The  statement  was  received  with  repeated  applause,  and 
aroused  great  enthusiasm  among  the  delegates,  both  im- 
mediately after  its  delivery  and  also  in  the  course  of  the 
discussion  which  ensued. 

ZIONISM   AND   PUBLIC   OPINION    IN   ENGLAND 

All  these  signs  of  Zionist  activity  naturally  could  not 
avoid  creating  a  certain  opposition.  The  attempts  to  bring 
about  agreement,  made  at  the  beginning  of  1915,  had  led  to 
nothing,  and  the  Zionists,  from  their  point  of  view,  could  not 
have  thought  ill  of  their  opponents,  if  they  had  Hmited 
themselves  to  a  discussion  within  Jewish  circles.  But  the 
opposition  went  so  far  as  to  pubHsh  a  document  which  reads 
as  follows  : — ^ 

"  In  view  of  the  statements  and  discussions  lately  pub- 
lished in  the  newspapers  relative  to  a  projected  Jewish 
resettlement  in  Palestine  on  a  national  basis,  the  Conjoint 
Foreign  Committee  of  the  Board  of  Deputies  of  British  Jews 
and  the  Anglo- Jewish  Association  deem  it  necessary  to 
place  on  record  the  views  they  hold  on  this  important 
question. 

"  The  Holy  Land  has  necessarily  a  profound  and  undying 
interest  for  all  Jews,  as  the  cradle  of  their  religion,  the  main 
theatre  of  Bible  history,  and  the  site  of  its  sacred  memorials. 
It  is  not,  however,  as  a  mere  shrine  or  place  of  pilgrimage 
that  they  regard  the  country.  Since  the  dawn  of  their 
political  emancipation  in  Europe,  the  Jews  have  made  the 
rehabilitation  of  the  Jewish  community  in  the  Holy  Land 
one  of  their  chief  cares,  and  they  have  always  cherished  the 
hope  that  the  result  of  their  labours  would  be  the  regenera- 
tion on  Palestinian  soil  of  a  Jewish  community,  worthy  of 
the  great  memories  of  their  environment,  and  a  source  of 

1  The  Times,  May  24,  191 7. 


PUBLIC  OPINION  IN  ENGLAND  59 

spiritual  inspiration  to  the  whole  of  Jewry.  Accordingly, 
the  Conjoint  Committee  have  welcomed  with  deep  satisfac- 
tion the  prospect  of  a  rich  fruition  of  this  work,  opened  to 
them  by  the  victorious  progress  of  the  British  Army  in 
Palestine. 

*'  Anxious  that  on  this  question  all  sections  and  parties  in 
Jewry  should  be  united  in  a  common  effort,  the  committee 
intimated  to  the  Zionist  organizations  as  far  back  as  the 
winter  of  1914  their  readiness  to  co-operate  with  them  on 
the  basis  of  the  so-called  '  cultural '  poHcy  which  had  been 
adopted  at  the  last  two  Zionist  Congresses  in  191 1  and  1913. 
This  policy  aimed  primarily  at  making  Palestine  a  Jewish 
spiritual  centre  by  securing  for  the  local  Jews,  and  the 
colonists  who  might  join  them,  such  conditions  of  life  as 
would  best  enable  them  to  develop  the  Jewish  genius  on 
lines  of  its  own.  Larger  poUtical  questions,  not  directly 
affecting  the  main  purpose,  were  left  to  be  solved  as  need 
and  opportunity  might  render  possible.  Unfortunately,  an 
agreement  on  these  lines  has  not  proved  practicable,  and  the 
conjoint  committee  are  consequently  compelled  to  pursue 
their  work  alone.  They  are  doing  so  on  the  basis  of  a  formula 
adopted  by  them  in  March,  1916,  in  which  they  proposed  to 
recommend  to  his  Majesty's  Government  the  formal  recogni- 
tion of  the  high  historic  interest  Palestine  possesses  for  the 
Jewish  community,  and  a  pubUc  declaration  that  at  the 
close  of  the  war  *  the  Jewish  population  will  be  secured  in 
the  enjoyment  of  civil  and  religious  liberty,  equal  political 
rights  with  the  rest  of  the  population,  reasonable  facilities 
for  immigration  and  colonization,  and  such  municipal 
privileges  in  the  towns  and  colonies  inhabited  by  them  as 
may  be  shown  to  be  necessary.' 

**  That  is  still  the  policy  of  the  conjoint  committee. 

"  Meanwhile,  the  committee  have  learnt  from  the  published 
statements  of  the  Zionist  leaders  in  this  country  that  they 
now  favour  a  much  larger  scheme  of  an  essentially  political 
character.  Two  points  in  this  scheme  appear  to  the 
committee  to  be  open  to  grave  objections  on  public 
grounds. 

"The  first  is  a  claim  that  the  Jewish  settlements  in 
Palestine  shall  be  recognized  as  possessing  a  national 
character  in  a  political  sense.  Were  this  claim  of  purely 
local  import,  it  might  well  be  left  to  settle  itself  in  accordance 
with  the  general  political  exigencies  of  the  reorganization  of 
the  country  under  a  new  sovereign  power.     The  conjoint 


6o  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

committee,  indeed,  would  have  no  objections  to  urge  against 
a  local  Jev.ish  nationality  establishing  itself  under  such 
conditions.  But  the  present  claim  is  not  of  this  limited 
scope.  It  is  part  and  parcel  of  a  wider  Zionist  theory, 
which  regards  all  the  Jewish  communities  of  the  world  as 
constituting  one  homeless  nationaUty,  incapable  of  complete 
social  and  political  identification  with  the  nations  among 
whom  they  dwell,  and  it  is  argued  that  for  this  homeless 
nationahty  a  political  centre  and  an  always  available  home- 
land in  Palestine  are  necessary.  Against  this  theory  the 
conjoint  committee  strongly  and  earnestly  protest.  Eman- 
cipated Jews  in  this  country  regard  themselves  primarily 
as  a  religious  community,  and  they  have  always  based  their 
claims  to  poUtical  equality  with  their  fellow-citizens  of  other 
creeds  on  this  assumption  and  on  its  corollary — that  they 
have  no  separate  national  aspirations  in  a  political  sense. 
They  hold  Judaism  to  be  a  religious  system,  with  which  their 
poHtical  status  has  no  concern,  and  they  maintain  that,  as 
citizens  of  the  countries  in  which  they  live,  they  are  fully 
and  sincerely  identified  with  the  national  spirit  and  interests 
of  those  countries.  It  follows  that  the  establishment  of  a 
Jewish  nationaUty  in  Palestine,  founded  on  this  theory  of 
Jewish  homelessness,  must  have  the  effect  throughout  the 
world  of  stamping  the  Jews  as  strangers  in  their  native  lands, 
and  of  undermining  their  hard-won  position  as  citizens  and 
nationals  of  those  lands.  Moreover,  a  Jewish  poHtical 
nationaUty,  carried  to  its  logical  conclusion,  must,  in  the 
present  circumstances  of  the  world,  be  an  anachronism. 
The  Jewish  reUgion  being  the  only  certain  test  of  a  Jew,  a 
Jewish  nationality  must  be  founded  on,  and  limited  by,  the 
reUgion.  It  cannot  be  supposed  for  a  moment  that  any 
section  of  Jews  would  aim  at  a  commonwealth  governed  by 
reUgious  tests,  and  limited  in  the  matter  of  freedom  of  con- 
science ;  but  can  a  religious  nationaUty  express  itself 
politicaUy  in  any  other  way  ?  The  only  alternative  would 
be  a  secular  Jewish  nationality,  recruited  on  some  loose  and 
obscure  principle  of  race  and  ethnographic  peculiarity ;  but 
this  would  not  be  Jewish  in  any  spiritual  sense,  and  its 
establishment  in  Palestine  would  be  a  denial  of  all  the  ideals 
and  hopes  by  which  the  revival  of  Jewish  life  in  that  country 
commends  itself  to  the  Jewish  consciousness  and  Jewish 
sympathy.  On  these  grounds  the  conjoint  committee 
deprecate  most  earnestly  the  national  proposals  of  the 
Zionists. 


THE  CONJOINT  COMMITTEE  6i 

"  The  second  point  in  the  Zionist  programme  which  has 
aroused  the  misgivings  of  the  conjoint  committee  is  the  pro- 
posal to  invest  the  Jewish  settlers  in  Palestine  with  certain 
special  rights  in  excess  of  those  enjoyed  by  the  rest  of  the 
population,  these  rights  to  be  embodied  in  a  Charter  and 
administered  by  a  Jewish  Chartered  Company.  Whether  it 
is  desirable  or  not  to  confide  any  portion  of  the  administra- 
tion of  Palestine  to  a  Chartered  Company  need  not  be  dis- 
cussed, but  it  is  certainly  very  undesirable  that  Jews  should 
soHcit  or  accept  such  a  concession,  on  a  basis  of  political 
privileges  and  economic  preferences.  Any  such  action  would 
prove  a  veritable  calamity  for  the  whole  Jewish  people. 
In  all  the  countries  in  which  they  Uve  the  principle  of  equal 
rights  for  all  religious  denominations  is  vital  for  them. 
Were  they  to  set  an  example  in  Palestine  of  disregarding 
this  principle  they  would  convict  themselves  of  having 
appealed  to  it  for  purely  selfish  motives.  In  the  countries 
in  which  they  are  still  struggling  for  equal  rights  they  would 
find  themselves  hopelessly  compromised,  while  in  other 
countries,  where  those  rights  have  been  secured,  they  would 
have  great  difficulty  in  defending  them.  The  proposal  is  the 
more  inadmissible  because  the  Jews  are,  and  will  probably 
long  remain,  a  minority  of  the  population  of  Palestine,  and 
because  it  might  involve  them  in  the  bitterest  feuds  with 
their  neighbours  of  other  races  and  religions,  which  would 
seriously  retard  their  progress,  and  would  find  deplorable 
echoes  throughout  the  Orient.  Nor  is  the  scheme  necessary 
for  the  Zionists  themselves.  If  the  Jews  prevail  in  a  com- 
petition based  on  perfect  equality  of  rights  and  opportunity 
they  will  establish  their  eventual  preponderance  in  the  land 
on  a  far  sounder  foundation  than  any  that  can  be  secured 
by  privileges  and  monopolies. 

"  If  the  conjoint  committee  can  be  satisfied  with  regard  to 
these  points  they  will  be  prepared  to  co-operate  in  securing 
for  the  Zionist  organization  the  united  support  of  Jewry. 
"  (Signed)     David  L.  Alexander, 

President,  Board  of  Deputies  of  British  Jews. 
"  (Signed)     Claude  G.  Montefiore, 

President,  Anglo- Jewish  Association. 

"  London,  May  17,  1917." 

On  the  day  after  the  appearance  of  this  Manifesto,  The 
Times  received  more  letters  than  it  could  make  room  to 
print  from  Jewish  correspondents,  "  taking  strong  excep- 


6a  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

tion  "  to  the  statement  of  the  Presidents.  Mr.  Elkan  N.  Adler 
at  once  resigned  from  the  Conjoint  Committee,  and  described 
the  publication  of  the  Manifesto  as  *'  inopportune,  if  not 
harmful."    Mr.  B.  A.  Fersht  and  Mr.  S.  Gilbert  also  resigned. 

The  Chief  Rabbi,  Dr.  J.  H.  Hertz,  wrote  to  The  Times, 
expressing  the  following  opinion  : — 

**  I  do  not  propose  to  advance  any  arguments  contesting 
the  extraordinary  statement  on  Zionism  and  Palestine  which 
you  published  on  Thursday  last,  signed  by  Mr.  D.  L.  Alex- 
ander, K.C.,  and  Mr.  Claude  G.  Montefiore.  But,  as  Chief 
Rabbi  of  the  United  Hebrew  Congregations  of  the  British 
Empire,  I  cannot  allow  your  readers  to  remain  under  the 
misconception  that  the  said  statement  represents  in  the 
least  the  views  held  either  by  Anglo- Jewry  as  a  whole  or  by 
the  Jewries  of  the  Oversea  Dominions.  Moreover,  neither 
the  Board  of  Deputies  nor  the  Anglo- Jewish  Association — 
on  whose  behalf  their  presidents  signed  the  document  in 
question — authorized  its  publication  or  had  an  opportunity 
of  considering  its  contents. 

"  It  is,  indeed,  grievously  painful  to  me  to  write  this  in  your 
influential  columns.  But  I  am  impelled  to  do  so  in  the 
interests  of  truth,  and  in  justice  to  the  communities  of  which 
I  have  the  honour  and  privilege  of  being  the  spiritual  head." 

Dr.  M.  Gaster,  the  late  Haham  of  the  Spanish  and  Portu- 
guese Jews'  congregations  in  England,  declared  : — 

"  A  settlement  of  the  Jewish  problem  will,  no  doubt,  form 
part  of  the  general  settlement  which  is  to  secure  to  the  world 
a  permanent  peace  resting  on  *  national  liberty  and  inter- 
national amity,'  as  Lord  Robert  Cecil  only  yesterday 
declared  in  the  House  of  Commons.  The  Jew  also  wants  a 
permanent  peace  resting  on  the  same  foundations,  and  he 
can  only  find  it  by  the  realization  of  the  Zionist  programme, 
a  national  autonomous  life  in  the  Holy  Land,  pubHcly 
recognized  and  legally  secured.  It  embraces,  of  course,  the 
religious  as  well  as  political  and  economic  life,  indissolubly 
united  in  the  Jewish  national  consciousness." 

Lord  Rothschild  repHed  to  several  of  the  objections  to 
Zionism  advanced  by  the  two  Presidents  in  a  letter  which 
stated : — 

"  In  your  issue  of  the  24th  inst.  appears  a  long  letter 
signed  on  behalf  of  the  Conjoint  Committee  by  Messrs. 
Alexander  and  Montefiore  and  entitled  *  The  Future  of  the 
Jews.'  As  a  sincere  believer  both  in  the  justice  and  benefits 
likely  to  accrue  from  the  Zionist  cause  and  aspirations,  I 


THE  PROTESTS  63 

trust  you  will  allow  me  to  reply  to  this  letter.  I  consider  it 
most  unfortunate  that  this  controversy  should  be  raised  at 
the  present  time,  and  the  members  of  the  Zionist  organiza- 
tion are  the  last  people  desirous  of  raising  it.  Our  opponents, 
although  a  mere  fraction  of  the  Jewish  opinion  of  the  world, 
seek  to  interfere  in  the  wishes  and  aspirations  of  by  far  the 
larger  mass  of  the  Jewish  people.  We  Zionists  cannot  see 
how  the  estabhshment  of  an  autonomous  Jewish  State  under 
the  aegis  and  protection  of  one  of  the  Allied  Powers  can  be 
considered  for  a  moment  to  be  in  any  way  subversive  to  the 
position  or  loyalty  of  the  very  large  part  of  the  Jewish 
people  who  have  identified  themselves  thoroughly  with  the 
citizenship  of  the  countries  in  which  they  live.  Our  idea 
from  the  beginning  has  been  to  establish  an  autonomous 
centre,  both  spiritual  and  ethical,  for  all  those  members  of 
the  Jewish  faith  who  felt  drawn  irresistibly  to  the  ancient 
home  of  their  faith  and  nationality  in  Palestine. 

"  In  the  letter  you  have  published,  the  question  also  is 
raised  of  a  chartered  company.  We  Zionists  have  always 
felt  that  if  Palestine  is  to  be  colonized  by  the  Jews  some 
machinery  must  be  set  up  to  receive  the  immigrants,  settle 
them  on  the  land,  and  to  develop  the  land,  and  to  be 
generally  a  directing  agency.  I  can  only  again  emphasize 
that  we  Zionists  have  no  wish  for  privileges  at  the  expense 
of  other  nationahties,  but  only  desire  to  be  allowed  to  work 
out  our  destinies  side  by  side  with  other  nationalities  in 
an  autonomous  State  under  the  suzerainty  of  one  of  the 
Allied  Powers." 

Dr.  Weizmann  replied  to  two  statements  made  by  the 
anti-Zionists  in  a  further  letter  which  appeared  in  The 
Times  : — 

"  I  have  no  desire  to  ask  for  space  in  your  columns  to 
examine  with  what  justification  these  two  gentlemen  and 
the  school  they  speak  for  claim  that  they  have  always  hoped 
and  worked  for  a  Jewish  regeneration  in  Palestine.  But  I 
am  anxious  to  correct  two  statements  which  might  possibly 
generate  serious  misconception  in  the  minds  of  those  not  well 
informed  as  to  Zionism  and  Zionist  projects. 

"  I.  It  may  possibly  be  inconvenient  to  certain  individual 
Jews  that  the  Jews  constitute  a  nationality.  Whether  the 
Jews  do  constitute  a  nationality  is,  however,  not  a  matter 
to  be  decided  by  the  convenience  of  this  or  that  individual. 
It  is  strictly  a  question  of  fact.  The  fact  that  the  Jews  are 
a  nationaUty  is  attested  by  the  conviction  of  the  over- 


64  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

whelming  majority  of  Jews  throughout  all  ages  right  to  the 
present  time,  a  conviction  which  has  always  been  shared  by 
non-Jews  in  all  countries. 

"  2 .  The  Zionists  are  not  demanding  in  Palestine  monopolies 
or  exclusive  privileges,  nor  are  they  asking  that  any  part  of 
Palestine  should  be  administered  by  a  chartered  company 
to  the  detriment  of  others.  It  always  was  and  remains  a 
cardinal  principle  of  Zionism  as  a  democratic  movement  that 
all  races  and  sects  in  Palestine  should  enjoy  full  justice  and 
liberty,  and  Zionists  are  confident  that  the  new  suzerain 
whom  they  hope  Palestine  will  acquire  as  a  result  of  the  war 
will,  in  its  administration  of  the  country,  be  guided  by  the 
same  principle. 

"  In  conclusion  I  should  Hke  to  express  my  regret  that  there 
should  be  even  two  Jews  who  think  it  their  duty  to  exert 
such  influence  as  they  may  command  against  the  realization 
of  a  hope  which  has  sustained  the  Jewish  nation  through 
2000  years  of  exile,  persecution,  and  temptation.** 

These  letters  of  protest  led  to  the  pubhcation  of  a  leading 
article  entitled  "The  Future  of  the  Jews'*  in  The  Times  of 
29th  May,  which  showed  that  this  paper  is  firmly  convinced 
of  the  justice  of  the  Zionist  cause.  The  article  was  of  so 
much  importance  that  it  is  quoted  in  full : — 

"  The  important  controversy  which  has  sprung  up  in  our 
columns  upon  the  future  of  the  Jews  deserves  careful  and 
sympathetic  attention.  The  war  has  given  prominence  to 
many  questions  that  seemed  formerly  to  Ue  outside  the 
range  of  practical  poHtics.  None  of  them  is  more  interesting 
than  that  of  the  bearing  of  Zionism — that  is  to  say,  of  the 
resettlement  of  a  Jewish  nationahty  in  Palestine — upon  the 
future  of  the  Jewish  people.  In  the  statement  which  we 
published  last  Thursday  from  the  Conjoint  Committee  of  the 
Board  of  Deputies  of  British  Jews  and  the  Anglo-Jewish 
Association  exception  was  taken  to  Zionist  plans  for  the 
creation  of  a  national  Jewish  community  '  in  a  poHtical 
sense,'  and  pointed  arguments  were  directed  against  them. 
In  the  opinion  of  the  Committee,  such  plans  are  '  part  and 
parcel  of  a  wider  Zionist  theory  which  regards  all  the  Jewish 
communities  of  the  world  as  constituting  one  homeless 
nationahty,  incapable  of  complete  social  and  pohtical  identi- 
fication with  the  nations  among  whom  they  dwell.'  Against 
this  theory  the  Committee  '  strongly  and  earnestly  protest,' 
on  grounds  which,  in  so  far  as  they  are  set  forth  in  the  state- 
ment, are  sufficiently  clear.    The  Committee  claim  that  they 


"  THE  TIMES  "  LEADING  ARTICLE  65 

are  fully  alive  to  the  special  meaning  of  Palestine  for  the 
Jewish  race.  They  are  anxious  that  in  Palestine  the  civil 
and  religious  liberties  of  Jews  should  be  secured.  But  they 
affirm  that  '  emancipated  Jews  '  in  this  country  have  no 

*  separate  national  aspirations  in  a  political  sense.'  Such 
Jews  regard  themselves  *  primarily  as  a  religious  com- 
munity/ and  have  always  *  based  their  claims  to  political 
equality  with  their  fellow-citizens  of  other  creeds  on  this 
assumption.'  They  fear  lest  the  establishment  of  a  Jewish 
nationality  in  Palestine  stamp  the  Jews  as  strangers  in  their 
native  lands  and  undermine  *  their  hard-won  position  as 
citizens  and  nationals  of  those  lands.'  The  Committee  pro- 
ceed to  argue  that  since  *  the  Jewish  religion  '  is  '  the  only 
certain  test  of  a  Jew,  the  Jewish  nationality  must  be  founded 
on,  and  limited  by  religion.'  It  follows,  they  believe,  that  a 
Jewish  nationality  would  be  obliged  to  '  express  itself 
politically  '  by  religious  intolerance,  and  would  thus  under- 
mine the  very  principle  which  Jews  have  invoked  to  secure 
their  emancipation.  The  Committee  further  insist  that  the 
bestowal  by  Charter  of  *  certain  special  rights  in  excess  of 
those  enjoyed  by  the  rest  of  the  population  '  would  be  a 
questionable  boon  to  a  Jewish  community  in  Palestine, 
because  in  all  the  countries  in  which  Jews  live  *  the  principle 
of  equal  rights  for  all  religious  denominations  '  is  vital  to 
them. 

"  It  seems  to  us  that  in  attempting  to  define  Jewish 
nationality  in  terms  of  religion  the  Committee  come  danger- 
ously near  to  begging  the  question  which  they  raise  ;  and 
no  question  can  be  solved  by  begging  it.  As  Dr.  Weizmann, 
the  President  of  the  English  Zionist  Federation,  observes  in 
the  letter  which  we  published  yesterday,  it  may  possibly  be 
inconvenient  to  ceitain  individual  Jews  that  the  Jews  do 
constitute  a  nationality.  The  question  is  one  of  fact,  not  of 
argument,  and  the  fact  that  the  Jews  are  a  nationality  '  is 
attested  by  the  conviction  of  the  overwhelming  majority  of 
Jews  throughout  all  ages.'    This  conviction,  he  rightly  says, 

*  has  always  been  shared  by  non-Jews  in  all  countries.'  But 
more  immediately  important  than  this  discussion  of  a  point 
which  cannot  seriously  be  disputed  is  the  denial  by  eminent 
and  influential  Jewish  leaders  like  Lord  Rothschild  and  the 
Chief  Rahhi  of  the  title  of  the  Conjoint  Committee  to  speak 
for  British  Jewry,  or,  indeed,  for  *  the  larger  mass  of  the 
Jewish  people.'  Lord  Rothschild  writes  :  '  We  Zionists 
cannot  see  how  the  establishment  of  an  autonomous  Jewish 

11.— F 


66  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

State,  under  the  aegis  and  protection  of  one  of  the  Allied 
Powers,  can  be  considered  for  a  moment  to  be  in  any  way 
subversive  of  the  position  or  loyalty  of  the  very  large  part 
of  the  Jewish  people  who  have  identified  themselves 
thoroughly  with  the  citizenship  of  the  countries  in  which 
they  live/  The  Chief  Rahhi  insists  that  the  statement  of 
the  Conjoint  Committee  does  not  represent  in  the  least  the 
views  held  *  either  by  Anglo-Jewry  as  a  whole  or  by  the 
Jewries  of  the  Oversea  Dominions/ 

*'  Authoritative  declarations  such  as  these  dispose  of  the 
contention  that  Zionism  is  not  representative  of  Jewish 
aspirations.  We  beheve  it  in  fact  to  embody  the  feelings  of 
the  great  bulk  of  Jewry  everywhere.  The  interest  of  the 
world  outside  Jewry  is  that  these  aspirations,  in  so  far  as 
they  may  be  susceptible  of  realization,  should  be  fairly  faced 
on  their  merits.  It  is  too  often  imagined  that  the  Jewish 
question  can  be  solved  by  the  mere  removal  of  all  artificial 
restrictions  upon  Jewish  activities.  Even  a  superficial 
acquaintance  with  the  conditions  of  life  in  the  congested 
Jewish  communities  of  Galicia  and  Russia  suggests  the  in- 
adequacy of  that  solution.  The  truth  is  that  the  Jewish 
question  cannot  be  exhaustively  defined  either  in  terms  of 
religion  or  of  race.  It  has  important  social,  economic, 
financial,  and  poUtical  sides.  The  importance  of  the  Zionist 
movement — apart  from  its  territorial  aspect — is  that  it  has 
fired  with  a  new  ideal  millions  of  poverty-stricken  Jews 
cooped  up  in  the  ghettoes  of  the  Old  World  and  the  New. 
It  has  tended  to  make  Jews  proud  of  their  race  and  to  claim 
recognition,  as  Jews,  in  virtue  of  the  eminent  services 
rendered  by  Jewry  to  the  reUgious  development  and  civiliza- 
tion of  mankind.  Only  an  imaginative  nervousness  suggests 
that  the  realization  of  territorial  Zionism,  in  some  form, 
would  cause  Christendom  to  round  on  the  Jews  and  say, 
*  Now  you  have  a  land  of  your  own,  go  to  it !  '  The  Jews 
who  feel  themselves  to  be  British,  French,  or  American 
would,  doubtless,  tend  to  identify  themselves  more  than 
ever  with  the  lands  of  their  political  allegiance  and  to 
become  more  and  more  a  solely  rehgious  community.  The 
rapid  changes  of  nationality  that  have  been  so  noticeable 
among  Jews  in  the  past  would  become  increasingly  dis- 
credited. The  international  solidarity  of  Jews  would 
undoubtedly  persist — though,  with  a  lessening  of  the  danger 
of  rehgious  persecution,  the  leading  Jews  of  all  countries 
might  feel  freer  to  make  a  pubhc  stand  against  tendencies 


THE  PROTESTS  67 

which  sometimes  bring  the  Jewish  name  into  disrepute.  We 
note  with  satisfaction  the  assurance  of  the  Conjoint  Com- 
mittee that,  if  their  specific  misgivings  can  be  removed, 
'  they  will  be  prepared  to  co-operate  in  securing  for  Zionist 
organizations  the  united  support  of  Jewry.'  It  is  in  this 
direction,  we  believe,  that  progress  hes." 

On  the  ist  of  June  The  Times  contained  a  letter  adding 
the  names  of  the  Anglo- Jews  who  supported  the  view  taken 
by  the  Conjoint  Presidents.    The  letter  read  as  follows  : — 

"  Sir, — As  the  representative  character  of  the  Jewish 
Conjoint  Committee  has  been  publicly  challenged,  we,  being 
Jews  of  British  birth  and  nationahty,  actively  engaged  in 
public  work  in  the  Anglo-Jewish  community,  desire  to  state 
that  we  approve  of,  and  associate  ourselves  with,  the  state- 
ment on  the  Palestine  question  recently  issued  by  the  com- 
mittee, and  published  in  The  Times  of  the  24th  inst. 

Your  obedient  servants, 

SwaythLing  Israel  Gollancz 

Chas.  S.  Henry  Michael  A.  Green 

Matthew  Nathan  H.  S.  Q.  Henriques 

Lionel  Abrahams*  Joshua  M.  Levy 

Isidore  Spielmann  Laurie  Magnus 

Edward  D.  Stern  Edmund  Sebag-Montefiore 

Israel  Abrahams  Arthur  Reginald  Moro 

Leonard  L.  Cohen  Philip  S.  Waley 

Ernest  L.  Franklin  Albert  M.  Woolf. 
'*  May  2gthr 

There  were  soon  widespread  signs  that  the  congregations 
supposed  to  be  represented  by  the  Board  of  Deputies  did  not 
agree  with  the  views  expressed  in  the  manifesto.  Thus  the 
seatholders  of  the  New  Synagogue,  Stamford  Hill,  carried  a 
motion  calling  upon  their  representatives  at  the  Board  of 
Deputies  and  the  Conjoint  Committee  to  resign.  This  was 
passed  with  only  two  dissentients.  Synagogues  in  Man- 
chester and  Liverpool  and  the  Committee  of  Deputies  in 
Manchester,  Yorkshire  and  Cheshire  expressed  regret  at 
the  action  of  tne  President  of  the  Board  of  Deputies  in 
"  committing  the  Board  to  a  policy  for  which  the  Board 
has  given  him  no  kind  of  authority."     The  Belfast  Con- 

•  "Sir  Lionel  Abrahams  signs  .  abject  to  the  opinion  that,  in  view  of 
the  statement  made  by  the  President  of  the  EngUsh  Zionist  Federation  on 
May  20,  a  further  attempt  at  co-operation  between  the  Conjoint  Com- 
mittee and  the  Zionist  organisations  in  the  United  Kingdom  is  now 
desirable." 


68  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

gregation  passed  a  similar  resolution  and  also  expressed 
confidence  in  Dr.  Weizmann  and  the  Zionist  movement. 
Congregations  in  Birkenhead,  Cardiff,  Dublin,  Edinburgh, 
Glasgow,  Limerick,  Merthyr  Tydvil,  Middlesbrough,  New- 
castle, Newport  (Mon.),  Swansea  and  Wallasey  took  similar 
action.  In  Leeds  a  meeting  was  held  representative  of  all 
the  Jewish  congregations  and  organizations  ;  in  Manchester 
the  Jewish  representative  Council  condemned  the  action  of 
the  Conjoint  Committee.  Indeed,  throughout  the  United 
Kingdom  Synagogues,  Friendly  Societies,  Jewish  Charitable 
Organizations  and  nearly  every  kind  of  Jewish  institution 
made  a  public  protest  against  the  Manifesto,  and  declared 
in  favour  of  Zionism. 

These  widespread  signs  of  dissatisfaction  with  the  existing 
leadership  of  the  body  which  had  hitherto  claimed  to  be  the 
official  spokesman  for  Jewish  opinion  in  England,  was 
destined  to  lead  to  a  complete  change  of  government  in  that 
body. 

It  is  true  that  at  the  meeting  of  the  Anglo-Jewish  Associa- 
tion on  June  3rd  Dr.  Caster's  resolution  of  censure  was  not 
put  to  the  vote.  But  on  Sunday,  17th  June,  at  a  meeting 
of  the  Board  of  Deputies  a  resolution  of  censure  on  the 
Conjoint  Committee,  calHng  upon  the  representatives  of 
the  Board  to  resign  from  the  Conjoint  Committee,  was 
carried  by  fifty-six  votes  to  fifty-one.  Mr.  H.  S.  Q. 
Henriques,  the  Vice-President  of  the  Board,  spoke 
in  defence  of  the  Manifesto.  In  his  speech  he  said  the 
Conjoint  Committee  had  on  the  17th  May  granted  per- 
mission to  the  Presidents  to  publish  the  statement  when 
they  thought  it  advisable  to  do  so,  but  he  nad  himself  been 
surprised  that  they  had  published  it  so  soon.  Mr.  Gilbert 
said  that  in  October  he  had  asked  if  any  Manifesto  then 
existed  or  was  contemplated  and  had  been  told  that  the 
suggestion  was  ' '  mahcious  and  wicked. ' '  Sir  Philip  Magnus, 
Bart.,  said  he  had  heard  of  the  Manifesto  a  week  or  so  before 
Mr.  Henriques.  From  these  statements  it  becomes  clear  that 
the  document  was  compiled  by  a  few  of  those  thoroughly 
Anglicized  Jews  who,  themselves  very  comfortably  off 
in  England,  and  about  equally  ignorant  of  the  main 
currents  of  life  in  that  country  and  of  the  main  currents  of 
Jewish  hfe  anywhere,  were  in  their  complacent  self-satisfac- 
tion of  opinion  that  they  expressed  the  views  of  English 
Jews,  when  in  reality  they  did  not  in  the  slightest  degree 
represent  the  views  of  the  overwhelming  majority. 


PRO-ZIONIST  RESOLUTIONS  69 

In  consequence  of  the  vote  of  censure,  the  Honorary 
Officers,  Mr.  David  L.  Alexander,  k.c,  the  President ;  Mr. 
H.  S.  Q.  Henriques,  m.a.,  b.c.l.,  the  Vice-President;  and 
Mr.  Joshua  M.  Levy,  the  Treasurer,  resigned. 

The  Board  of  Deputies  later  attempted  to  restore  the  irre- 
sponsible power  of  a  non-elective  and  unrepresentative  com- 
mittee having  power  to  speak  for  the  Jews  of  England.  This 
new  Conjoint  Committee  was  to  consist  of  the  Foreign  Com- 
mittees of  the  two  bodies,  the  Board  of  Deputies  and  Anglo- 
Jewish  Association,  meeting  together  to  deal  with  Foreign 
affairs  affecting  the  Jews.  "  Except  in  matters  of  routine 
or  urgency,"  the  parent  bodies  have  to  be  consulted  before 
any  action  is  taken.  The  question  of  Zionism  was  declared 
outside  the  province  of  the  Joint  Committee  unless  specially 
delegated  to  such  Committee  by  both  parent  bodies.  This 
scheme  was  adopted  at  a  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Deputies 
held  on  January  20th,  1918. 

Meantime  the  question  of  a  general  manifesto  in  favour 
of  Zionist  aims,  not  only  by  organized  adherents  of  the 
movement  but  by  the  Anglo- Jewish  Community  generally, 
having  become  of  urgent  importance,  the  Council  of  the 
English  Zionist  Federation  issued  an  appeal  to  Jewish 
organizations  throughout  the  country  to  convene  meetings 
in  order  to  pass  resolutions  in  the  following  terms  : — 

"  (i)  That  this  meeting  being  unanimously  in  favour 
of  the  reconstruction  of  Palestine  as  the  National  Home 
of  the  Jewish  People,  trusts  that  His  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment will  use  its  best  endeavours  for  the  achievement  of 
this  object. 

"  (2)  That  this  Mass  Meeting  pledges  itself  to  support 
the  Zionist  leaders  in  their  efforts  towards  the  realization 
of  the  Zionist  aims." 

These  resolutions  were  adopted  at  large  meetings  in 
London,  at  the  Queen's  Hall,  Monnickendam  Rooms,  at 
the  Marcus  Samuel  Hall,  New  Synagogue,  and  in  Bethnal 
Green,  and  at  important  meetings  in  Birmingham,  Cardiff, 
Leeds,  Hull,  Manchester,  Swansea,  Merthyr  Tydvil  and 
Bradford. 

The  following  is  the  list,  so  far  as  we  have  been  able  to 
ascertain,  of  Synagogues  and  Institutions,  which  are  known 
to  have  adopted  these  or  similar  resolutions. 

Manchester.  The  Communal  Council  (representing  15,000 
Jews,  members  of  Synagogues,  Trade  Unions  and  Friendly 


70  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Societies),  the  Lancashire  and  Yorkshire  and  Cheshire 
members  of  the  Board  of  Deputies  of  British  Jews,  a  special 
meeting  of  representatives  of  Synagogues  at  the  opening  of 
the  Kovna  Synagogue ;  the  following  Synagogues  :  Rydal 
Mount  Hebrew  Congregation,  Kahal  Chassidim,  Beth 
Jacob,  United  Synagogue  and  Beth  Hamedrash  and  New 
Synagogue ;  the  following  Friendly  Societies :  Grand 
Council  of  the  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans,  Achei  Brith 
and  Shield  of  Abraham  (Frances  Annie  Frankenburg,  King 
Edward  the  Seventh,  Nathan  Laski,  and  Dr.  Herzl  Lodges), 
Independent  Order  of  Achei  Brith,  Order  of  Ancient  Macca- 
beans (Modin  No.  24,  Don  Isaac  Abarbanel  No.  11,  Rechobot 
No.  29,  Mount  Horeb  No.  9,  Mount  Lebanon  No.  3,  and 
Mattathias  No.  14  Beacons),  the  Maccabean  Club,  the  Order 
Shield  of  David  (Broughton  Lodge),  and  the  Manchester 
and  Salford  Jewish  Grocers'  Association  ;  and  the  following 
Zionist  Societies  :  Manchester  Zionist  Association,  Poale 
Zion,  and  Manchester  Daughters  of  Zion. 

Leeds.  The  Leeds  Jewish  Representative  Council  (repre- 
senting all  Synagogues,  Trade  Unions,  Friendly  Societies, 
and  other  Jewish  organizations)  ;  the  following  Friendly 
Societies  :  Grand  Order  of  Israel  (Grosenburg  Lodge  No.  90 
and  Dr.  Dembo  Lodge  No.  47),  the  Pride  of  Israel  Indepen- 
dent Friendly  Society,  the  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans 
(Massodah'QediCon  and  Mount  Sinai  No.  13  Beacon),  and  the 
Independent  Order  of  B'nei  Brith  (Abraham  Frais  Lodge 
No.  35)  ;  the  Leeds  Jewish  National  Fund  Commission,  the 
Leeds  Jewish  Workmen's  Burial  Society,  the  Leeds  Banner 
of  Zion,  and  the  Leeds  Young  Shomerim  ;  and  the  following 
Zionist  Societies  :  Agudas  Hazionim,  Ladies'  Zionist  League, 
Ladies'  Association,  and  a  Mass  Meeting  convened  by  the 
Joint  Zionist  Committee. 

Liverpool.  The  following  Synagogues  :  Central  Syna- 
gogue (IsHngton),  Shaw  Street,  Nusach  Ari,  (Great  Russell 
Street),  Devon  Street,  Acheinu  B'nei  Yisroel,  Old  Hebrew 
Congregation  (Princess  Road),  Beth  Hamedrash  Ay  en 
Jacov,  Wallasey  Hebrew  Congregation,  and  Fountain  Road 
Hebrew  Congregation  ;  the  following  Friendly  Societies  and 
Trade  Unions  :  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans  (Mount  Nebo 
Erez  Yisrael  No.  28  and  Mount  Hermon  Beacons),  the 
Amalgamated  Orders  of  Achei  Brith  and  Shield  of  Abraham 
(Deborah  Lodge  No.  70,  Dr.  Max  Nordau  Lodge  No.  13, 
and  The  Very  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  H.  Hertz  Lodge  No.  76),  the 
Grand  Order  of  Israel  (Rev.  S.  Friedeberg  Lodge  No.  80),  the 


PRO-ZIONIST  RESOLUTIONS  71 

Order  of  the  Shield  of  David  (Max  Clapper  Lodge  No.  44),  the 
Herzl  Hebrew  Friendly  Tontine  Society,  the  London  Hebrew 
Tontine  Society,  the  Montefiore  Hebrew  Tontine  Friendly 
Society,  the  Order  Shield  of  David  Tontine  Society  (Joseph 
Morris  Lodge  No.  28),  the  Hebrew  Brotherhood  Tontine 
Society,  the  Brothers  of  Israel  Tontine  Society,  the  Hebrew 
Somech  Noflim  Society,  the  Liverpool  TraveUers'  Friendly 
Society,  the  Jewish  Students  of  Liverpool  University,  the 
International  Society  of  Philology,  Science  and  Fine  Arts 
(Liverpool  Branch),  the  Hebrew  Higher  Grade  National 
League,  the  Talmudical  College,  the  Jewish  Literary  Society, 
the  Tailors'  Employees'  Association,  the  National  Amalga- 
mated Furnishing  Trades  Association,  the  United  Garment 
Workers'  Trade  Union,  the  Anglo- Jewish  Association  (Liver- 
pool Branch),  the  Wholesale  Furniture  Manufacturers' 
Association,  the  Ladies'  Bikur  Cholim  Society,  the  Com- 
mittee of  the  Association  of  Old  Boys  of  the  Liverpool 
Hebrew  Schools ;  and  the  following  Zionist  Societies : 
Liverpool  Young  Men's  Zionist  Association,  Liverpool 
Zionist  Central  Council,  Agudas  Zion  Society,  Liverpool 
Junior  Zionist  Association,  and  Liverpool  Ladies'  Zionist 
Association. 

Glasgow.  The  Jewish  Representative  Council  (repre- 
senting all  Glasgow  Jewish  Institutions,  Synagogues,  etc.)  ; 
the  following  Synagogues :  Chevra  Kadisha,  Garnet  Hill,  Beth 
Hamedrash,  Langside  Road,  Machzikei  Hadath,  Beth  Jacob, 
Queen's  Park  Hebrew  Congregation,  and  South  Portland 
Street ;  the  following  Friendly  Societies  and  Trade  Unions  : 
Baron  Giinzburg  Lodge,  Lord  Rothschild  Lodge,  Montefiore 
Lodge,  Michael  Simon  Lodge,  Dr.  Hermann  Adler  Lodge, 
King  David  Lodge,  Rev.  E.  P.  Philhps  Lodge,  Odessa  Lodge, 
Lady  Rothschild  Lodge  No.  67,  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans 
(Leo  Pinsker  Beacon  No.  12,  and  Judas  Maccabeus  Beacon 
No.  15),  Grand  Order  of  Israel  (Dr.  Herzl  Lodge  No.  12), 
and  the  Independent  Friendly  Society ;  and  the  following 
Societies  :  Jewish  Young  Men's  Institute,  Master  Tailors' 
Federation,  Jewish  National  Institute  (Elgin  Street), 
Hebrew  Burial  Society,  B'nei  Zion,  Young  Girls'  Zionist 
League,  Daughters  of  Zion,  and  Queen's  Park  Zionist  and 
Literary  Society. 

Birmingham.  The  following  Friendly  Societies  :  Order 
of  Ancient  Maccabeans  (Theodor  Herzl  Beacon),  Order  of 
Achei  Brith  and  Shield  of  Abraham  (Isaac  Joseph  Lodge), 
Lodge,     Lord    Swaythling    Lodge,     Rachel    Mendlesohn 


72  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

(Rev.  J.  Fink  Lodge  and  Rev.  G.  J.  Emanuel  Lodge). 
Grand  Order  of  Israel  (Loyal  Independent  Lodge,  Rev.  A. 
Cohen  Lodge,  and  David  Davis  Lodge). 

Bristol.     Mass  Meeting  of  Bristol  Jews,  Oct.  2ist 

Cardiff.  Mass  Meeting  of  Jewish  Community  Jet.  2ist, 
1917  ;    Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans  (Cardiff  Branch). 

Swansea.  Mass  Meeting,  Oct.  15th  (representing  Syna- 
gogues, Friendly  Societies  and  Zionist  Societies),  Swansea 
Hebrew  Congregation,  Swansea  Junior  Zionist  and  Literary 
Society. 

Pontypridd.  Mass  Meeting  of  Jewish  Community,  21st  Oct. 

Newport.  Mass  Meeting  of  Jewish  Community,  21st 
Oct.,  1917. 

Merthyr  Tydvil.     Mass  Meeting. 

Durham.     Zionist  Society. 

Maidenhead.     Hebrew  Congregation. 

Birkenhead.     Hebrew  Congregation. 

Bolton.     Jewish  Community,  meeting  19th  Oct.,  1917. 

Blackpool.     Hebrew  Congregation  and  Belisha  Lodge. 

Stockport.     Jewish  Tailors'  Union. 

Sunderland.  Mass  Meeting  of  Sunderland  Community, 
2ist  Oct.,  1917. 

Grimsby.  Hebrew  Congregation,  and  Order  of  Ancient 
Maccabeans  (Mount  Zeisim  Beacon  No.  7). 

Hull.     Mass  Meeting  of  Jews  of  Hull,  Oct.  14th,  1917. 

Bradford.  Zionist  Society,  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans 
(Jehuda  Halevi  Beacon  No.  30). 

Newcastle-on-Tyne.  Mass  Meeting  of  all  Jewish  organiza- 
tions, Oct.  2ist,  Ancient  Order  of  Maccabeans  (Mount  Gilead 
Beacon),  Grand  Order  of  Israel  (Duke  of  Northumberland 
Lodge  No.  14). 

Edinburgh.  Mass  Meeting  of  Edinburgh  Jev/s,  21st  Oct., 
Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans  (Mount  Moriah  Beacon). 

Sheffield.  Mass  Meeting  of  Sheffield  Jews,  i8th  Oct., 
representing  Sheffield  Hebrew  Congregation,  Central  Syna- 
gogue, Talmud  Torah,  Board  of  Guardians,  PoUsh  Refugees 
Fund,  Chevra  Kadisha,  Master  Tailors'  Union,  B'nei  Brith, 
Grand  Order  of  Israel,  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans  (Levi- 
son  Lodge) ,  Sheffield  Junior  Zionist  Association,  and  Work- 
sop Jewish  Community. 

Nottingham.  Mass  Meeting,  21st  Oct.,  representing 
Nottingham  Hebrew  Congregation,  Palestine  Association, 
Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans  (Mount  Ephraim  Beacon), 
Independent   Order   B'nei    Brith    (Jacob   Lasker   Lodge), 


PRO-ZIONIST  RESOLUTIONS  73 

Grand  Order  of  Israel  (David  Snapper  Lodge),  United 
Garment  Workers  of  Great  Britain  (Nottingham  Branch). 

Belfast.     Belfast  Synagogue, 

Dublin.  Mass  Meeting  of  Dublin  Jewry,  21st  Oct. ; 
Independent  Order  of  B'nei  Brith  (King  Solomon  Lodge 
No.  17)  ;  Order  of  Ancient  Maccabeans  (Mount  Carmel 
Beacon  No.  10)  ;  Agudas  Hazionim  ;  and  Dublin  Daughters 
of  Zion. 

The  Times,  on  Oct.  23rd,  noticed  these  demonstrations  of 
sympathy  with  Zionism  under  the  heading,  "  Palestine  for 
the  Jews  :  British  support  of  the  proposal "  *  and  on 
Oct.  26th,  in  an  editorial  strongly  urged  on  the  Government 
the  necessity  of  making  an  announcement  of  its  policy  in 
favour  of  Zionism. 

The  anti-Zionist  views  of  the  representatives  of  a  small 
section  of  English  Jewry  were  not  only  in  opposition  to 
Jewish  public  opinion,  but  even  more  in  striking  contrast 
with  non- Jewish  opinion,  as  revealed  by  the  press  of  the 
United  Kingdom. 

The  Westminster  Gazette,  in  its  issue  of  August  26th,  1916, 
published  an  article  on  **  Zionism,"  in  the  course  of  which 
the  writer  emphasized  that : — 

"  All  they  ask  for  is  for  a  home  for  the  Jewish  people — not 
for  all  the  Jews  of  the  world,  but  only  for  the  nucleus  of  the 
Jewish  people,  and  above  all,  for  their  special  type  of 
civilization,  for  Judaism.  They  have  no  desire  to  dispossess 
any  other  people.  They  point  to  a  land,  to  the  land  which 
is  historically  theirs,  which  to-day  is  lying  vacant  for  want 
of  a  people  to  rejuvenate  it.  There,  they  say,  Judaism  will 
find  that  freedom  which  is  unattainable  elsewhere :  at  their 
hands  the  land  which  has  languished  for  centuries  can  again 
be  restored  to  the  circle  of  bountiful  regions,  and  become  as 
of  old,  a  granary  for  other  nations." 

Lord  Cromer,  writing  in  the  Spectator  on  August  12th, 
1916,  said : — 

"  What  is  it  that  Zionists  want  ?  The  idea  that  they  wish 
the  Jews  of  all  races  to  be  congregated  together  in  Palestine 
may  at  once  be  dismissed  as  absurd.  Nothing  of  the  sort 
is  proposed.  Neither  do  they  want  to  establish  a  mere 
colony  in  the  sense  in  which  that  term  is  usually  employed. 
Zionism  stands  for  a  national  revival." 

The  New  Statesman,  on  July  8th,  1916,  dealt  editorially 
with  "  The  Meaning  of  Zionism  "  \ — 


74  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

*'  The  creation  of  an  autonomous  Jewish  State  in  Palestine, 
or  elsewhere — though  only  in  Palestine  is  there  any  prospect 
of  such  a  State — and  its  successful  progress  and  develop- 
ment would  raise  the  status  of  the  entire  Jewish  people  and 
restore  self-respect  to  Jewry  as  a  nation.  It  would  thus  be 
a  large  part  of  the  solution  of  the  Jewish  question." 

The  Nation,  in  the  course  of  a  leading  article,  on  June  2nd, 
1917,  on  "  What  is  a  Jew  ?  ",  considered  Zionism  as  the  new 
force,  and  said  : — 

"  An  assimilated  Judaism  has  little  to  give  to  the  world, 
save  the  individual  talents  of  its  adherents.  Zionism,  on  the 
contrary,  is  a  vivid,  positive,  picturesque  element  in  the 
world,  a  distinctive  tradition  which  adds  something  to  the 
common  stock.  We  hope  to  see  it  recognized,  preferably 
under  international  institutions  in  Palestine,  but  we  look 
askance  at  proposals  to  make  it  subservient  to  British  ends 
of  Empire  and  strategy. 

"  But  the  problem  is  far  wider  than  Palestine.  Zionism 
is  really  a  challenge  to  the  tolerance  of  Europe  for  the 
modem  idea  of  nationahty  as  culture.  If  that  idea  has 
vitality,  the  Zionism  of  the  future  will  be  recognized  and 
accepted  not  merely  in  Jerusalem  but  in  Warsaw  and  Vienna, 
in  Paris  and  in  London.  If  the  West  expects  Austria  and 
Russia  to  make  terms  with  their  many  nationalities,  it  must 
in  its  turn  hold  out  a  welcome  to  Jewish  nationalism.'' 

In  New  Europe,  on  April  12th,  1917,  a  writer  dealt  with 
the  problem  of  the  Jews  : — 

"  Whatever  claim  the  Jews  may  make,  it  is  clear  that 
autonomous  Jewry  in  Palestine  must  have  an  adequate 
guarantee  of  existence,  whether  by  international  pledge  or 
by  the  protectorate  of  a  Great  Power." 

The  same  periodical,  in  its  issue  of  April  19th,  had  a  long 
article  on  "  Great  Britain,  Palestine,  and  the  Jews."  The 
writer  gives  his  reasons  for  stating  that  a  British  Palestine 
must  be  a  Jewish  Palestine,  the  home  of  a  restored  Jewish 
people,  the  spiritual  centre  of  the  whole  Jewish  race.  He 
shows  what  the  Jew  has  already  done  in  Palestine,  and 
concludes  : — 

"  Under  a  beneficent  rule  a  Jewish  Palestine  would  attract 
wealth  and  talent  and  labour  from  every  Jewish  community 
of  the  globe,  and  the  progress  of  Palestine  would  be  much 
more  rapid  still.     Compared  with  its  past  Palestine  is  an 


THETPRESS  75 

empty  land,  to  which  only  the  Jews  can  restore  its  ancient 
property  and  glory.'* 

The  New  Europe  devoted  the  first  pages  of  its  issue  of 
September  27th,  1917,  to  an  article  on  "  Jewry's  Stake  in 
the  War."    The  writer  in  speaking  of  Zionism,  said  : — 

"  The  value  of  Zionism  is,  that  it  tends  to  bring  the 
intense  pride  of  the  Jew  in  his  own  race,  and  in  its  all  but 
unrivalled  contribution  to  civihzation,  into  harmony  with 
its  public  bearing. 

"...  The  existence  of  a  Jewish  State  would  'certainly 
react  and  react  healthily  upon  the  position  of  Jews  who 
might  elect  to  remain  in  the  Dispersion.  The  Zionists  would 
fain  make  of  the  Jewish  name  a  clear  title  of  honour." 

The  Weekly  Dispatch  of  April  ist,  1917,  in  a  leading  article 
on  "  The  New  Crusade,"  said  : — 

"  If  any  more  romantic  prospect  than  the  spectacle  of  the 
British  Standard  flying  above  the  temples  and  mosques  of 
Jerusalem  can  be  visualized,  it  is  the  restoration  by  Britain, 
which  has  always  befriended  the  Jew,  of  the  Jewish  polity 
which  fell  to  pieces  in  the  reign  of  Hadrian. 

"  But  sentiment  must  be  based  on  practical  considerations. 
To  develop  Palestine  needs  a  skilled  agricultural  race.  The 
dreamers  of  the  Ghetto,  yearning  for  the  return  of  Zion,  point 
to  the  Jewish  farmers  of  Canada,  America,  and  the  Argentine 
in  proof  that  the  instinct  of  a  pastoral  people  of  Biblical  time 
still  survives  in  its  sons." 

According  to  The  Sunday  Chronicle,  in  an  article,  April 
15th,  1917,  on  "  British  PoHcy  in  Palestine — A  British 
Hebrew  Necessity  "  : — 

*'  There  is  no  other  race  in  the  whole  world  who  can  do 
these  services  for  us  in  Palestine  but  the  Jews  themselves. 
In  the  Zionist  Movement,  which  has  caught  up  within  itself 
some  of  the  best  brains  and  the  warmest  hearts  among  the 
younger  generation  of  Jews,  we  have  the  motive  force  which 
will  make  the  extension  of  the  British  Empire  into  Palestine, 
otherwise  a  disagreeable  necessity,  a  source  of  pride  and  a 
pillar  of  strength.  A  source  of  pride  ;  for  after  all,  if  we  are 
fighting  for  oppressed  and  homeless  nationalities  in  this  war, 
there  is  none  which  has  been  so  horribly  oppressed  in  the 
past  or  for  so  many  hundred  years  without  a  home  of  its  own 
as  the  Jews. 

"  A  pillar  of  strength  ;  for  the  fact  that  the  Jews  are  not 
only  of  one  nation  but  of  all,  will  give  to  the  power  which  is 


76  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

sovereign  of  its  capital  Jerusalem  a  tremendous  pull  in  the 
councils  of  the  world." 

The  Times  Literary  Supplement  of  August  i6th,  1917,  had 
an  article,  "  After  Many  Years,"  which  sketched  the  history 
of  the  Jews  in  Palestine,  and  went  on  to  say  that : — 

"  The  Palestinian  Jew  during  the  past  decade  has  shown 
a  certain  capacity  for  self-government,  and  has  successfully 
assumed  many  of  the  functions  of  administration  which  the 
neglect  of  Ottoman  Mutessarifs  had  left  unperformed. 
Under  the  influence  of  a  renovated  system  of  education,  im- 
parted in  Hebrew,  he  was  rapidly  forgetting  his  German 
leanings  or  his  Russian  or  Rumanian  traditions,  and  was 
becoming  a  farmer  of  his  own  soil.  If  this  process  can  be 
resumed  and  its  scope  widened  after  the  war,  Palestine  may 
slowly  grow  from  a  State  with  the  status  say  of  the  Anglo- 
Egyptian  Sudan — and  develop  into  an  autonomous  pro- 
tected State,  with  its  own  native  sovereign  and  administra- 
tion and  forming  part  of  the  Empire  in  just  the  same  way 
as  do  many  States  which  are  in  full  control  of  their  internal 
liberties." 

Common  Sense,  March  loth,  1917,  dealt  with  the  Jewish 
claim  to  Palestine,  and  declared  that : — 

"  If,  when  we  make  peace,  we  are  to  make  a  just  and 
lasting  peace,  the  terms  of  the  compact  must  run  along  the 
lines  of  nationality.  In  such  a  settlement  the  Jewish  claim 
cannot  be  avoided,  and  we  may  hope  that,  as  a  consequence 
of  the  gentle  pressure  now  being  applied,  the  British  Govern- 
ment will  regard  it  as  a  duty  to  obtain  a  Hebraic  Palestine 
as  one  of  the  terms  of  peace." 

The  Manchester  Guardian,  in  an  article  on  June  25th,  1915, 
on  *'  Jews  and  the  War,"  described  the  suffering  of  the  Jews 
scattered  amongst  the  nations,  and  defines  Zionism  as 
follows  : — 

'*  Zionism  is,  from  one  point  of  view,  the  effort  of  the 
Jewish  spirit  to  estabhsh  a  firm  ground  for  its  own  con- 
tinuance and  development  in  a  changed  world,  which 
threatens  by  degrees  to  overwhelm  it.  Such  a  movement 
was  bound  to  come  so  soon  as  danger  threatened  a  race-Ufe 
so  tough  and  enduring,  and  a  spirit  so  distinctive  and  power- 
ful, and  it  is,  like  other  spiritual  things,  essentially  inde- 
pendent of  material  means.  But  for  the  early  realization 
of  its  immediate  purpose  material  means  are  necessary,  and 


THE  PRESS  77 

the  future  of  Palestine  thus  becomes  for  the  Zionist  a  matter 
of  pressing  and  capital  importance/' 

The  Manchester  Guardian,  in  a  leading  article  on  "  The 
Future  of  Palestine,"  in  its  issue  of  October  ist,  1917,  asks : — 

**  How  can  we  as  champions  of  the  cause  of  nationality, 
refuse  our  sympathy  to  the  attempt  to  end  age-long  exile  of 
the  Jewish  people  from  their  political  home  in  Palestine  ?  " 

The  Liverpool  Courier  of  April  24th,  1917,  in  a  leading 
article,  "  Rebuilding  Zion,"  said  : — 

*'  A  British  Palestine  must  be  a  Jewish  Palestine.  .  .  . 
Given  the  protection  of  the  British  flag,  and  the  self-govern- 
ing system  of  the  British  Empire,  Palestine  might  soon 
become  a  new  and  living  Zion.  Such  a  consummation  would 
be  a  triumph  of  the  British  spirit.  It  would  be  a  worthy 
object  to  strive  for  in  the  great  war,  for  it  would  fulfil  a  deep 
national  aspiration  among  a  disinherited  people  of  extra- 
ordinary genius,  and  to  that  extent  would  add  to  the  number 
and  the  weight  of  the  blows  we  should  deliver  against  anti- 
national  Prussianism." 

The  Liverpool  Courier  of  June  15th,  1917,  on  '*  The  Future 
of  Palestine  "  :— 

*'  The  Jews  could  make  Palestine  once  more  a  land  flow- 
ing with  milk  and  honey.  The  country  has  enormous 
economic  possibilities. 

"...  It  must  be  the  business  of  the  Allies,  in  pursuance  of 
their  policy  of  liberation,  to  restore  to  Palestine  its  liberties, 
and  to  provide  a  centre  of  nationhood  for  the  Jewish  race." 

In  a  leading  article  on  "  The  Land  of  Promise,"  The 
Liverpool  Courier — October  19th,  1917 — again  dealt  with 
the  Jewish  claims  to  Palestine,  and  says  : — 

"  We  may  be  as  certain  of  a  loyal  Anglo- Jewry  with  a 
Jewish  Homeland  reconstituted,  as  we  are  to-day.  Britain 
has  always  taken  kindly  to  the  idea  of  the  Jewish  Re- 
settlement, and  the  moment  seems  now  at  hand  when  an 
ideal — cherished  both  by  Britain  and  by  Jewry — is  not  un- 
likely to  find  realization." 

The  Glasgow  Herald,  May  29th,  1917,  in  an  article  on 
*'  Zion  Re-edified,"  dealt  fully  with  the  anti-Zionist  mani- 
festo, and  said  of  the  Zionists  : — 

*'  They  are  looking  forward  now  not  to  a  re-edified  Zion 
which  the  breath  of  a  Turkish  Sultan  could  tumble  into  ruin. 


78  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

but  to  the  establishment  of  a  Jewish  State,  under  the 
suzerainty  of  some  strong  Christian  power. 

"  Jews  in  every  land  have  felt  that  w^hat  has  been  the 
dream  of  long  ages  of  exile  and  persecution  may  at  last 
become  a  reaHty  on  which  their  eyes  shall  gaze." 

The  Yorkshire  Post,  April  12th,  1917,  gave  the  history  of 
"  Jewish  Colonization  in  Palestine,'*  and  concluded  that : — 

"  Thus  there  is  some  foundation  for  the  claim  that  in  the 
settlement  after  the  war  provision  should  be  made  for  the 
unhampered  continuance  and  extension  of  the  colonization 
of  Palestine  by  the  Jews  ;  and  should  that  develop  in  process 
of  time  into  the  estabhshment  of  a  Jewish  nation  there,  it 
will  be  a  result  by  no  means  inconsistent  with  the  ideals  for 
which  Great  Britain  and  her  AUies  are  fighting." 

The  Contemporary  Review  of  Jirne,  1917,  had  a  short  note 
on  the  "  Jewish  Claim  to  Palestine  "  : — 

"  Evidently  the  principle  of  nationahty  is  itself  considered 
sacred  ;  it  is  an  asset  to  the  world,  and  it  carries  its  rights, 
moral  rights,  which  are  none  the  less  rights,  if  they  cannot 
be  enforced  by  the  sword. 

"  The  cynic  might,  perhaps,  find  more  justification  had 
Israel  ever  forgotten  or  waived  his  claim  to  the  Holy  Land  ; 
but  a  continuous  chain  of  aspiration  and  prayer,  and  even 
of  political  activity,  binds  him  to  the  soil  from  which  he  was 
driven  early  in  the  Christian  Era." 

The  Review  of  Reviews,  September,  1916,  thus  defined 
Zionism : — 

"  Zionism  means  a  complete  Jewish,  spiritual  and  national, 
rebirth  in  the  ancient  land — a  re-settling  of  Jews  in  their 
own  ancient  home.  To  the  ideahst  it  is  much  more  even,  it 
is  love  for  the  Land  of  the  Shekinah  and  the  Holy  Spirit,  a 
mystic  rapture  of  the  whole  Jewish  soul  in  the  quest  of  re- 
discovering the  *  Fountain  of  Living  Waters.* 

"  To  this  end  it  is  necessary  for  the  Jewish  people  to  have 
a  home  in  Palestine  secured  by  pubUc  laws." 

The  mihtary  correspondent  of  The  Daily  Chronicle  on 
March  30th,  1917,  discussed  the  question  of  what  should  be 
done  with  Palestine  when  Hberated,  and  came  to  the  con- 
clusion that : — 

"There  can  be  Httle  doubt  that  we  should  revive  the 
Jewish  Palestine  of  old,  and  allow  the  Jews  to  realize  their 


THE  PRESS  79 

dream  of  Zion  in  their  homeland.  All  the  Jews  will  not 
return  to  Palestine,  but  many  will  do  so.  The  new  Je"\^ish 
State,  under  British  or  French  aegis,  would  become  the 
spiritual  and  cultural  centre  of  Je\^T>'  throughout  the  worid. 
The  Jews  would  at  least  have  a  homeland  and  a  nationahty 
of  their  own.  The  national  dream  that  has  sustained  them 
for  a  score  of  centuries  and  more  will  have  been  fulfilled/' 

In  a  leading  article  in  the  same  issue  on  '*  The  Victory  in 
Palestine  "  we  read : — 

"  The  project  for  constituting  a  Zionist  State  there  under 
British  protection  has  a  great  deal  to  commend  it.  The 
restoration  to  Judaism  of  what  must  always  be  the  ideal  focus 
of  its  persistent  national  and  spiritual  life  would  be  a  noble 
addition  to  the  programme  for  emancipating  small  nations." 

The  Daily  Neivs,  in  a  leading  article,  on  October  17th,  on 
the  "  ^^'ar  and  the  Jew^s,"  dealt  with  the  claim  of  Zionists 
in  all  lands  to  be  a  nation,  and  the  desire  to  see  the  land  of 
their  fathers  restored  to  them.    The  article  concluded  : — 

"  In  a  w^ord,  we  are  not  sure  that  Zionism  would  not  prove 

the  solution  of  the  obstinate  problem  of  this  wandering  race 
that  has  perplexed  the  world  for  so  many  centuries.  Wliat- 
ever  the  decision  of  the  AlHes  in  regard  to  Palestine,  it  can 
hardly  fail  to  improve  the  conditions  and  enlarge  the  hberty 
of  hfe  in  Palestine,  and  if  the  Jews  in  large  numbers  choose 
to  take  advantage  of  the  fact,  the  object  of  Zionism  will  in 
due  time  be  accompHshed,  and  the  Jewish  nation  will  hve 
again  imder  its  owti  vine  and  fig-tree.  WTien  that  happens, 
the  Jewish  problem  that  afflicts  the  rest  of  the  world  will 
tend  to  disappear." 

CO-ORDINATION   OF  ZIONISTS'   REPORTS 

The  months  August-November,  1917,  were  an  exceedingly 
busy  time  for  Zionists  in  England.  They  had  to  defend 
themselves  against  the  attacks  made  against  them  not  only 
in  manifestoes,  but  also  behind  the  scenes.  They  had  to 
continue  the  pourparlers  and  to  endeavour  to  obtain  some 
acceptance  of  their  principle.  Dr.  Weizmann  and  the  author 
were  actively  and  energetically  assisted  in  their  endeavours 
not  only  by  a  group  of  representative  Zionists  of  England, 
but  also  by  a  considerable  nmnber  of  Zionists  abroad.  They 
were  helped,  above  all,  by  American  Zionists.  Betw^een 
London,  New^  York,  and  \\'ashington  there  was  constant  com- 
munication, either  by  telegraph,  or  by  personal  visit,  and 


8o  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

as  a  result  there  was  perfect  unity  among  the  Zionists  of  both 
hemispheres.  The  strength  of  conviction,  the  enthusiasm, 
the  spirit  of  sacrifice,  the  enterprise,  and  the  industry  and 
energy  of  American  Zionists,  displayed  by  them  in  the  last 
few  years  deserve  more  than  a  page  of  honour  in  the  history 
of  Zionism  ;  they  deserve  a  volume  to  themselves.  The 
statesmanship,  the  genius  for  organization,  and  the  benefi- 
cent personal  influence  of  the  Honourable  Louis  D.  Brandeis, 
Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  has  raised,  strengthened,  and 
secured  in  every  direction  the  position  of  American  Zionism 
not  only  in  America,  but  also  has  increased  its  prestige  and 
dignity  abroad.  His  well-weighed  counsel,  his  great  experi- 
ence, his  calm  judgment,  which  unites  deep  democratic 
principles  with  the  sense  of  responsibihty  of  a  national 
leader,  were  an  important  factor  in  the  conduct  of  Zionist 
politics.  In  this  matter  he  was  supported  by  a  number 
of  zealous,  expert  and  devoted  fellow-thinkers.  The 
older  American  Zionists,  who  had  maintained  for  many 
years  a  Zionist  Organization  with  great  trouble  and  ex- 
emplary steadfastness,  were  now,  since  the  outbreak  of  the 
war,  considerably  strengthened  by  a  number  of  Zionist 
leaders  from  Europe.  At  the  head  of  the  latter — who,  in  the 
meantime,  have  become  thoroughly  Americanised — stood 
Dr.  Shmaria  Levin,  a  member  of  the  '*  Inner  Action  Com- 
mittee "  ;  who,  in  addition  to  his  distinguished  services  as 
a  publicist  and  propagandist,  in  which  directions  he  dis- 
played a  vigour  scarcely  ever  equalled  and  certainly  excelled 
by  no  one,  also  freely  gave  his  knowledge  and  advice  in  the 
discussion  of  political  questions.  To  this  group,  enlarged 
by  the  leaders  newly  arrived  from  Europe,  was  added 
another  most  valuable  group,  of  strongly  Zionist  feeling, 
coming  from  Palestine.  After  the  enforced  exile  of  a 
number  of  distinguished  pioneers  of  colonization  and  of 
nationals  Hebrew  culture  from  Palestine,  many  of  them 
went  to  America  to  dedicate  themselves  there  to  the 
work  of  propaganda.  Dr.  Ben-zion  Mossinsohn,  Mr. 
Israel  Belkind  and  Mr.  Menachem  Mendel  Scheinkin 
— to  mention  only  the  best  known — ^have  worked 
zealously  in  America  for  the  popularizing  of  the  Pales- 
tine idea.  The  oratorical  skill  of  Mossinsohn  was  most 
valuable.  A  number  of  distinguished  workers  belonging 
to  the  Poale-Zionist  Federation  also  made  their  head- 
quarters in  America,  where  at  the  same  time  the  orthodox 
Zionists    of    the    Mizrachi    Federation    had    made    note- 


THE  AMERICAN  ZIONISTS  8i 

worthy  progress  in  the  organizing  of  their  forces  and  in  the 
winning  of  new  members,  especially  through  the  efforts  of 
Mr.  Belkind.  The  Jewish  Press  in  America,  a  popular  actor 
of  most  widespread  dimensions,  devoted  its  main  attention 
to  Zionism.  With  very  few  exceptions  the  organs  of  different 
opinions  vied  in  the  pubHcation  of  Zionist  views  and  in  the 
promoting  of  the  national  Jewish  idea,  in  which  matter  the 
non- Jewish  Press  from  time  to  time  gave  energetic  assistance. 
The  publication  of  Hebrew  literature  and  press-matter,  which 
previously  was  too  little  in  evidence  in  America,  was  stimu- 
lated by  the  Hebrew  authors  and  journalists  recently  arrived 
from  Russia  and  Palestine,  who  founded  new  Hebrew  weeklies 
(Hatoren,  Haibri)  and  established  houses  for  the  publica- 
tion of  Hebrew  books.  The  pioneer  and  veteran  leader  of 
the  idea  of  the  renaissance  of  the  Hebrew  language  as  the 
everyday  speech  in  Palestine,  namely,  Elieser  Ben  Jehuda 
of  Jerusalem,  found  supporters  and  friends  in  America,  who 
made  it  possible  for  him  to  establish  his  residence  during 
the  war  in  New  York,  and  there  to  continue  his  life- 
work,  the  compilation  of  a  great  Hebrew  dictionary.  The 
rise  of  the  national  idea  found  striking  expression  in  the 
agitation  for  the  holding  of  a  Jewish-American  Congress, 
an  idea  which  was  violently  opposed  by  the  anti-Zionists, 
but  was  carried  by  an  overwhelming  majority.  Nationality 
and  democracy — these  were  the  battle-cries  of  the  supporters 
of  the  Congress,  which  carried  away  the  Jewish-American 
masses  with  irresistible  force. 

The  separate  Zionist  federations  "  Mizrachi  "  (containing 
Orthodox  Jews)  and  "  Poale  Zion'*  (containing  Socialists) 
have  naturally  been  sorely  affected  by  the  war,  which  greatly 
impeded  their  work.  They,  too,  however,  have  been  able  to 
keep  up  the  contact  between  the  various  sections  of  their 
federations  and  continue  their  activities.  The  "  Mizrachi " 
has  been  particularly  active  in  America.  The  central  office 
of  the  "Poale  Zion"  has  been  transferred  to  the  Hague, 
though  its  main  activities  have  been  carried  on  in  America. 
In  close  co-operation  with  the  office  of  the  Federation,  the 
"Jewish  Labour  Correspondence  Bureau  "  has  issued  bulletins 
giving  information  about  Palestine,  and  the  conditions  of 
Jews  in  various  countries,  with  special  reference  to  labour 
questions  and  the  needs  of  the  Jewish  wage-earner. 

This  was  the  milieu  in  which  the  political  work  of  the 
London  Zionist  centre  found  great  sympathy  and  ready 
assistance.    The  circle  grew  constantly,  new  elements  joined 

II.— G 


82  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

the  older  experienced  ones :  the  worthy  EHsha  Levin- 
Epstein,  who  gave  himself  entirely  to  relief  work  and  who 
for  this  purpose  undertook  the  most  difficult  journeys  during 
the  course  of  the  war,  never  lost  sight  of  his  leading  idea, 
namely,  Zionism.  Mr.  Nathan  Straus,  who  but  a  few  years 
ago  took  up  the  Palestine  scheme,  placed  himself  in  the  front 
rank  of  the  promoters  of  Zionism  ;  Rabbi  Stephen  S.  Wise, 
one  of  the  most  popular  of  American  orators,  who  many 
years  previously  had  attended  the  Zionist  Congress  as 
delegate  and  afterwards  left  the  Movement,  returned  with 
renewed  strength  to  labour  in  the  work  of  propaganda  and 
in  the  development  of  the  organization  with  those  well-tried 
fighters,  Dr.  Harry  Friedenwald,  Professor  Israel  Friedlaender, 
Miss  Henrietta  Szold,  Professor  Richard  Gottheil,  Mr.  Jacob 
de  Haas,  Mr.  Louis  Lipsky,  and  many  others.  It  was  a  great 
pleasure  to  welcome  into  the  Zionist  camp  a  galaxy  of  new 
forces  of  great  influence,  such  for  example  as  Judge  Julian  W. 
Mack  and  Professor  Felix  Frankfurter.  In  synagogues  and 
workshops,  in  the  universities  and  in  the  clubs  of  the 
Associations  for  Mutual  Assistance — everywhere  Jewish 
national  life  began  to  throb  more  strongly  than  ever.  The 
sphere  of  Zionism  seemed  to  grow  day  by  day  :  the  great 
expansion  which  the  Zionist  university  movement  of  young 
men,  the  "  Menorah,"  had  shown,  pointed  to  a  great  future 
national  development. 

Every  idea  born  in  London  was  tested  by  the  Zionist 
Organization  in  America,  and  every  suggestion  from 
America  received  the  most  careful  attention  in  London. 
Many  Zionist  representatives  came  from  America  to  London, 
and  others  visited  America.  The  negotiations  in  political 
circles  in  England  and  France  were  known  in  America, 
every  success  was  welcomed  there  with  enthusiasm,  and 
often,  also,  received  further  support.  Every  opportunity 
was  there  taken  advantage  of  to  hold  discussions,  not  only 
with  the  representatives  of  the  Government  and  the  poHtical 
parties,  but  also  with  distinguished  statesmen  who  were 
staying  in  America  as  visitors.  The  visit  of  Mr.  Balfour, 
British  Foreign  Secretary,  gave  an  opportunity  to  the  pro- 
minent Canadian  Zionist  leader,  Mr.  Clarence  de  Sola,  for  a 
most  encouraging  conversation,  in  the  course  of  which  the 
noble  intentions  of  the  British  Government  were  expressed. 
Similar  interviews  took  place  on  various  other  occasions. 
The  real  work,  of  course,  could  only  be  carried  on  in  London  ; 
but  it  must  be  observed  that  the  interest,  the  goodwill, 


Rt.  Hon,  Arthur  J.  Balfour,  M.P. 

Olive  Edis,  F.R.P.S. 


THE  BRITISH  DF.CLARATION  83 

and  the  helpful  efforts  on  the  part  of  the  Zionist  organiza- 
tions in  the  United  States,  Russia,  Canada,  and  other 
countries,  have  been  of  considerable  value.  - 

In  September,  1917,  Dr.  Tschlenow  again  came  to 
London,  attracted  by  the  importance  of  the  Zionist  affairs 
which  were  in  negotiation.  After  more  than  two  years  of 
absence,  although  in  uninterrupted  contact  with  London, 
the  work  was  too  advanced,  and  his  health  too  poor  to  allow 
him  to  be  so  active  as  he  was  at  the  beginning.  But  he  par- 
ticipated with  his  advice  and  influence,  and  he  Hved  to 
experience  some  great  moments. 

THE   BRITISH   DECLARATION    AND   ITS    RECEPTION 

November  2nd,  1917,  marks  the  end  of  a  chapter  in 
Zionist  history  :  it  is  Declaration  Day. 

The  following  are  the  terms  of  the  letter  to  Lord  Roths- 
child in  which  Mr.  A.  J.  Balfour,  Secretary  of  State  for 
Foreign  Affairs,  declared  the  sympathy  of  the  British 
Government  with  Zionist  aspirations  and  its  favourable 
attitude  towards  the  establishment  in  Palestine  of  a  national 
home  for  the  Jewish  people  : — 

"  Foreign  Office, 

''November  2,  1917. 
"  Dear  Lord  Rothschild, — I  have  much  pleasure  in  con- 
veying to  you  on  behalf  of  His  Majesty's  Government  the 
following  declaration  of  sympathy  with  Jewish  Zionist 
aspirations,  which  has  been  submitted  to  and  approved  by 
the  Cabinet : 

"  '  His  Majesty's  Government  view  with  favour  the  estab- 
lishment in  Palestine  of  a  national  home  for  the  Jewish 
people,  and  will  use  their  best  endeavours  to  facilitate  the 
achievement  of  this  object,  it  being  clearly  understood  that 
nothing  shall  be  done  which  may  prejudice  the  civil  and 
religious  rights  of  existing  non- Jewish  communities  in 
Palestine  or  the  rights  and  poUtical  status  enjoyed  by  Jews 
in  any  other  country.' 

I  should  be  grateful  if  you  would  bring  this  declaration  to 
the  knowledge  of  the  Zionist  Federation. 

"  Yours  sincerely, 
"  [Signed)     Arthur  James  Balfour." 

It  was  at  once  clear  that  a  great  moment  in  the  history  of 
the  Jewish  people  had  arrived  through  this  Declaration.    Our 


84  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

ancient  home  has  agam  arisen  for  civilization.  For  nineteen 
centuries  it  has  been  made  a  desert,  for  nineteen  centuries 
the  Jewish  people  deprived  of  their  own  land  sought  every- 
where a  place  where  they  could  have  freedom  of  the  spirit 
and  room  for  their  work,  and  generation  after  generation 
prayed  and  dreamt  of  the  return  to  Zion.  Generation  after 
generation  drew  from  this  source  strength  to  live  and  to 
struggle.  Now  the  dreams  of  our  ancestors  are  becoming 
reality.  The  testament  of  Herzl  was  approaching  fulfilment. 
The  British  Government  has  spoken  in  solemn  terms  to  the 
Jews  of  the  world.  The  time  has  arrived  to  create  anew  a 
Jewish  homeland  on  the  ashes  of  the  past,  to  rebuild  a 
national  centre  and  to  proceed  to  work  in  freedom  in  a  free 
Jewish  land. 

Mid  storm  and  fire  the  people  and  the  land  seemed  to  be 
born  again.  The  great  events  of  the  time  of  Zerubbabel  (fl.  536 
b.c.e.)  Ezra  and  Nehemiah  repeated  themselves.  The  Third 
Temple  of  Jewish  freedom  is  rising  before  us.  The  first  stones 
were  laid  long  ago  by  our  heroic  pioneers  in  hard  struggle 
against  obstacles  without  number.  They  created  the  first 
nests  of  culture  in  Palestine.  With  their  blood  and  work  they 
have  shown  the  world  that  the  Jewish  people  has  not  only 
historical  claims  on  the  land  of  its  ancestors,  but  also  priority 
in  actual  fact  in  the  work  of  its  rebirth.  These  leader  heroes, 
the  fathers  of  political  Zionism,  bravely  proclaimed  to  the 
whole  world  the  right  of  the  nation  to  a  free  life  in  the  home- 
land, and  organized  productive  work  in  Palestine. 

Great  new  horizons  of  free  national  constructive  work  are 
revealed  before  our  eyes.  The  fate  of  the  Jewish  land 
depends  not  only  on  the  powerful  protection  of  Governments, 
but  first  and  foremost  on  the  steadfastness  and  capacity  for 
sacrifice  of  the  Jewish  people  itself.  Zerubbabel' s  call  to  the 
Jews  of  the  Diaspora  was  heard  once  more — to  return  to  the 
ancient  land,  to  grasp  the  ploughshare  and  the  hammer, 
and  to  forge  their  own  destiny. 

The  Press  was  without  exception  most  sympathetic. 

"  Epoch-making  is  perhaps  not  too  strong  a  term  to  apply 
to  Mr.  Balfour's  letter  to  Lord  Rothschild.  At  any  time  a 
formal  endorsement  of  Zionism  by  a  Great  Power  would 
command  attention  if  couched  in  such  terms.  But  at  the 
present  moment,  when  Gaza  and  Beersheba  have  fallen  to 
British  armies  and  the  distant  thunder  of  our  guns  is  heard 
in  Jerusalem  itself,  the  declaration  has  a  significance  that 
cannot  be  mistaken. 


//.    irn//,f  linrnctt  and  Co.,  Ld. 


Gen.  Sir  Edmund  H.  H.  Allenby 


PRESS  COMMENTS  85 

'*  From  the  Jewish  point  of  view  such  a  restoration  opens 
the  door  of  wonderful  possibihties  ;  the  hopes  that  have 
never  been  lost  during  eighteen  centuries  of  the  dispersion 
will  return  within  the  region  of  fact  and  accompHshment. 
Scarcely  less  important  should  be  the  consequences  for 
Europe.  .  .  .  The  family  of  nations  would  be  enriched  by  the 
return  of  one  of  its  oldest  and  most  gifted  members  to  a 
regular  and  normal  place  within  the  circle."  {Daily  Chronicle, 
Nov.  9th.) 

"  .  .  .  In  deciding  to  give  the  Zionists  their  chance,  the 
British  Government  have  done  a  bold  thing  and  a  wise 
thing ;  and  as  an  honestly  inspired  and  intelUgent  dis- 
interestedness is  sounder  policy  than  the  most  crafty  selfish- 
ness, they  have  incidentally  struck  in  this  dark  hour  a  very 
heavy  blow  for  the  cause  for  which  the  free  peoples  of  the 
world  are  fighting.  Considered  merely  as  a  gesture,  what  is 
there  in  the  war  to  compare  in  effectiveness  to  this  decision  ? 
.  .  .  The  promise  of  the  restoration  of  Palestine  will  count 
for  more  in  the  judgment  of  the  world  than  all  the  desolation 
wrought  by  the  German  legions  among  the  nations  whom 
they  have  trodden  under  foot."  [Daily  News,  Nov.  loth.) 

**  The  restoration  of  Palestine  to  the  Jews  will  fulfil  the 
centuries  old  desire  of  that  ancient  people.  Moreover,  it 
will  give  them  a  home  for  the  development  of  an  individual 
culture,  and  will  not  affect  other  than  beneficially  the  rights 
which  they  have  won  as  citizens  of  the  countries  in  which 
they  have  made  their  homes.  Moreover,  it  will  provide 
refuge  for  the  persecuted,  and  a  centre  of  Jewish  life  to 
which  all  the  race  will  naturally  turn.  Then  it  will  be  well 
for  the  Allies'  interests  in  the  Mediterranean  that  so  im- 
portant a  place  should  become  permanently  neutrahzed  and 
stand  no  risk  of  f alUng  into  the  hands  of  the  Powers  which 
might  make  a  mischievous  use  of  it."  [Pall  Mall  Gazette.) 

**  Mr.  Balfour's  announcement  on  the  subject  cl  Zionism, 
which  forms  an  extraordinarily  appropriate  pendant  to 
General  Allenby's  brilliant  operations  in  Southern  Palestine, 
marks  the  conclusion  of  a  strenuous  struggle  behind  the 
scenes  between  the  International  Jews,  to  whom  this  country 
is  much  more  useful  than  they  are  to  us,  and  the  National 
Jews,  who  are  among  our  most  valuable  compatriots.  For 
once  the  right  side  has  gained  the  day,  and  the  Zionist 
aspirations  of  the  Chosen  People  receive  for  the  first  time 
the  formal  endorsement  of  a  British  Government."  [The 
Globe.) 


86  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  No  more  appropriate  moment  could  have  been  seized 
by  the  British  Government  to  declare  itself  in  favour  of  the 
establishment  in  Palestine  of  a  national  home  for  the 
Jewish  people  than  the  present  time,  when  our  Twentieth 
Century  Crusaders  have  just  carried  Gaza,  the  ancient 
PhiUstine  stronghold,  and  are  pressing  on  to  the  capture  of 
the  Holy  City  from  the  hands  of  the  infidel.  British  interests 
have  for  long  made  it  plain  that  some  buffer  state  must 
arise  between  Egypt  and  a  possibly  hostile  Turkish  Govern- 
ment, and  Zionism  appears  to  provide  the  solution."  (The 
Evening  Standard.) 

"  Nearly  two  thousand  years  after  the  Dispersion,  Zionism 
has  become  a  practical  and  integral  part  of  aU  schemes  for 
a  new  world-order  after  the  war.  .  .  .  There  could  not  have 
been  at  this  juncture  a  stroke  of  statesmanship  more  just 
or  more  wise.  No  one  need  to  be  told  that  it  will  send  a 
mystical  thrill  through  the  hearts  of  the  vast  majority  of 
Jews  throughout  the  world.  ...  It  is  no  idle  dream  which 
anticipates  that  by  the  close  of  another  generation  the  new 
Zion  may  become  a  State,  including,  no  doubt,  only  a  pro- 
nounced minority  of  the  entire  Jewish  race,  yet  numbering 
from  a  million  to  two  milhon  souls,  forming  a  true  national 
people,  with  its  own  distinctive,  rural,  and  urban  civiliza- 
tion, its  own  centres  of  learning  and  art,  making  a  unique 
link  between  East  and  West.  Jews  who  dwell  elsewhere 
will  none  the  less  be  animated  by  a  new  interest,  sympathy, 
pride,  and  will  be  able  to  contribute  powerful  help.  So 
much  for  that  aspect.  We  need  hardly  point  out  that  for 
all  the  higher  purposes  of  the  AUies  the  importance  of 
Mr.  Balfour's  declaration  is  immediate  and  great.  From  the 
United  States  to  Russia,  new  enthusiasm  for  the  general 
cause  of  hberty,  restoration,  and  lasting  peace  secured  by 
many  new  international  links,  moral  and  practical,  will  be 
kindled  amongst  the  extraordinary  race,  whose  influence 
everywhere  is  out  of  all  proportion  to  its  numbers."  (The 
Observer.) 

"  .  .  .A  large  and  thriving  Jewish  settlement  in  the  Holy 
Land,  under  the  supervision  of  Great  Britain,  our  Allies, 
and  America,  would  make  for  peace  and  progress  in  the 
Near  East,  and  would  thus  accord  with  British  policy.  It 
is  not  to  be  supposed  that  Palestine  could  ever  support  more 
than  a  small  proportion  of  the  Jewish  race.  There  are 
probably  more  than  twelve  milHon  Jews  in  the  world,  of 
whom  far  more  than  half  live  in  Russia  and  Austria.    Genera- 


PRESS  COMMENTS  87 

tions  may  pass  before  Palestine  is  capable  of  maintaining 
with  comfort  a  million  Jewish  inhabitants,  though  it  is,  as 
Mr.  Albert  Hyamson  says  in  his  very  able  new  book,^  a  *  land 
laid  waste '  and  not  by  any  means  a  rallying  point  for  Jews 
all  over  the  world,  and  it  would  confer  a  benefit  also  on 
the  Christian  and  the  Moslem  worlds,  which  are  equally 
interested  in  the  Holy  Land  and  its  undying  religious 
memories/'    {The  Spectator.) 

"  Mr.  Balfour's  declaration  translates  into  a  binding 
statement  of  policy  the  general  wish  of  British  opinion.  It 
emphatically  favours  *  the  establishment  in  Palestine  of  a 
national  home  for  the  Jewish  people.'  If  we  were  to  analyse 
this  sentiment  we  should  find  at  its  core  the  simple  and 
humane  instinct  of  reparation.  Our  own  record  towards 
the  Jewish  race  is,  from  Cromwell's  day  downwards,  one  of 
relative  enlightenment ;  but  it  is  on  the  conscience  of  all 
Christendom  that  the  burden  falls  of  secular  persecution 
which  this  enduring  race  has  suffered.  One  of  our  soHdest 
reasons  for  welcoming  the  Russian  Revolution  was  that  it 
had  freed  the  whole  Alliance  from  complicity  in  the  sins  of 
one  of  its  chief  partners  towards  the  Jews.  To  end  this 
record  by  restoring  the  dispersed  and  downtrodden  race  to 
its  own  cradle  is  a  war  aim  which  lifts  the  struggle  in  this 
region  above  the  sordid  level  of  Imperial  competition."  [The 
Nation.) 

"  The  British  Government's  declaration  in  favour  of 
Zionism  is  one  of  the  best  pieces  of  statesmanship  that  we 
can  show  in  these  latter  days.  Early  in  the  war  The  New 
Statesman  pubUshed  an  article  giving  the  main  reasons  why 
such  a  step  should  be  taken,  and  nothing  has  occurred  to 
change  them.  The  special  interest  of  the  British  Empire 
in  Palestine  is  due  to  the  proximity  of  the  Suez  Canal.  The 
present  has  killed  the  idea  that  this  vital  artery  ought  to  be 
used  as  a  line  of  defence  for  Egypt,  and  there  is  a  general 
return  to  the  view  of  Napoleon  (and  indeed  history  long 
before  his  time)  that  Egypt  must  be  defended  in  Palestine. 
To  make  Palestine  once  more  prosperous  and  populous,  with 
a  population  attached  to  the  British  Empire,  there  is  only 
one  hopeful  way,  and  that  is  to  effect  a  Zionist  restoration 
under  British  auspices.  On  the  other  side  of  the  account  it 
is  hard  to  conceive  how  anybody  with  the  true  instinct  for 
nationality  and  the  desire  to  see  small  nations  emancipated 

'  "Palestine:  The  Rebirth  of  an  Ancient  People."  By  Albert  M. 
Hyamson.     London,  191 7. 


88  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

can  fail  to  be  wanned  by  the  prospect  of  emancipating  this 
most  ancient  of  oppressed  nationalities."  (The  New  Statesman.) 

"  The  forty-six  Jewish  colonies,  with  their  co-operative 
societies,  their  agricultural  schools,  and  their  experimental 
station  for  agriculture,  seem  to  have  prospered  before  the 
war.  Their  wine  and  oranges  were  one-fourth  of  the  total 
export  trade  of  Jaffa,  and  while  the  war  has  set  back  their 
development  the  Turks  are  likely  to  have  been  less  destruc- 
tive than  the  Germans  in  France.  Their  labour — one  of  the 
chief  difficulties  foreseen  by  critics  of  Zionism — is  partly 
Arab,  but  largely  supplied  by  Jews  from  Russia,  Roumania, 
and  the  Yemen.  With  sufficient  capital — aheady  furnished 
in  part  by  Zionist  organizations — the  removal  of  the  blight 
of  Turkish  rule,  and  the  coming  shortage  of  all  food  products, 
the  economic  future  of  a  Jewish  Palestine  should  be  bright." 
(The  Economist.) 

"  The  movement  towards  Palestine  will  be  slow,  and  none 
of  those  who  have  sanctioned  the  great  experiment  may 
hope  to  live  to  judge  it  by  the  fruits  ;  but  it  is  satisfactory 
to  remember  that  the  British  Government's  decision  meets 
with  th*"  approbation  of  many  Great  Powers.  President 
Wilson  views  the  Zionist  programme  with  the  keenest 
sympathy,  and  has  appointed  a  Jewish  Commission  to  study 
in  Palestine  the  question  of  a  Jewish  State.  The  Russian 
Revolutionary  Government  has  declared  its  wilHngness  to 
support  the  Jewish  claim  to  Palestine,  and  even  permitted 
a  Zionist  Conference  to  be  held  in  Petrograd.  Those  who 
should  be  well  informed  say  that  the  Pope  is  not  opposing 
the  Zionist  ideal,  and  that  the  French  Government  favours 
it ;  one  and  all  seem  to  be  agreed  that  when  this  war  is  over 
the  horrors  of  the  Jewish  situation  as  it  affects  the  vast 
majority  of  the  race  must  come  to  an  end.  The  persecution 
and  repression  practised  in  Russia  and  Roumania  down  to 
little  more  than  a  year  ago  cannot  go  on  in  a  world  made  fit 
for  all  to  Hve  in.  .  .  .  What  will  be  the  spiritual  effect  of  this 
return  to  Palestine  upon  the  pious  Jew,  who  for  two  thousand 
years  has  said,  //  /  forget  thee,  0  Jerusalem,  may  my  right 
hand  forget  its  cunning  ;  upon  the  other  class  of  Jew  who 
will  recover  his  Judaism  when  it  has  a  centre,  a  point  of 
focus  ;  and  upon  the  non- Jew  i  o  whom  the  return  to  Pales- 
tine is  the  fulfilment  of  prophecy  and  the  foreshadowing  of 
the  Millennium  ?  "  (The  Graphic.) 

*'  We  speak  of  Palestine  as  a  country,  but  it  is  not  a 
country.  .  .  .  But  it  will  be  a  country  ;  it  will  be  the  country 


PRESS  COMMENTS  89 

of  the  jews.  That  is  the  meaning  of  the  letter  which  we 
publish  to-day  written  by  Mr.  Balfour  to  Lord  Rothschild 
for  communication  to  the  Zionist  Federation.  It  is  at  once 
the  fulfilment  of  an  aspiration,  the  signpost  of  a  destiny. 
Never  since  the  days  of  the  Dispersion  has  the  extraordinary 
people  scattered  over  the  earth  in  every  country  of  modern 
European  and  of  the  old  Arabic  civilization  surrendered 
the  hope  of  an  ultimate  return  to  the  historic  seat  of  its 
national  existence.  This  has  formed  part  of  its  ideal  life, 
and  is  the  ever-recurring  note  of  its  religious  ritual.  .  .  . 
For  fifty  years  the  Jews  have  been  slowly  and  painfully  re- 
turning to  their  ancestral  home,  and  even  under  the  Ottoman 
yoke  and  amid  the  disorder  of  that  effete  and  crumbling 
dominion  they  have  succeeded  in  establishing  the  beginnings 
of  a  real  civilization.  Scattered  and  few,  they  have  still 
brought  with  them  schools  and  industry  and  scientific  know- 
ledge, and  here  and  there  have  in  truth  made  the  waste 
places  blossom  as  the  rose.  .  .  .  The  British  victories  in 
Palestine  and  in  the  more  distant  eastern  bounds  of  the 
ancient  Arab  Empire  are  the  presage  of  the  downfall  of 
Turkish  power  ;  the  declaration  of  policy  by  the  British 
Government  to-day  is  the  security  for  a  new,  perhaps  a  very 
wonderful,  future  for  Zionism  and  for  the  Jewish  race.  .  .  . 
In  declaring  that '  the  British  Government  view  with  favour 
the  establishment  in  Palestine  of  a  national  home  for  the 
Jewish  people,  and  will  use  its  best  endeavours  to  facilitate 
the  achievement  of  this  object,'  the  Government  have  indeed 
laid  down  a  policy  of  great  and  far-reaching  importance, 
but  it  is  one  which  can  bear  its  full  fruit  only  by  the  united 
efforts  of  Jews  all  over  the  world.  What  it  means  is  that, 
assuming  our  military  successes  to  be  continued  and  the 
whole  of  Palestine  to  be  brought  securely  under  our  control, 
then  on  the  conclusion  of  peace  our  deliberate  policy  will  be 
to  encourage  in  every  way  in  our  power  Jewish  immigration, 
to  give  full  security,  and  no  doubt  a  large  measure  of  local 
autonomy,  to  the  Jewish  immigrants,  with  a  view  to  the 
ultimate  establishment  of  a  Jewish  State.  *'  (Manchester 
Guardian.) 

The  Manchester  Daily  Dispatch  published  a  sympathetic 
interview  with  Sir  Stuart  Samuel,  Bart.,  on  the  subject  of 
the  pronouncement  of  the  Government. 

Both  The  Liverpool  Courier  and  The  Liverpool  Daily  Post 
and  Mercury  devoted  leading  articles  to  the  subject  on  the 
9th  of  November.    The  former  said  : — 


90  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  Mr.  Balfour's  letter  stating  the  attitude  of  the  British 
Government  towards  the  establishment  of  a  National  Home 
for  the  Jews  in  Palestine  may  well  be  regarded  as  one  of  the 
most  historic  documents  in  the  5678  years  of  Jewish  history. 
Its  terms  are  eminently  well  considered,  and  the  re-estabhsh- 
ment  of  the  Jewish  National  Home  is  to  be  accomplished  on 
lines  which  are  reasonable  and  just.  Indeed,  we  note  with 
satisfaction  that  the  points  to  which  we  have  already  made 
reference  in  our  consistent  advocacy  of  the  claims  of  Zionism 
(which  has  been  thrust  to  the  fore  by  world-shaking  events 
of  the  past  year  or  two)  have  been  covered  by  the  terms  of 
the  Government  declaration.  .  .  .  Zionism  has  made  a  great 
step  forward,  and  the  world  has  now  reason  to  look  forward 
to  the  rise  of  an  old-new  nation  in  its  natural  home,  where 
some  of  its  ancient  greatness  may  be  revived  in  a  national 
sense." 

The  views  of  The  Post  took  the  following  form  : — 

"  The  important  official  letter  from  Mr.  Balfour,  as 
Foreign  Secretary,  to  Lord  Rothschild,  as  representing  the 
Jews,  more  than  justifies  the  suggestion  we  lately  made  in  a 
leading  article  that  our  Government  might  be  expected  to 
encourage  the  Jewish  national  aspiration  for  a  home  in 
Palestine.  We  further  said  at  that  time  that  a  *  Palestine 
re-peopled  by  a  Jewry  bound  to  the  Allies,  and  not  least  to 
Britain,  by  ties  of  affection  for  righting  the  oldest  national 
wrong,  would  be  a  friendly  neighbour  to  Egypt  and  to  the 
newly  enfranchised  territories  abutting  upon  the  Holy 
Land.'  " 

The  Edinburgh  Evening  Dispatch  expressed  the  following 
views  : — 

"  The  aspirations  of  the  Jewish  race  to  return  to  the  Holy 
Land  seem  not  unlikely  of  fulfilment.  Scattered  over  the 
face  of  the  earth,  they  daily  turn  their  eyes  towards  Jeru- 
salem and  pray  for  the  day  when  they  will  be  restored  to  the 
land  of  their  origin.  We  are  fighting  to-day  not  for  aggran- 
dizement, not  for  the  acquisition  of  territory,  but  for  the  liber- 
ation  of  peoples  crushed  by  the  tyrant,  and  there  is  no  just 
and  reasonable  demand  which  would  not  be  sympathetically 
considered  by  the  British  Government.  Our  progress  in 
Palestine  has  awakened  in  the  breasts  of  the  '  chosen  people  ' 
fresh  hopes  of  re-establishment  in  their  Fatherland." 

The  Glasgow  Herald,  writing  in  a  similar  vein,  said  : — 

*'  From  their  aeroplanes  British  aviators  may  have  ob- 


PRESS  COMMENTS  91 

tained  a  glimpse  of  the  white  domes  and  towers  of  the  Holy 
City,  high  upon  the  crest  of  the  Palestinian  ridge.  That 
possibility  is  symbolic  of  the  effect  upon  the  Jewish  world 
of  the  British  Cabinet's  declaration  in  favour  of  Zionism. 
What  has  long  been  the  dream  of  virtually  the  whole  Jewish 
race — even  of  those  whose  inward  despair  expressed  itself 
outwardly  by  a  cynical  dismissal  of  Zionism  as  the  mirage  of 
over-heated  fancy — ^has  now  taken  definite  shape  on  the 
horizon  of  practical  poUtics." 

In  the  further  article  in  the  same  issue  the  Government 
adoption  of  the  Zionist  policy  was  further  commented 
upon : — 

"  With  singular  timehness,  for  it  coincides  with  the 
victories  of  Gaza  and  Tekrit,  Mr.  Balfour  has  written  a  letter 
to  Lord  Rothschild  announcing  the  adhesion  of  the  British 
Government  to  Zionism.  With  the  reservation  of  the  civil 
and  religious  rights  of  existing  non-Jewish  communities  in 
Palestine,  and  without  prejudice  to  the  rights  and  political 
status  enjoyed  by  Jews  in  any  other  country,  Palestine, 
when  it  has  been  conquered,  is  to  become  a  national  home 
for  the  Jewish  people.  With  numerically  small  exceptions 
this  decision — on  which  we  comment  more  fully  elsewhere — 
will  be  accepted  with  joy  by  all  the  Jews  of  the  Dispersion 
throughout  the  world.  It  will  have  an  immediate  political 
efl[ect  in  America  and  in  Russia,  no  less  than  in  Poland  and 
Hungary.  It  will  tell  to  the  advantage  of  the  Allies  even  in 
Bagdad.  In  the  Levant  generally  it  should  unite  the  Jews 
with  the  Arabs,  Greeks,  and  ItaHans  in  revolt  against  the 
Turks.  But  its  great  ultimate  influence,  as  all  will  pray,  will 
be  to  affect  for  the  b^cter  in  many  subtle  ways  the  relations 
of  Christian  and  Jew  throughout  the  world.  If  that  should 
happen  one  of  the  most  insidious  diseases  from  which 
civilization  has  suffered  will  have  been  cured." 

According  to  The  Aberdeen  Free  Press  : — 

"  This  is  the  first  time  that  any  Government  has  definitely 
put  itself  in  touch  with  Zionist  ideals,  and  the  new  departure 
is  as  important  as  it  is  timely." 

**.  .  .  In  many  ways  the  moment  appears  to  be  a  pe- 
culiarly favourable  one  for  preparing  to  launch  the  scheme 
for  providing  *  a  national  home  for  the  Jewish  people  in 
Palestine  '  in  the  sphere  of  the  practical.  The  Zionist  idea 
has  passed  through  many  changes,  and  may  pass  through 
many  more.  .  .  .  Never  until  now  have  time  and  place  and 


92  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

opportunity  been  in  accord  with  the  dream  of  returning  and 
building  up  Zion.  Mr.  Balfour's  letter,  read  in  the  hght  of 
General  AUenby's  march  upon  Hebron,  may  well  sound  hke 
the  long-postponed  answer  to  the  prayer  of  the  exiled  and 
persecuted  race,  '  Next  year,  0  Lord,  in  Jerusalem  I '  " 
(Scotsman.) 

The  Dundee  Advertiser  also  put  itself  in  Hne  with  its  con- 
temporaries which  commented  on  the  Government's  pro- 
nouncement : — 

**  Palestine  wiU,  therefore,  be  a  suitable  field  for  im- 
migration, and  by  tradition  and  inclination  the  Jews  are  the 
people  to  occupy  it.  Already  before  the  war  a  number  of 
colony  settlements  had  been  estabHshed,  chiefly  by  Jewish 
immigrants  from  Eastern  Europe,  and  without  exception 
these  settlements  were  thriving.  One  and  all  they  were 
agricultural,  and  contradicted  the  prevaihng  belief  that  the 
Jew  is  bound  to  become  a  trader  or  an  artisan,  and  will  never 
undertake  the  tillage  of  the  soil.  The  Jewish  colonies  were 
models  of  up-to-date  agricultural  enterprise,  in  which  the 
best  scientific  knowledge  of  irrigation  and  dry-farming  was 
appHed.  A  very  pleasing  prospect  is  therefore  opening  up. 
....  In  the  fulness  of  time  a  new  page  in  the  history  of  the 
Holy  Land  is  being  opened  by  AUenby's  army." 

The  Irish  Times  expressed  its  views  in  the  following 
passage  : — 

"  These  fortunate  circumstances  invest  with  especial 
significance  the  important  declaration  of  British  policy  in 
Palestine  which  we  printed  yesterday.  ...  In  this  endorse- 
ment of  Zionist  aspirations  at  a  moment  when  Jerusalem 
can  hear  the  distant  thunder  of  British  guns  the  Government 
has  declared  a  policy  of  great  and  far-reaching  importance. 
It  is  at  last  an  attainable  pohcy,  and  it  is  from  every  Doint 
of  view  a  desirable  policy.  From  the  British  point  of  view 
the  defence  of  the  Suez  Canal  can  best  be  secured  by  the 
estabhshment  in  Palestine  of  a  people  attached  to  us,  and 
the  restoration  of  the  Jews  under  British  auspices  can  alone 
secure  it  in  this  way.  From  the  European  point  of  view  it 
would  be  a  great  gain  that  the  Jews  should  become,  in  the 
words  of  The  Jewish  Chronicle,  *  a  nation,  and  not  a  hyphen- 
ation.' " 

A  leading  article  in  The  Western  Daily  Press  ran  in  part 
as  follows : — 


PRESS  COMMENTS  93 

".  .  .  There  is  no  other  solution  so  much  demanded  by 
historical  association  and  living  sentiment  as  that,  if  it  be 
possible,  the  Jewish  people  should  retake  possession  of  the 
small  but  intensely  interesting  country  over  which  they 
ruled,  with  some  interruptions,  for  nearly  two  thousand 
years.  Mr.  Balfour's  declaration  has  dehghted  many  in- 
fluential British  Jews.  It  can  hardly  fail  to  delight  equally 
the  Jews  of  Poland  and  Russia,  who  have  suffered  so  much 
from  the  '  religious  '  bigotry  of  ignorant  people,  and  the 
Jews  of  Germany  and  Austria,  often  very  wealthy  and  in- 
fluential, will  be  forced  to  ask  themselves  why  they  are  at 
present  helping  to  preserve  Turkish  rule  over  a  country 
which  the  British  are  anxious  to  restore  to  the  Jewish 
race." 

The  Hull  Daily  Mail  said  : — 

"It  is  a  wise  and  sagacious  offer,  and  has  given  great 
satisfaction  in  Jewish  communities.  It  will  be  a  great  thing 
if  Palestine  is  delivered  from  the  blighting,  blasting  influence 
of  the  Turk,  and  he  must  never  again  be  given  possession  if 
it  is  finally  won  from  his  grasp.  The  Jews  were  a  pastoral 
people,  and,  once  they  were  in  possession,  this  land,  under 
the  blessing  of  Providence,  would  again  flow  *  with  milk 
and  honey,'  and  blossom  as  the  rose  under  the  protecting 
hand  of  Britain  and  other  guaranteeing  Powers." 

And  The  Newcastle  Daily  Journal : — 

*'  The  Zionist  project  has,  at  last,  the  prospect  of  achieving 
its  purpose,  under  the  very  highest  auspices,  humanly  speak- 
ing. It  looks  like  a  first  step  towards  the  restoration  repre- 
sentatively of  the  long-persecuted  and  widely-scattered 
Jewish  race." 

Other  provincial  newspapers  that  commented  on  the 
Government's  announcement  were  The  Dublin  Express, 
The  Northern  Whig,  The  Belfast  Newsletter,  The  Bulletin, 
The  South  Wales  Daily  News,  and  The  Northern  Daily 
Telegraph. 

The  African  World  also  welcomed  the  proposals  whole- 
heartedly : — 

"  The  announcement  yesterday  that  the  British  Govern- 
ment *  view  with  favour  the  establishment  in  Palestine  of  a 
national  home  for  the  Jewish  people  '  and  the  Cabinet's 
intention  to  further  the  scheme  cherished  by  Zionists  is  an 
event  of  world-wide  importance.    A  home  for  Jews  on  the 


94  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

soil  traditionally  sacred  to  them,  and  under  British  auspices 
and  protection,  is  the  happiest  outcome  of  the  dream  of 
ages/' 

The  Shipping  World  said  : — 

"  For  a  number  of  decades  there  has  been  a  movement, 
partly  idealistic,  partly  practical,  for  restoring  the  Jewish 
race  to  their  ancient  territorial  home.  That  movement  is 
known  as  Zionism,  and  is  strongly  supported  in  the  Jewish 
communities  both  in  Europe  and  in  America.  Assisted  by 
funds  subscribed  by  the  wealthier  members  of  the  race, 
some  settlers  had  already  formed  under  Turkish  rule  Zionist 
settlements  in  the  Holy  Land.  But  colonization  under 
Turkish  tolerance  is  a  precarious  thing.  Now  appears  the 
dawn  of  promise,  and  Mr.  Balfour  has  just  addressed  a  letter 
to  Lord  Rothschild  expressing  the  sympathy  of  the  Cabinet 
with  Jewish  Zionist  aspirations.  The  Government  favour 
the  estabhshment  in  Palestine  of  a  national  home  for  the 
Jewish  people,  and  will  use  their  best  endeavours  to  facih- 
tate  the  achievement  of  that  object.  What  form  the  en- 
deavour is  to  take  is,  at  this  point,  left  obscure,  purposely, 
no  doubt.  But  we  may  in  this  hint  perhaps  see  the  nucleus 
of  a  free  State  where  the  children  of  Israel,  gathered  once 
more  from  the  ends  of  the  earth,  shall  again  possess  the  land 
of  their  ancestors  and  live  free  from  alien  oppression." 

The  Near  East  devoted  its  leading  article  to  "  The  Land  of 
Promise  "  : — 

"  On  the  other  hand,  Palestine  is  for  all  true  Jews  a 
spiritual  centre,  and  deep  down  in  their  being  they  associate 
with  it,  if  not  their  own  individual  place  of  residence,  at 
least  the  home  of  a  sufficient  number  of  Jewish  people  to 
make  it  the  focus  of  Jewish  hfe  and  Jewish  civilization. 
Such  a  Jewish  commonwealth  can  only  grow  up  to  fulfil  its 
destiny  under  the  protection  of  a  strong  and  ordered  State, 
which  will  guarantee  it  immunity  from  outside  interference, 
security  of  life  and  property,  and  the  impartial  administra- 
tion of  justice.  For  its  own  material  development  it  must 
look  to  itself,  and  in  this  connection  it  will  be  recalled  that 
Jewish  agricultural  and  urban  settlements  already  exist  in 
Palestine,  and  are  a  nucleus  ready  to  hand  for  the  new 
commonwealth.  They  point  to  the  probable  lines  on  which 
the  development  of  the  country  will  take  place,  expedited 
or  retarded,  according  to  the  degree  of  assistance  on  which 
Zionism  can  count.    The  valley  is  full  of  bones,  and,  lo  ! 


PRESS  COMMENTS  95 

they  are  very  dry  ;  many  stages  have  to  be  passed  through 
before  these  dry  bones  stand  upon  their  feet,  an  exceeding 
great  army.  Of  Palestine  it  will  then  be  true  that  '  This 
land  that  was  desolate  is  become  like  the  Garden  of  Eden, 
and  the  waste  and  desolate  and  ruined  cities  are  become 
fenced  and  are  inhabited.'  Towards  that  consummation  it 
would  seem  that  Great  Britain  in  the  dispensation  of  Provi- 
dence will  have  played  no  small  part." 

Palestine,  the  organ  of  the  British  Palestine  Committee, 
was,  not  surprisingly,  filled  with  enthusiasm  and  eloquence, 
for  the  Government  pronouncement  is  the  culmination  of 
all  its  efforts  : — 

"  The  decision  of  the  British  Government  marks  a  turning- 
point  in  the  history  of  the  Jewish  people,  and  will,  we  be- 
'  lieve,  be  for  ever  memorable  in  the  history  of  the  British 
Empire.  .  .  .  The  declaration  is  complete  in  form  and 
substance.  It  can  provoke  no  opposition  from  any  quarter, 
and  it  will  bind  the  Jews  of  the  world  in  sympathy  to  the 
country  which  has  thus  taken  the  lead  in  their  national 
redemption.  .  .  .  And  when  the  Declaration  becomes  an 
act,  when  a  Jewish  Palestine  from  being  an  aim  becomes  a 
fact,  then  all  the  complex  of  strategic,  political,  and  com- 
mercial interests  which  are  concentrated  for  the  British 
Empire  in  the  Suez  Canal  and  Palestine  will  have  found  their 
solution.  This  declaration  is  a  memorable  event  in  the 
history  of  the  British  Empire  as  it  is  in  the  history  of 
the  Jewish  people  and  of  humanity.  We  may  be  of  good 
hope  that  it  will  at  no  very  distant  date  become  a  fact, 
for  the  army  of  England  has  even  now  battered  in  the 
gates  of  Palestine.  The  statesmanship  of  this  declaration  of 
the  Jewish  nation's  right  to  Palestine  is  a  statesmanship  of 
deed,  not  of  words." 

The  Church,  Catholic,  and  Nonconformist  papers  have 
devoted  much  space  to  the  Government  decision.  In  the 
opinion  of  The  Challenge  : — 

"  If  there  is  a  considerable  part  of  the  Jewish  people  eager 
to  make  Palestine  again  their  home,  then  we  are  glad  that 
the  Allied  Governments  should  have  made  it  possible  for 
them  to  do  so,  supposing  that  the  course  of  the  war  leaves 
that  possibiUty  still  open.  It  must  be  for  the  Jewish  people 
themselves  to  decide  how  much  or  how  httle  advantage 
they  will  take  of  the  offer  which  is  made  to  them.  Mean- 
while no  one  can  avoid  feeling  a  thrill  at  a  prospect  so  closely 


96  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

affecting  the  destiny  of  the  chosen  race.  That  wonderful 
people  pursues  its  way  through  all  the  history  of  the  world, 
and  whatever  concerns  them  is  of  universal  interest." 

According  to  The  Christian  : — 

"  By  this  dramatic  declaration  an  age-long  dream  comes 
within  the  view  of  actual  fulfilment.  It  ought  to  be  apparent 
to  everybody  that  the  persistence  of  a  people  like  the  Jews 
during  two  thousand  years — a  fact  unparalleled  in  history — 
despite  every  attempt  to  crush  them,  holds  a  meaning  far 
deeper  than  that  which  the  secular  historian  offers.  The 
purposes  of  God  are  being  worked  out,  and  we  can  begin  to 
see  light." 

In  The  Church  Family  Newspaper  the  Rev.  E.  L.  Langston, 
under  the  heading  "  Jews  and  Palestine  :  Epoch-making 
Announcement,"  said : — 

"  The  declaration  of  His  Majesty's  Government  as  to 
the  future  of  Palestine  must  have  far-reaching  and  vital 
effects.  ..." 

In  the  words  of  The  Catholic  Times  : — 

"  The  settling  down  of  Jews  from  Great  Britain,  America, 
and  the  Continent  of  Europe  in  the  Holy  Land  is  something 
like  a  romance  of  a  war  in  the  main  features  of  which  scarcely 
any  romantic  element  has,  so  far,  appeared." 

The  Christian  Commonwealth  said  : — 

"  The  historical  interest  and  the  rehgious  importance  of 
this  promise  will  appeal  nearly  as  much  to  non-Jewish  people 
as  to  the  Jews  themselves.  .  .  .  We  may  yet  Uve  to  see 
Palestine  become  the  centre  of  trade  and  travel  for  the  three 
continents  of  the  Old  World.  The  early  colonization  move- 
ment has  crystalHzed  into  something  more  dramatic — the 
re-establishment  of  a  whole  people  on  the  soil  of  the  land 
where  their  national  history  began.  Their  long  exile  is  draw- 
ing to  an  end.  From  this  redeemed  and  rejuvenated  people 
what  new  message  may  we  not  expect,  seeing  that  their  faith 
has  so  manifestly  been  justified  and  the  vision  of  their 
prophets  realized  !  " 

"  We  are  quite  unable  to  find  words,"  said  The  Life  of 
Faith,  ''  wherewith  to  express  the  wonderful  importance  of 
the  above  declaration  made  by  His  Majesty's  Government. 
...  It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  this  great  declaration 
contains  the  making  of  history,  even  as  it  forms  a  new  epoch 


PRESS  COMMENTS  97 

for  the  Jewish  race.  .  .  .  We  welcome  the  declaration  all 
the  more  because  we,  too,  have  an  inborn  love  for  the  Holy 
Land,  and  because  we  can  so  deeply  sympathize  with  the 
Jewish  people,  whose  passionate  affection  for  the  land  of 
their  fathers  has  never  been  torn  from  their  hearts,  in  spite 
of  centuries  of  persecution  and  wanderings.  There  is,  after 
ail,  some  little  excuse  for  the  sentimental  yearnings  of 
the  Rabbis  who  expressed  their  heartfelt  passion  in  such 
sayings  as  : 

"  '  The  very  air  of  Palestine  makes  one  wise.'^ 
'"To  live  in  Palestine  is  equal  to  the  observance  of  all  the 
commandments. '  ^ 

"  *  He  that  hath  his  permanent  abode  in  Palestine  is  sure 
of  the  Hfe  to  come.'  "^ 

The  Methodist  Times  said  : — 

"  Naturally  this  declaration,  which  will  be  celebrated  in 
history,  has  given  the  liveliest  satisfaction  to  Jewry  through- 
out the  world.  The  pledge  is  as  sagacious  as  it  is  opportune." 
And  prints  in  addition  a  long  article  by  Mr.  C.  W.  Andrews, 
entitled :  "  Palestine  for  the  Jews :  the  Triumph  of  Zionism." 

And  in  the  words  of  The  Sunday  School  Chronicle  : — 
"  For  two  thousand  years  the  Jews  have  been  wandering 
among  the  nations.  It  looks  as  though  a  new  day  were  dawn- 
ing for  them  and  for  the  world.  .  .  .  Apart  from  the  moral 
significance  of  such  a  return,  an  independent  Jewish  State 
would  make  the  Holy  Land  a  centre  of  commercial  and 
political  influence  of  far-reaching  importance  to  the  British 
Empire  and  to  the  Far  East." 

The  British  Weekly,  The  Church  Times,  The  Christian 
World,  The  Inquirer,  and  The  Guardian  also  commented 
editorially  on  the  Government's  pronouncement. 
The  Jewish  Chronicle,  in  a  leading  article,  said  : — 
".  .  .  It  is  the  perceptible  lifting  of  the  cloud  of  centuries, 
the  palpable  sign  that  the  Jew — condemned  for  two  thousand 
years  to  unparalleled  wrong — is  at  last  coming  to  his  right. 

\i'V  n:p'T  «-inn  t^nn 
:  miratz?  ny^i^n  b^  liiiD  Th^^w  bbnt»'^  \n«  nn>tt7'>  ...(*) 

]3tt7  ntaniD  «n'»  .  .  .  bs-i2;'>   \nsa  ^^'zpw  ^d  b^  .  .  .  "  (^ 

'' :  sin  «nn  Dbi3?n 

II.  — H 


98  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

The  prospect  has  at  last  definitely  opened  of  a  rectification 
of  the  Jew's  anomalous  position  among  the  nations  of  the 
earth.  He  is  to  be  given  the  opportunity  and  the  means 
whereby,  in  place  of  being  a  hyphenation,  he  can  become  a 
nation.  Instead  of,  as  Jew,  filling  a  place  at  best  equivocal 
and  doubtful,  even  to  himself,  and  always  with  an  apologetic 
cringing  inseparable  from  his  position,  he  can — as  Jew — 
stand  proud  and  erect,  endowed  with  national  being.  In 
place  of  being  a  wanderer  in  every  clime,  there  is  to  be  a 
home  for  him  in  his  ancient  land.  The  day  of  his  exile  is  to 
be  ended.  In  this  joyous  hour  we  Enghsh  Jews  turn  with 
feeUngs  of  deepest  pride  and  reverence  to  great  and  glorious 
Britain,  mother  of  free  nations  and  protectress  of  the 
oppressed,  who  has  thus  taken  the  lead  in  the  Jewish  restor- 
ation. The  friend  of  our  people  for  generations,  who  has 
raised  her  voice  times  out  of  number  for  our  suffering 
mart3n:s,  never  was  she  truer  to  her  noble  traditions  than  to- 
day— never  more  England  than  now  !  In  the  time  to  come, 
when  Jewry,  free  and  prosperous,  lives  a  contented  and,  as 
we  aU  hope,  a  lofty  life  in  Palestine,  it  will  look  with  never- 
f aiUng  gratitude  to  the  Power  which  crowned  its  centuries 
of  humanitarrianism  by  a  grand  act  that  Hnked  Jewish 
destinies  with  those  of  the  freest  democracy  in  the  world.'' 

The  Jewish  people  all  over  the  world  was  deeply  impressed 
by  the  Declaration.  As  the  correspondent  of  the  London 
Jewish  Chronicle  puts  it,  ''  The  Jewish  masses  were  literally 
dazzled."  A  great  demonstration,  unparalleled  for  en- 
thusiasm, occurred  at  Petrograd,  and  was  addressed  by 
M.  Boris  Goldberg  and  M.  Aleinikoff,  who  styled  England  the 
"  advanced  guard  of  humanity."  He  spoke  in  the  highest 
praise  of  the  English  Labour  Party  for  its  sympathetic 
attitude  toward  the  movement,  and  of  the  American 
Zionists  for  their  defence  of  the  Jewish  colonies  in  Palestine 
since  the  outbreak  of  the  war.  Tributes  were  paid  to  the 
memory  of  Dr.  Theodor  Herzl  and  other  leaders  of  the 
Movement  who  have  passed  away,  of  the  British  soldiers 
killed  in  the  Campaign  in  Palestine,  and  to  the  Hashomerim 
who  have  died  in  defence  of  the  Jewish  colonies.  Two 
soldiers,  Levitzky  and  Kotlarevsky,  greeted  the  Declaration 
on  behalf  of  the  Jewish  Soldiers'  Union. 

Tremendous  enthusiasm  prevailed  throughout  Russian 
Jewry  because  of  the  British  Declaration  ;  and  reports 
received  from  Moscow,  Minsk,  Ekaterinoslav,  Kieff,  Khar- 
koff,  Odessa  and  Kherson  are  to  the  effect  that  tens  of 


THE  DEMONSTRATION  99 

thousands  of  Jews  who  had  hitherto  been  either  neutral  or 
inimical,  joined  the  Zionist  Movement.  Special  ser- 
vices of  thanksgiving  were  held  in  many  synagogues 
and  many  mass  meetings,  vieing  with  one  another  in  en- 
thusiasm, v>ere  held  almost  everywhere.  Many  organ- 
izations of  Jewish  youth  signified  their  intention  to  make 
whatever  sacrifices  might  be  demanded  of  them  for  the 
Zionist  ideal.  The  Russian  Press,  with  practical  unanimity, 
spoke  of  the  great  importance  of  the  Declaration,  and 
described  it  as  a  momentous  event  for  the  Jews,  offering  the 
longed-for  opportunity  to  build  a  national  Jewish  homeland 
in  Palestine. 

The  enthusiasm  in  America  found  expression  in  thousands 
of  telegramxS,  public  meetings,  resolutions,  thanksgiving 
services.  At  the  Baltimore  Zionist  Conference  on  December 
15th  a  resolution  was  passed  thanking  the  British  Govern- 
ment for  the  Declaration,  which  stated,  "  Deeply  we  rejoice 
in  the  triumph  of  the  British  arms  in  Palestine,  and  the  tak- 
ing over  of  Palestine  as  another  step  in  the  march  of  the 
Allied  Forces  which  is  to  establish  throughout  the  world  the 
principle  of  the  liberty  of  smaller  nationalities."  In  all 
other  countries  the  Declaration  was  discussed  by  public 
opinion  in  a  most  favourable  sense. 

On  November  18,  1917,  a  reception  was  held  by  the 
English  Zionist  Federation  at  which  Lord  Rothschild  officially 
communicated  to  the  Federation  the  Declaration  of  the 
English  government.  Hundreds  of  congratulatory  tele- 
grams received  from  all  parts  of  the  world  aroused 
enthusiasm.  Lord  Rothschild,  Dr.  Tschlenow,  Dr.  Weiz- 
mann,  Mr.  James  de  Rothschild,  and  the  author  delivered 
addresses  in  commemoration  of  this  historic  event  in  the 
life  of  the  Jewish  people. 

»  LONDON  OPERA  HOUSE  DEMONSTRATION 

Some  account  must  be  given  of  the  Demonstration 
at  the  London  Opera  House  of  the  2nd  December  held  in 
order  to  express  gratitude  to  the  British  Government.  This 
great  demonstration  was  attended  by  thousands  of  persons. 
The  resolution  read  by  Lord  Rothschild,  who  presided  over 
the  meeting,  expressed  gratitude  from  all  sections  of  Anglo- 
Jewry  for  the  Government  declaration  in  favour  of  estab- 
lishing in  Palestine  a  national  home  for  the  Jewish  people. 
Every  member  of  the  audience  seemed  to  feel  the  greatness 
of  the  occasion. 


100  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Lord  Rothschild  said  they  were  met  on  the  most 
momentous  occasion  in  the  history  of  Judaism  for  the  last 
eighteen  hundred  years.  They  were  there  to  return  thanks 
to  His  Majesty's  Government  for  a  declaration  which  marked 
an  epoch  in  Jewish  history  of  outstanding  importance.  For 
the  first  time  since  the  Dispersion  the  Jewish  people  had 
received  its  proper  status  by  the  Declaration  of  one  of  the 
great  Powers.  That  Declaration,  while  acknowledging  and 
approving  of  the  aspirations  of  the  Jewish  people  for  a 
National  Home,  at  the  same  time  placed  Jews  on  their 
honour  to  respect  the  rights  and  privileges  not  only  of  their 
prospective  non- Jewish  neighbours  in  Palestine,  but  also  of 
those  of  their  own  people  who  did  not  see  eye  to  eye  with  the 
Zionist  cause.  FeeUng  as  he  did  that  the  aims  of  Zionism 
were  in  no  way  incompatible  with  the  highest  patriotism 
and  loyal  citizenship  of  the  Jews  in  the  various  countries  in 
which  they  were  dwelling,  he  would  like  the  meeting  in  pass- 
ing the  resolution  which  would  be  submitted  to  them  to 
assure  the  Government  that  they  would,  one  and  all, 
faithfully  observe  both  the  spirit  and  the  letter  of  their 
gracious  declaration.  He  felt  sure  that  the  principal  aim 
of  the  Zionists  was  to  provide  a  National  Home  for  those 
portions  of  the  Jewish  people  who  wished  to  escape  the 
possibilities  in  the  future  of  such  oppression  and  ill-treatment 
as  they  had  endured  in  the  past,  and  he  therefore  held  that 
all  and  every  section  of  opinion  in  the  Jewish  people  could 
work  together  for  the  estabhshment  in  Palestine  of  such  a 
home,  so  as  to  make  it  a  triumphant  success. 

It  had  often  been  said  that  the  repeopling  of  Palestine 
by  the  Jews  was  bound  to  fail  in  so  far  as  they  were  not  an 
agricultural  people,  but  they  might  dismiss  that  fear  from 
their  minds  in  view  of  the  success  of  the  great  Jewish 
agricultural  colonies  which  were  estabhshed  in  Palestine 
before  the  war.  The  only  thing  necessary  to  achieve 
success  in  the  movement  was  a  thoroughly  up-to-date 
organization  for  the  development  of  the  land,  and  for  the 
guidance  and  selection  of  the  settlers,  who  must  act  as 
pioneers.  The  aims  of  what  now  appeared  to  be  antagonistic 
bodies  of  opinion,  seemed  to  him  to  be  so  similar  that  he  felt 
sure  that  when  those  objects  had  been  properly  examined 
in  the  light  of  experience  they  would  find,  sooner  or  later, 
that  a  common  ground  would  present  itself  for  all  of  those 
professing  these  apparently  divergent  opinions  to  work  to- 
gether in  a  common  effort  to  make  the  re-settlement  of 


SPEECH  OF  LORD  ROBERT  CECIL  loi 

Palestine  a  great   and  lasting  success.      Lord  Rothschild 
then  moved  the  following  resolution  : — 

"That  this  mass  meeting,  representing  all  sections  of 
the  Jewish  Community  in  the  United  Kingdom,  conveys 
to  His  Majesty's  Government  an  expression  of  heartfelt 
gratitude  for  their  Declaration  in  favour  of  the  estabHsh- 
ment  in  Palestine  of  a  national  home  for  the  Jewish  people. 
It  assures  His  Majesty's  Government  that  their  historic 
action  in  support  of  the  national  aspirations  of  the  Jewish 
people  has  evoked  among  Jews  the  most  profound  senti- 
ments of  joy.  This  meeting  further  pledges  its  utmost 
endeavours  to  give  its  whole-hearted  support  to  the 
Zionist  cause." 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Robert  Cecil,  p.c,  k.c,  m.p.,  who  was 
received  with  loud  cheering,  said :  "I  have  come  here  with  the 
greatest  possible  pleasure  at  the  request  of  those  who  repre- 
sent, or  who  have  led  the  representation  of  the  Zionist  move- 
ment of  this  country,  to  offer  to  you,  and  to  all  Zionism,  my 
hearty  congratulation  on  the  event  which  you  are  celebrat- 
ing to-day.  And  perhaps  you  will  allow  me  to  mention 
in  connection  with  these  congratulations,  not  only  your 
Chairman,  but  also  Mr.  Nahum  Sokolow  and  Dr.  C.  Weiz- 
mann,  who  have  done  so  much  for  the  cause  that  we  all  have 
at  heart  this  afternoon.  Surely  all  of  us  must  feel  what  a 
very  striking  gathering  the  present  one  is.  The  key- 
note of  our  meeting  this  afternoon  is  liberation.  We 
welcome  among  us  not  only  the  many  thousands  of  Jews 
that  I  see,  but  also  representatives  of  the  Arabian  and 
Armenian  races  who  are  also  in  this  great  struggle  strugghng 
to  be  free.  Our  wish  is  that  Arabian  countries  shall 
be  for  the  Arabs,  Armenia  for  the  Armenians,  and 
Judea  for  the  Jews.  Yes,  and  let  us  add,  if  it  can 
be  so,  let  Turkey,  real  Turkey,  be  for  the  Turks.  I 
should  Hke  to  be  allowed  to  say  that  the  part  that  this 
country  is  taking  in  this  movement  is  not  a  new  thing. 
I  venture  to  claim  for  this  country  that  in  supporting 
Zionism  it  has  been  merely  carrying  out  its  traditional 
pohcy.  To  me,  at  any  rate,  it  seems  that  there  are 
two  great  foundations  upon  which  the  pohcy  of  this  country 
has  always  been  based.  I  believe  that  they  are  often 
described  by  the  two  words  *  Liberty  and  Justice.'  Perhaps, 
more  accurately  they  may  be  called  the  supremacy  of  the 
Law  and  Liberty,  for,  be  well  assured,  if  we  are  ever  to 


ita 


102  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

obtain  that  security  which  we  have  been  recently  told  is  so 
important  for  us,  if  we  are  ever  to  lift  European  civilization 
and  national  relations  in  Europe  out  of  the  anarchy  in  which 
they  at  present  are,  it  must  be  by  the  same  means  by  which 
we  have  secured  liberty  and  happiness  in  each  country, 
namely,  by  the  supremacy  of  Law.  And  it  was  because  the 
invasion  of  Belgium,  the  lawless  invasion  of  Belgium,  was 
felt  by  the  true  instincts  of  the  British  people  to  be  an 
attack  upon  the  principle  of  Law,  because  they  recognized 
that  that  was  a  real  blow  at  the  heart  of  civilization,  that 
they  felt  then,  and  they  feel  now,  that  until  that  outrage 
has  been  expiated  it  is  impossible  even  to  think  of  talk- 
ing of  the  terms  of  peace.  As  for  the  second  foundation 
of  which  I  have  spoken,  and  which  has  more  practical 
bearing  on  our  proceedings  this  afternoon,  may  I  say  this, 
we  hear  a  great  deal  of  a  new  word  :  '  self-determination.' 
Well,  I  don't  know  that  it  is  a  new  thing.  It  certainly  is  not 
new  in  the  British  Empire.  The  Empire  has  always  striven 
to  give  to  all  the  peoples  that  make  it  up  the  fullest 
measure  of  self-government  of  which  they  are  capable. 
We  have  always  striven  to  give  to  all  peoples  within 
our  bounds  complete  Hberty  and  equality  before  the 
Law.  We  are  adjured  to  respect  the  principle  of 
self-determination,  but  I  say  that  the  British  Empire  was 
the  first  organization  to  teach  that  principle  to  the  world, 
and  one  of  the  great  causes  for  which  we  are  in  this  war  is  to 
secure  to  all  peoples  the  right  to  govern  themselves  and  to 
work  out  their  own  destiny,  irrespective  of  the  threats 
and  menaces  of  their  greater  neighbour.  One  of  the 
great  steps — in  my  judgment,  in  some  ways  the  greatest 
step — we  have  taken  in  carrying  out  this  principle  is  the 
recognition  of  Zionism.  This  is  the  first  constructive  effort 
that  we  have  made  in  what  I  hope  will  be  the  new  settle- 
ment of  the  world  after  the  war.  I  do  not  say  that  that 
is  the  only  thing  involved.  It  is  not  only  the  recognition  of 
a  nationality,  it  is  much  more  than  that.  It  has  great  under- 
lying ideals  of  which  you  will  hear  this  afternoon,  and  of 
which  it  would  be  impertinent  of  me  to  speak.  It  is,  indeed, 
not  the  birth  of  a  nation,  for  the  Jewish  nation  through 
centuries  of  oppression  and  captivity  have  preserved  their 
sentiment  of  nationality  as  few  peoples  could ;  but  if 
it  is  not  the  birth  of  agnation,  I  believe  we  may  say  it 
is  the  re-birth  of  a  nation.  I  don't  like  to  prophesy 
what  ultimate  results  that  great  event  may  have,  but  for 


SPEECH  OF  RT.  HON.  H.  SAMUEL,  M.P.       103 

myself  I  believe  it  will  have  a  far-reaching  influence  on  the 
history  of  the  world  and  consequences  which  none  can  fore- 
see on  the  future  history  of  the  human  race." 

The  Right  Hon.  Herbert  Samuel,  M.P.,  who  received  an  en- 
thusiastic welcome,  said :  "I  rejoice  whole-heartedly  in  the 
pronouncement  that  has  been  made  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment with  respect  to  Palestine.  It  is  a  policy  which  for  nearly 
three  years  I  have  urged  in  the  Cabinet  and  out  of  the  Cabinet 
at  every  opportunity  that  arose.  The  fears  and  the 
doubts  which  this  policy  has  evoked  are,  I  firmly  believe, 
unfounded.  Three  conditions  must  indeed  be  observed  in 
any  new  development  that  may  take  place  in  Palestine.  In 
the  first  place,  there  must  be  full,  just  recognition  of  the 
rights  of  the  Arabs,  who  now  constitute  the  majority  of  the 
population  of  that  country.  Secondly,  there  must  be  a 
reverent  respect  for  the  Christian  and  Mohammedan  holy 
places,  which  in  all  eventuahties  should  always  remain  in 
the  control  and  charge  of  representatives  of  those  faiths. 
In  the  third  place,  there  must  be  no  attempt  now  or  in 
the  future  to  estabhsh  anything  in  the  nature  of  pohtical 
authority  from  Palestine  over  the  Jews  scattered  in  other 
countries  of  the  world,  who  must  probably  always  remain 
the  great  majority  of  the  Jewish  race.  There  should  be  no 
disturbance,  large  or  small,  direct  or  indirect,  in  their 
national  status  or  in  their  national  rights  and  duties  in  the 
countries  of  which  they  are,  or  should  be,  full  and  equal 
citizens.  On  all  these  matters  there  is  no  divergence  of 
opinion  in  any  quarter,  and  the  controversies  that  have 
taken  place,  I  venture  to  think,  are  disputes  over  differences 
that  do  not  exist.  The  reason  why,  for  my  own  part,  I  sup- 
port the  poHcy  which  we  are  here  to-day  to  approve  and 
celebrate,  are  chiefly  these.  First,  it  may  be  that  the  genius 
of  the  Jewish  race  will  again  be  able  to  give  the  world  a 
brilliant  and  distinctive  civilization.  The  richness  of  man- 
kind hes  in  its  diversity.  We  do  not  want  the  world 
to  be  Hke  some  great  library,  consisting  of  nothing  but  in- 
numerable copies  of  one  and  the  same  book.  The  Jewish 
mind  is  a  distinctive  thing.  It  combines  in  remarkable 
degree  the  imaginative  and  the  practical,  the  ideal  and  the 
positive.  This  combination  of  qualities  enabled  it  for  one 
thousand  five  hundred  years  in  Palestine  to  produce  an 
almost  unbroken  series  of  statesmen  and  soldiers,  judges  and 
poets,  prophets  and  seers — thinkers  and  leaders  who  have 
left  for  all  time  their  impress  upon  the  world.    The  Jewish 


104  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

mind  is  tenacious  and  persists,  and  now,  when  all  the  power- 
ful Empires  that  over-ran  that  land  have  been  overthrown 
and  almost  forgotten,  the  Jewish  people  exists  and  is  more 
numerous  to-day  than  it  ever  has  been  at  any  period  of  its 
history.  Who  knows,  I  say,  but  that  if  it  again  finds  a 
spiritual  centre  of  its  own,  soundly  based  on  an  industrious 
population,  untrammelled,  self-contained,  inspired  by  the 
memories  of  a  splendid  past,  it  may  again  produce  goMen 
fruits  in  the  fields  of  intellect  for  the  enrichment  of  the 
whole  world.  And  my  other  reason  is  this :  If  this 
comes  to  be,  what  a  helpful  effect  it  would  have  upon 
the  Jewish  proletariat  that  will  still  remain  scattered  in 
other  countries  of  the  world.  I  see  in  my  mind's  eye  those 
millions  in  Eastern  Europe  all  through  the  centuries, 
crowded,  cramped,  proscribed,  bent  with  oppression,  suffer- 
ing all  the  miseries  of  active  minds  denied  scope,  of  talent 
not  allowed  to  speak,  of  genius  that  cannot  act.  I  see  them 
enduring,  suffering  everything,  sacrificing  everything  in 
order  to  keep  alight  the  flame  of  which  they  knew  them- 
selves to  be  the  lamp,  to  keep  alive  the  idea  of  which  they 
knew  themselves  to  be  the  vessel,  to  preserve  the  soul 
of  which  they  knew  themselves  to  be  the  body ;  their  eyes 
always  set  upon  one  distant  point,  always  believing  that 
somehow,  some  day,  the  ancient  greatness  would  be  restored ; 
always  sajdng  when  they  met  in  their  famihes  on  Passover 
Night,  "  Next  year  in  Jerusalem."  Year  after  year,  genera- 
tion following  generation,  century  succeeding  century,  till 
the  time  that  has  elapsed  is  counted  in  thousands  of  years, 
still  they  said,  "  Next  year  in  Jerusalem."  If  that  cherished 
vision  is  at  last  to  be  reaUzed,  if  on  the  Hills  of  Zion  a  Jewish 
civilization  is  restored  with  something  of  its  old  intellectual 
and  moral  force,  then  among  those  left  in  the  other  countries 
of  the  world,  I  can  see  growing  a  new  confidence  and  a  new 
greatness.  There  will  be  a  fresh  light  in  those  eyes,  those 
bent  backs  will  at  last  stand  erect,  there  will  be  a 
greater  dignity  in  the  Jew  throughout  the  world.  That 
is  why  we  meet  to-day  to  thank  the  British  Government 
— our  own  Government — that  has  made  all  this  pos- 
sible, that  we  shall  be  able  to  say,  not  as  a  pious  and 
distant  wish,  but  as  a  near  and  confident  hope  : 
"  thmi'^i  nxnn  n^^h-"  "  Next  year  in  Jerusalem  !  " 
The  Chief  Rabbi  said  it  was  indeed  a  rare  privilege  to 
take  part  in  that  wonderful  meeting  called  together  to 
express  the  heartfelt  thanks  of  British  Jewry  for  the  striking 


SPEECH  OF  THE  CHIEF  RABBI  105 

sympathy  of  His  Majesty's  Government  with  Jewish  aspira- 
tions. The  epoch-making  Declaration  on  Palestine  was  an 
assurance  given  by  the  mightiest  of  empires  that  the  new 
order  which  the  Allies  are  now  creating  at  such  sacrifice  of 
life  and  treasure  shall  be  rooted  in  righteousness,  and  broad- 
based  on  the  liberty  of,  and  reverence  for,  every  oppressed 
nationahty.  It  was  a  solemn  pledge  that  the  oldest  of 
national  tragedies  shall  be  ended  in  the  coming  readjustment 
of  the  nations  which  shall  console  mankind  for  the  slaughter 
and  waste  and  torment  of  this  terrible  world-war. 

In  the  face  of  an  event  of  such  infinite  importance  to  the 
Jewish  people,  ordinary  words  of  appreciation  or  the  usual 
phrases  of  gratitude  were  hopelessly  weak  and  inadequate. 
For  the  interpretation  of  their  true  feelings  to-day  they  must 
turn  to  Scripture.  Twenty-five  hundred  years  ago  Cyrus 
issued  his  edict  of  liberation  to  the  Jewish  exiles  in  Babylon  ; 
and  an  eye-witness  of  that  glorious  day  had  left  them  in  the 
126th  Psalm  a  record  of  how  their  fathers  received  the 
announcement  of  their  dehverance : — 

"  When  the  Lord  brought  back  those  that  returned  to  Zion, 
We  were  like  unto  them  that  dream. 
Then  was  our  mouth  filled  with  laughter, 
And  our  tongue  with  singing ; 
Then  said  they  among  the  nations  : 
'The  Lord  hath  done  great  things  with  these.' 
The  Lord  hath  done  great  things  with  us ; 
We  are  rejoiced." 

Theirs  was  a  similar  feeling  of  joy  and  wonder.  With  them 
likewise  it  was  the  astonishment  of  the  nations,  the  re- 
assuring approbation  of  statesmen  and  rulers  that  caused 
them  to  exclaim :  "  We  will  see  it  done,  and  done  consum- 
m.ately,  the  thing  so  many  have  thought  could  never  be 
done  !  " 

The  spirit  of  the  Declaration  was  that  of  absolute  justice, 
whether  to  Jews  out  of  Palestine,  or  to  non-Jews  in  Palestine. 
They  especially  welcomed  in  it  the  reference  to  the  civil  and 
rehgious  rights  of  the  existing  non-Jewish  communities  in 
Palestine.  That  was  but  a  translation  of  the  basic  prin- 
ciples of  the  Mosaic  legislation.  But  it  was  the  substance 
of  the  Declaration — the  promise  of  a  National  Home  for  the 
Jewish  people — that  filled  their  souls  with  gladness.  For 
only  on  its  own  soil  could  the  Jewish  people  live  its  own  life, 
and  make,  as  in  the  past  it  had  made,  its  characteristic  and 
specific  contributions  to  the  spiritual  treasure  of  humanity. 


io6  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

After  the  proclamation  issued  by  Cyrus,  the  mass  of  the 
Jewish  people  still  remained  in  Babylon.  All  told,  only 
forty-two  thousand  men,  women  and  children  took  ad- 
vantage of  the  king's  proclamation  and  followed  Ezra  back 
to  Zion,  the  land  of  their  fathers.  But  that  handful  of 
Zionists  and  their  descendants,  because  living  on  their  own 
soil,  changed  the  entire  future  of  mankind.  They  edited 
and  collected  the  Prophets,  wrote  some  of  the  fairest  por- 
tions of  the  Scriptures,  formed  the  canon  of  the  Bible, 
and  gave  the  world  its  monotheistic  rehgions.  Now,  as 
then,  2)^'^  "in:^^  "  A  remnant  shall  return."  But  now,  as  then, 
it  was  the  national  rejuvenation  of  that  remnant  that  is  to 
open  a  new  chapter  in  the  annals  of  the  human  spirit. 

Difficulties  ?  Of  course  there  were  difficulties.  The 
task  of  laying  the  foundations  of  a  new  Israel  must  be  one 
of  long  toil  and  severe  trial.  But  a  people  that  for  twenty- 
five  centuries  had  stood  victoriously  against  the  storm  of 
time,  possessed  vitality  enough,  patience  enough,  ideahsm 
enough,  with  the  help  of  God,  to  rise  to  the  level  of  this 
unique,  world-historic  opportunity. 

Lieut. -Colonel  Sir  Mark  Sykes,  Bart.,  m.p.,  said :  "  My  lords, 
ladies  and  gentlemen,  I  should  like  to  say,  before  I  say  one 
other  word,  that  the  reason  I  am  interested  in  this  movement 
is  that  I  met  one  some  two  years  ago  who  is  now  upon  this 
platform,  and  who  opened  my  eyes  as  to  what  this  move- 
ment meant.  He  is  on  the  list  of  speakers  ;  you  will  hear 
him  presently  ;  his  name  is  known  to  most  in  the  records  of 
Zionism  :  I  mean  Dr.  Gaster.  I  speak  as  one  from  without, 
as  a  watcher,  but  I  feel,  as  everyone  present  must  feel,  that 
this  meeting  here  to-day  marks  not  a  turning-point  in  the 
history  of  your  own  race,  but  I  think  certainly  a  turning- 
point  in  the  history  of  the  whole  world.  When  one  thinks 
of  the.  years  that  have  passed,  of  the  immense  spaces  of 
history  which  stand  between  what  was — and  now  is — 
promised,  one  is  truly  dazzled  by  the  possibilities  and 
prospects  which  open  before  us.  I  see,  speaking  to  you  as  a 
watcher — now  you,  in  a  sense,  are  perhaps  watchers  also — 
perhaps  you  see  something,  perhaps  you  see  three  nations 
stricken  with  plague,  cumbered  with  ruin,  and  Europe  a 
welter  of  blood.  Perhaps  you  see  these  three  nations,  and 
you  realize  that  it  may  be  your  destiny  to  be  a  bridge  between 
Asia  and  Europe,  to  bring  the  spirituaHty  of  Asia  to  Europe, 
and  the  vitality  of  Europe  to  Asia.  That  I  firmly  believe  is 
the  mission  of  Zionism.     I  see  here  something  which  is 


SPEECH  OF  SIR  MARK  SYKES,  M.P.        107 

greater  than  a  dream  or  a  League  of  Nations.  It  is  a  league 
of  continents,  a  league  of  races,  and  finally  a  league  of  ideals. 
That  is  a  great  vision.  That  is  what  I  believe  lies  before  you, 
but  no  one  present  realizes  more  than  I  do — I  know  the 
ground,  some  of  it — and  boldly  I  dare  to  say  that  there  lie 
before  you  dangers,  difficulties,  possibly  obstructions,  but, 
ladies  and  gentlemen,  your  time  of  probation  has  been  long, 
you  are  schooled  in  adversity,  you  can  look  to  difficulties 
with  calm,  and  you  will  overcome  them.  I  do  not  look 
for  a  sudden  magic  transformation,  but  I  beHeve  you 
are  beginning  a  great  beneficial  and  irresistible  transition. 
That  is  what  you  are  beginning.  Now,  I  believe,  I  hope  you 
are  going  to  set  up  a  power  that  is  not  the  domination  of 
blood,  not  the  domination  of  gold,  but  the  domination  of  a 
great  intellectual  force.  I  believe  you  will  see  Palestine  the 
great  centre  of  ideals,  radiating  out  to  every  country  in 
the  world  where  your  people  are,  and  if  there  is  one 
thing  that  gives  me  pleasure  to  be  here  to-day,  it  is  to  feel 
that  at  this  turning-point  of  your  history,  when  the  Govern- 
ment made  its  Declaration,  you  not  only  thought  of  your- 
selves but  you  thought  also  of  others,  and  you  will  always 
look  back  with  joy  to  the  fact  that  when  the  promise,  when 
the  hope  was  held  out  to  you  of  redemption,  you  thought 
not  only  of  yourselves,  but  thought  of  your  fellows  in 
adversity,  the  Armenians  and  the  Syrian  Arabs.  It  is  said 
that  the  Jewish  people  have  a  long  memory.  I  believe  that 
you  remember  Cordova,  where  your  influence  on  modern 
civilization  was  at  its  zenith,  and  I  think  you  remember  what 
you  owed  to  the  Arabs  in  Cordova.  You  remember  in  the 
days  when  the  Jews  were  so  oppressed  in  Russia  what  you 
owed  to  the  Armenians,  who  were  your  companions  in 
oppression.  These  tragedies  are  very  different  in  their 
nature,  and  three  tragedies  destined  to  unite  in  one  triumph. 
If  all  three  hold  together,  the  realization  of  your  ideal  is 
certain.  There  are  evil  people  who  will  desire  that  you 
should  fail.  If  these  three  forces  should  be  dismissed,  there 
will  be  the  danger  of  any  one  of  them  becoming  the  prey  of 
a  political  adventurer,  militarist,  or  the  financier.  For 
Palestine  to  be  a  success  you  must  have  a  satisfied  and 
tranquil  Syria.  For  Hberty  to  be  certain  in  Palestine,  you 
must  have  guarantees  that  no  savage  races  shall  return  there. 
You  want  to  see  Armenia  free  because  you  want  to  know 
that  all  people  are  free.  You  want  to  know  the  Arab  is  free, 
because  he  is,  and  always  will  be,  your  neighbour.    Lastly, 


io8  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

I  would  also  say  this  :  I  look  forward  through  difficulty  and 
through  pain  to  see  Armenia  free,  and  to  prove  the  inevitable 
triumph  of  right  over  the  greatest  might  there  may  be.  I 
look  to  see  the  Arab  civihzation  restored  once  more  in 
Bagdad  and  in  Damascus,  and  I  look  to  see  the  return  of 
Israel,  with  his  majesty  and  tolerance,  hushing  mockery  and 
dispelling  doubt ;  and  all  three  nations  giving  out  to  the 
world  the  good  that  God  has  infused  into  them." 

Dr.  M.  Gaster  said  he  stood  before  them  not  as  a  new 
Zionist,  but  as  an  old  friend.  He  stood  before  them,  the  old 
Zionist,  deeply  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  faith,  beheving  in 
the  truth  of  the  word  of  God  and  the  glorious  promise  in 
store  for  our  people,  a  dreamer  of  visions,  if  they  would. 
People  had  mocked  at  their  visions  and  ideals,  at  their 
aspirations  and  their  hopes,  and  yet  they  continued  their 
work,  unswerving  in  their  enthusiasm.  What  appeared 
to  so  many  as  a  dream  had  now  become  a  reality — 
and  they  were  gathered  there  to  begin  to  reap  in 
joy  what  they  had  sown  in  tears  and  sorrow.  He  had 
originally  acclaimed  Herzl  as  the  leader  of  the  movement, 
and  he  had  had  to  bear  the  burden  of  the  difficulties,  but  he 
had  been  true  to  the  trust  and  had  kept  the  flag  of  Zion 
flying,  and  it  was  now  for  him,  and  for  all  of  them,  a  day  of 
joy  to  see  the  fruits  which  they  had  so  long  wished  for. 
They  had  come  together  to  thank  the  British  Government 
for  le  heau  geste,  in  the  inimitable  French,  for  their  declara- 
tion of  sympathy  with  their  national  aspirations.  But 
Zionism  was  neither  a  local  question  nor  did  it  affect 
EngHsh  Jewry,  except  in  a  very  small  proportion.  It  was  a 
movement  which  affected  the  whole  of  the  race.  Every  Jew, 
therefore,  wherever  he  might  be,  was  united  in  that  senti- 
ment of  gratitude.  They  were  there,  representing  the  feeling 
which  animated  the  Jews  of  all  the  world.  Therein  lay  the 
greatness  of  the  British  Government — that  it  had  lifted  the 
problem  from  its  local  geographical  character  and  given  to  it 
that  universally  valued  importance  which  they  attached  to 
it.  But  what  Zionism  stands  for  must  be  clearly  appre- 
hended, and  ,also  what  the  Declaration  of  the  British 
Government  was  expected  to  embody.  The  term  "  National 
Home  "  was  a  circumlocution  of  the  original  word  which 
formed  part  of  the  Basle  programme,  the  foundation-stone 
of  Zionism,  and  that  word  had  been  chosen  when  no  definite 
political  meaning  could  be  assigned  to  it.  Circumstances 
had  changed.      It  was  for  them  to  give  to  the  word  its 


SPEECH  OF  DR.  GASTER  109 

true  original  meaning.  What  they  wished  to  obtain  in 
Palestine  was  not  merely  a  right  to  estabhsh  colonies,  or 
educational,  cultural,  or  industrial  institutions .  They  wanted 
to  establish  in  Palestine  an  autonomous  Jewish  Common- 
wealth in  the  fullest  sense  of  the  word.  They  wanted 
Palestine  to  be  Palestine  of  the  Jews  and  not  merely  a 
Palestine  for  Jews.  They  wished  the  land  to  be  again  what 
it  was  in  olden  times  and  what  it  had  been  for  Jews  in  their 
prayers  and  in  their  Bible — a  land  of  Israel.  The  ground 
must  be  theirs.  They  stood,  indeed,  as  a  people  for  the 
same  programme  as  British  statesmen  were  standing 
to-day  in  a  larger  sphere.  Jews  stood  for  reparation, 
restitution,  and  guarantees,  and  it  was  in  the  very 
application  of  those  principles  that  the  greatness  and  im- 
portance of  the  Declaration  of  the  British  Government  stood 
out  so  luminously.  England  owed  to  Jews  no  reparation. 
Here  they  had  liberty,  full  freedom,  equaUty  of  right  and 
equaUty  of  duty,  and  they  had  risen  to  the  responsibihty 
which  had  thus  been  placed  upon  them.  For  many  of  them 
there  had  their  children  now  fighting  the  battles  of  England. 
But  the  British  Government  had  now  made  itself  the 
champion  of  reparation  to  the  Jewish  people  for  the  wrongs 
done  to  them  by  the  world.  It  had  made  itself  a  champion, 
too,  of  the  restitution  of  the  land  to  our  nation  for  whom  it 
is  the  old  inheritance,  and  it  had  given  them  a  guarantee 
— security  of  tenure,  independence,  right  and  freedom  of 
action  as  a  people,  in  their  ancient  land.  The  estabUshment 
of  a  Jewish  Commonwealth  in  the  land  of  their  fathers 
would  also  consoHdate  and  clarify  the  position  of  the  rest 
of  the  Jews  throughout  the  world.  He  believed  that  a 
new  world  was  to  arise  in  which  the  Jew  as  Jew  would 
find  himself  a  free  man.  In  conclusion,  he  reminded  them 
of  an  old  legend  which  told  that  when  the  Temple  was 
destroyed  the  stones  were  spUt  into  splinters  and  each  one 
entered  the  heart  of  a  Jew.  It  was  this  memorial  of  our 
fallen  nation  which  the  Jew  carried  in  his  bosom,  and  which 
bent  his  back.  But  they  were  coming  together  once  again 
as  a  nation  in  Palestine,  and  they  would  take  the  sphnters 
of  the  stones  from  out  of  their  hearts — "  and,"  exclaimed  Dr. 
Gaster,  "  I  feel  the  stone  in  my  heart  already  loosening." 

Sheikh  Ismail- Abdul-al-Akki  then  addressed  the  meeting. 
He  spoke  in  Arabic,  which  was  translated  by  Mr.  Israel  Sieff, 
who  mentioned  that  the  speaker  was  under  sentence  of  death 
by  the  Turkish  Government  for  having  joined  the  Arab 


no  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

national  movement.  Sheikh  Ismail  said  he  desired  to  tender 
deep  gratitude  to  the  British  nation  and  the  British  Govern- 
ment for  affording  his  countrymen  and  himself  help  and 
asylum  in  their  hour  of  persecution.  His  country  was  held 
in  chains  by  the  Turks,  who  were  supplied  with  German  gold, 
and  he  looked  with  confidence  to  England  and  France  to 
dehver  them  from  bondage,  as  he  believed  in  the  ultimate 
good  over  evil,  and  was  confident  in  the  victory  of  the  Allies. 
He  not  only  spoke  as  an  Arab,  but  as  a  "Moslem  "  Arab, 
having  studied  five  years  in  theological  schools  and  being 
granted  a  degree,  and  it  was  the  duty  of  every  Moslem  to 
participate  in  the  movement  for  the  liberation  of  their 
countrymen.  The  meeting  was  to  celebrate  the  great  act 
of  the  British  Government  in  recognizing  the  aspirations  of 
the  Jewish  people,  and  he  appealed  to  them  not  to  forget  in 
the  days  of  their  happiness  that  the  sons  of  Ishmael  suffered 
also.  They  had  been  scattered  and  confounded  as  the  Jews 
had  been,  and  now  began  to  arise,  fortified  with  the  sense  of 
martyrs.  He  hoped  that  Palestine  would  again  flow  with 
milk  and  honey. 

M.  Wadia  Kesrawani,  another  Arabian  representative, 
spoke  in  French,  also  to  the  effect  that  his  countrymen 
appealed  to  England  and  France  for  their  liberation,  and 
applauded  the  Declaration  of  the  Government. 

Mr.  Israel  Zangwill,  in  supporting  the  resolution,  said :  **  In 
my  capacity  of  President  of  the  Jewish  Territorial  Organiza- 
tion, I  have  been  honoured  with  an  invitation  to  appear  on 
your  platform  on  this  momentous  occasion.  In  that  capacity 
I  have  often  criticized  your  leaders.  But  to-day  I  am  here 
not  for  criticism,  but  for  congratulation  and  co-operation. 
I  congratulate  them,  and  especially  Dr.  Weizmann  and 
Mr.  Sokolow,  upon  their  historic  achievement  in  the  region 
of  diplomacy.  To  see  that  this  is  followed  by  a  similar 
achievement  in  the  more  difficult  region  of  practice  is  the 
duty  of  all  Israel.  Particularly  is  it  the  duty  of  the  Ito, 
founded  as  it  was  to  procure  a  territory  upon  an  autonomous 
basis.  For  the  Ito  to  oppose  any  really  practicable  plan  for 
a  Jewish  territory  would  be  not  only  treason  to  the  Jewish 
people,  but  to  its  own  programme.  And  as  a  first-fruit  of 
the  friendly  negotiations  with  Zionism,  which  began  in  July, 
I  am  happy  to  be  able  to  join  with  you  this  afternoon  in 
welcoming  the  sympathy  of  the  Government  with  Jewish 
aspirations." 

Mr.    Zangwill,    of    whose  speech  the    above    were   the 


h 


THE  DEMONSTRATION  iii 

opening  words,  spoke  at  great  length,  and  with  even  more 
than  his  usual  brilliancy.  It  is  with  great  regret  that  we  are 
unable,  owing  to  lack  of  space,  to  include  the  rest  of  his 
oration,  with  the  exception  of  the  concluding  paragraph, 
which  ran  as  follows  : — 

"And  though  our  goal  be  yet  far,  yet  already  when  I  re- 
call how  our  small  nation  sustained  the  mailed  might  of  all 
the  great  Empires  of  antiquity,  how  we  saw  our  Temple  in 
flames  and  were  scattered  like  its  ashes,  how  we  endured  the 
long  night  of  the  Middle  Ages,  illumined  by  the  glare  of  our 
martyrs'  fires,  how  but  yesterday  we  wandered  in  our 
millions,  torn  between  the  ruthless  Prussian  and  the  pitiless 
Russian,  yet  have  lived  to  see  to-day  the  bloody  Empire  of 
the  Czars  dissolve,  and  the  mountains  of  Zion  glimmer  on 
the  horizon.  Already  I  feel  we  may  say  to  the  nations  : 
Comfort  ye,  comfort  ye,  too,  poor  suffering  peoples.  Learn 
from  the  long  patience  of  Israel  that  the  spirit  is  mightier 
than  the  sword,  and  that  the  seer  who  foretold  his  people's 
resurrection  was  not  less  prophetic  when  he  proclaimed  also 
for  all  peoples  the  peace  of  Jerusalem." 

Capt.  the  Hon.  W.  Ormsby-Gore,  m.p.,  said  he  was  parti- 
cularly glad  the  Zionist  Declaration  had  been  made  by  the 
British  Government  at  a  moment  when  British  arms  were 
saving  that  land,  because  it  showed  that  the  British  Govern- 
ment was  not  out  for  gain.  The  Jewish  claim  to  Palestine 
was,  to  his  mind,  overwhelming,  and  he  rejoiced  to  see  what 
an  over^vhelming  mass  of  British  representative  opinions  in 
the  House  of  Commons  was  now  supporting  the  move- 
ment. He  supported  it  as  a  member  of  the  Church  of 
England,  as  Sir  Mark  Sykes  had  supported  it  as  a  Roman 
CathoHc.  In  the  return  of  Palestine  to  be  the  Jewish  home, 
he  held  out  the  hand  of  friendship  to  the  Zionists,  who 
sought  to  bring  it  into  effect.  He  felt  that  behind  it 
all  was  the  finger  of  Almighty  God.  From  the  moment  he 
met  their  Zionist  leaders,  whether  in  Egypt  or  in  this 
country,  he  felt  there  was  in  them  something  so  sincere,  so 
British,  so  straightforward,  that  at  once  his  heart  went  out 
to  them.  They  had  in  their  leader  in  this  country  a  man  of 
great  quahties,  a  statesman  who  had  shown  a  skill,  a  deter- 
mination, and  a  patience  which  had  endeared  him  to  every- 
one. He  (the  speaker)  had  done  what  httle  he  could  to 
help  forward  the  movement,  and  in  the  future,  if  they  were 
looking  out  for  a  friend,  they  could  count  him  as  one  of 
them. 


112  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Mr.  H.  N.  Mostditchian,  a  member  of  the  Armenian 
delegation,  said  he  availed  himself  of  the  opportunity  of 
giving  their  Jewish  brethren  the  heartiest  greetings  of  the 
Armenians  and  sincerest  congratulations  for  the  dawn 
about  to  break  upon  the  glad  valleys  of  their  ancestral 
land.  He  made  a  comparison  of  the  two  nations,  who  had 
gone  through  the  same  persecutions,  but  who  notwith- 
standing wefe  not  willing  to  die,  and  had  not  died,  and 
who  stood  to-day  hand-in-hand  on  the  eve  of  a  new  era, 
when  both  of  them  would  be  able  to  live  once  more  their 
national  Hves,  of  which  they  had  given  good  evidence  in  the 
past.  They  all  knew  that  Armenia  was  one  of  the  first 
countries  mentioned  in  the  History  of  the  Jews,  and  there 
had  reigned  one  thousand  two  hundred  years  ago  a  Dynasty 
of  Armenian  Kings  who  had  in  their  veins  a  good  deal  of 
Jewish  blood.  After  the  loss  of  their  independence  the  Jews 
had  continued  to  hve  a  life  of  captivity  and  exile,  and  the 
Armenians,  after  the  loss  of  their  independence,  had  suffered 
the  same  exile.  It  was  not  the  time  to  say  what  the  Ar- 
menians had  suffered  during  the  last  three  years,  a  state  of 
things  to  which  the  worst  pogrom  was  a  heaven,  but  they, 
as  well  as  the  Jews,  looked  towards  '  to-morrow  *  with  great 
fervour  as  a  result  of  the  Declaration.  They  had  waited  long 
enough  with  their  Jewish  brethren,  for  centuries  and  cen- 
turies, and  these  two  nations,  as  well  as  the  Arabs,  would 
make  Palestine  another  promised  land  and  a  garden  of  Eden 
— a  centre  to  which  humanity  might  look  up. 

The  author  then  proceeded  to  read  a  statement  in  behalf 
of  the  Executive  of  the  Zionist  Organization.  The  text  of 
that  statement  is  given  later. 

Mr.  James  de  Rothschild  said  he  stood  there  as 
the  son  of  one  who  had  spent  his  hfe  in  endeavouring 
to  bring  about  what  they  were  celebrating  that  day. 
Jewish  ideals  up  to  that  time  had  been  met  at  the 
gate,  but  they  could  not  get  through.  With  one  stroke 
of  the  pen  the  EngHsh  Government  had  flung  open  these 
gates.  Therefore  in  every  Jewish  heart  gratitude  was 
overflowing,  and  they  must  not  forget  that  all  their  aims 
of  the  future  had  been  strengthened  by  the  country  whose 
Government  had  framed  the  generous  and  just  Declara- 
tion. 

Dr.  Ch.  Weizmann,  President  of  the  EngUsh  Zionist  Federa- 
tion, referred  to  the  many  good  and  brilHant  words  which  had 
been  said  about  the  Jews,  and  he  hoped  that  the  Jews  of  to-day 


I 


MESSAGES  OF  SYMPATHY  113 

and  the  Jews  of  to-morrow  would  rise  to  the  occasion  in  the 
needed  power  and  dignity,  and  give  their  answer  to  the  great 
resolution,  not  only  in  words,  but  in  deeds.  It  was  a  fact, 
and  no  metaphor,  that  twenty  centuries  looked  to  see  if  their 
actions  were  worthy  of  the  opportunity  which  the  British 
Government  had  given  them.  The  present  generation  had 
upon  its  shoulders  the  greatest  responsibihty  of  the  last  two 
thousand  years,  and  he  prayed  that  they  might  be  worthy 
of  that  responsibility. 

He  then  called  upon  the  meeting  to  rise,  and  with  hands 
upUfted  to  take  the  old  historic  oath — each  man  and  woman 
of  them — 

The  meeting  rose  en  masse,  repeating  the  words  of  the 
psalm  amid  great  enthusiasm,  which  culminated  in  the 
singing  of  "  Hatikvah "  (the  Jewish  national  song)  and 
"  God  Save  the  King  "  by  the  Precentors'  Association. 

Lord  Rothschild,  in  rising  to  put  the  resolution,  said  it 
was  a  great  honour  for  all  of  them  to  feel  that  they  as  Jews 
had  met  with  a  sincere  welcome  that  day  from  representa- 
tives of  no  fewer  than  five  different  religions.  He  then  read 
the  resolution,  which  was  carried  with  acclamation,  the 
whole  audience  rising. 

Among  those  who  sent  messages  to  the  meeting  were  the 
following : — 

From  the  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Grey  of  Falloden,  k.g.^ 

I  am  in  entire  sympathy  with  the  Declaration  made  by 
Mr.  Balfour,  and  am  very  glad  that  this  has  been  announced 
pubhcly  as  the  view  of  the  British  Government. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  Walter  Long,  m.p.^ 

Mr.  Long  desires  me  to  thank  you  for  your  letter  of  the 
14th  ult.,  and  to  say  that  he  wishes  all  success  to  the  Zionist 
movement. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  Arthur  Henderson,  m.p.* 

Labour  recognizes  the  claims  generally  of  Jews  in  all 
countries  to  the  elementary  rights  of  tolerance,  freedom  of 
residence  and  trade,  and  equal  citizenship,  that  ought  to  be 
extended  to  all  the  inhabitants  of  every  nation's  territory. 
Further,  it  trusts  that  an  understanding  may  be  reached  at 

^  "If  I  forget  thee,  O  Jerusalem, 

Let  my  right  hand  forget  her  cunning."    (Psalm  cxxxvii.  5.) 
'  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  1905-19 16. 
^  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies.     *  Member  of  the  War  Cabinet, 
n. — I 


114  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

the  close  of  the  war,  whereby  Palestine  may  be  set  free 
and  form  a  State  under  an  International  Agreement,  to 
which  Jewish  people  may  return  and  work  out  their  own 
salvation  without  interference  by  those  of  ahen  race  or 
reUgion. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  the  Marquess  of  Crewe,  k.g.^ 

I  have  long  hoped  that  it  would  be  possible  to  make  such 
a  Declaration ;  and  it  is  now  pronounced  in  terms  that 
should  be  equally  welcome  to  those  Jews  who  have  found 
happy  homes  on  friendly  shores,  and  to  those  who  have 
longed  for  the  re-estabhshment  of  their  race  in  the  ancient 
land.  Within  its  borders  even  now  triumphs  are  being  won, 
and  noble  Hves  laid  down,  for  the  common  cause  of  which 
this  hope  forms  part. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Bryce.^ 

For  years  past,  and  especially  since  my  visit  to  Palestine 
in  1914, 1  have  been  in  cordial  sympathy  with  the  movement 
for  re-estabUshing  the  Jewish  population  in  its  ancient  home, 
and  rejoice  to  see  that  His  Majesty's  Government  have 
recently  expressed  their  approval  of  the  idea,  which  will,  I 
hope,  take  practical  shape  in  measures  to  be  put  through 
after  the  war  is  over.  It  will  be  a  great  benefit  to  the  Jewish 
race  everywhere  to  have  this  ancient  home  to  look  to  as  the 
centre  of  its  national  Ufe,  even  though  a  comparatively  small 
part  of  the  race  can  actually  find  room  to  dwell  in  Palestine. 
The  country  seems  to  have  been  recently  terribly  devastated, 
but  when  its  resources  have  been  developed,  it  can  support 
a  much  larger  population  than  it  has  under  the  blighting 
rule  of  the  Turk.  Syrians,  Arabs  and  Armenians  are  also 
interested  in  being  delivered  for  ever  from  the  ahen  domi- 
nation of  the  Turkish  invaders. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Selborne,  k.g.,  g.c.m.g.^ 
I  warmly  and  altogether  adhere  to  the  poUcy  of  His 
Majesty's  Government,  in  sympathy  with  Jewish  Zionist 
aspirations  as  announced  by  Mr.  Arthur  Balfour. 

From  the  late  John  Edward  Redmond,  m.p.* 

I  am  in  complete  sympathy  with  Jewish  Zionist  aspira- 
tions as  I  understand  them. 

*  Secretary  of  State  for  India,  IQ10-1915. 

*  H.M.  Ambassador  at  Washington,  1907-1913. 

»  High  Commissioner  for  South  Africa,  1 905-1 910. 

*  Chairman  of  the  Irish  Parliamentary  Party. 


MESSAGES  OF  SYMPATHY  115 

From  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Balfour  of  Burleigh,  k.t., 
G.C.M.G.,  G.c.v.0.1 
I  am  in  favour  of  the  estabhshment  in  Palestine  of  a 
National  Home  for  the  Jewish  people,  and  sincerely  trust 
the  policy  will  be  successfully  carried  out. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  John  Hodge,  m.p.^ 

I  fully  sympathize  with  the  view  expressed  in  Mr.  Balfour's 
letter  to  Lord  Rothschild,  and  further,  may  I  express  the 
hope  that  the  end  of  the  war  may  speedily  see  the  realization 
of  the  Zionist  dream. 

From  Lord  Hugh  Cecil,  m.p. 

...  I  very  cordially  sympathize  with  the  purpose  of  it, 
and  heartily  rejoice  that  there  is  good  prospect  of  securing 
to  the  Jewish  people  a  National  Home  in  their  own  country. 

From  Lord  Sydenham  of  Combe,  g.c.m.g.,  g.c.i.e.,  g.c.s.i.^ 
...  I  am  in  fullest  sympathy  with  the  object,  and  I  am 
glad  to  know  that  Palestine  may  again  become  the  National 
Home  of  the  Jewish  people.  This  would  be  one  of  the  many 
happy  results  which,  we  may  hope,  will  arise  from  the  appal- 
hng  sacrifices  and  the  abiding  sorrow  which  the  war  has 
brought  upon  the  world. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Emmott,  g.c.m.g.* 

.  .  .  The  movement  for  the  estabhshment  in  Palestine  of 
a  National  Home  for  the  Jewish  people  is  one  which  has  my 
most  cordial  sympathy,  and  I  sincerely  hope  that  your 
demonstration  may  be  a  success. 

From  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Tennyson,  g.c.m.g.^ 

...  It  seems  to  me  that  the  establishment  in  Palestine 
of  a  National  Home  for  the  Jewish  people  would  make  for 
the  peace  of  the  world.  This  Jewish  State  should  be,  as 
George  Ehot  finely  says,  "  a  repubUc  where  the  Jewish  spirit 
manifests  itself  in  a  new  order  founded  on  the  old." 

From  the  Rt.  Rev.  James  Cooper,  d.d..  Moderator  of  the 
General  Assembly  of  the  Church  of  Scotland. 
The  Church  of  Scotland  cordially  endorses  the  Declaration 
fthe  Cabinet  in  favour  alike  of  the  estabhshment  in  Pales- 

^  Secretary  for  Scotland,  1895- 1903. 

^  Minister  of  Pensions. 

^  Governor  of  Bombay,  1907-19 13. 

*  Under  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies,  1911-1914. 

'  Governor-General  of  Australia,  1 902-1 904. 


ii6  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

tine  of  a  National  Home  for  the  Jewish  people,  and  of  the 
maintenance  of  the  civil  and  religious  rights  of  non- Jewish 
communities  in  a  land  so  dear  to  Christians  and  Jews,  re- 
joices in  the  prospect  of  this  double  honour  being  given  to 
Great  Britain,  and  prays  that  it  may  usher  in  a  day  of  the 
richest  blessings  to  the  whole  Israel  of  God. 

From  His  Excellency  Boghos  Nubar  Pasha,  President 
of  the  Armenian  National  Delegation. 

On  the  occasion  of  the  Zionist  meeting,  organized  by 
your  Committee,  I  am  happy,  as  President  of  the  Armenian 
National  Delegation,  to  renew  the  sincere  congratulations 
of  the  Armenians  for  the  Declaration  which  His  Britannic 
Majesty's  Government  has  made  to  you.  We  participate  in 
a  great  measure  in  the  joy  which  the  powerful  support  gives 
you  which  permits  us  to  hope  that  in  the  day  of  victory  of 
those  who  are  fighting  for  the  Hberation  of  oppressed  peoples, 
the  Armenian  aspirations  will  be  reahzed  at  the  same  time 
as  the  Jewish  people  will  attain  the  reconstruction  of  its 
nationality  and  the  reahzation  of  its  historic  claim  to  the 
soil  of  its  ancestors, 

The  Jewish  Chronicle  gave  a  list  of  several  hundred  Jewish 
institutions  in  England  which  sent  congratulatory  messages 
to  the  meeting,  as  well  as  of  an  immense  number  of  such 
institutions  which  were  represented  at  the  meeting  in  person. 

An  overflow  meeting,  over  which  Mr.  P.  Horowitz 
presided,  was  held  in  the  Kings  way  Theatre,  which  was 
crowded  in  every  part.  Among  those  who  addressed  the 
audience  were  the  Chief  Rabbi:  Lord  Lamington,  g.c.m.g., 
G.C.I.E.,  Mr.  Israel  Zangwill,  Mr.  Joseph  Cowen,  Dr. 
Selig  Brodetsky,  Dr.  David  Jochelmann,  and  Mr.  Israel 
Cohen. 

In  the  course  of  his  observations.  Lord  Lamington,  who 
was  very  cordially  received,  expressed  his  pleasure  at  the 
opportunity  afforded  him  to  express  his  sympathy  with  and 
support  of  the  Zionist  movement.  He  cordially  agreed  with 
the  statement  made  by  Lord  Robert  Cecil  at  the  Opera 
House,  that  the  Declaration  represented  the  first  act  of 
constructive  statesmanship  which  the  alHed  nations  had  so 
far  carried  out  on  the  basis  of  the  great  principles  of  freedom 
and  justice  for  the  smaller  nationaUties,  for  which  they  stood. 
The  Declaration  was  as  much  in  the  British  interest  as  in  the 
Jewish  interest.    Both  races,  as  well  as  the  East  in  general, 


THE  AUTHOR^S  STATEMENT  117 

stood  to  gain,  and  gain  substantially,  from  an  active  British 
and  Jewish  co-operation  in  the  Near  East. 

A  resolution  in  identical  terms  with  that  carried  at  the 
London  Opera  House  was  passed  with  much  enthusiasm. 

The  Author's  statement  ran  as  follows  : — 

The  Zionist  Organization  in  the  Entente  countries  which 
I  have  the  honour  of  representing  is  filled  with  feelings  of  the 
deepest  and  keenest  satisfaction  caused  by  the  Declaration 
of  His  Majesty's  Government  of  November  2nd.  The 
Zionist  masses  are  grateful  to  His  Majesty's  Government  for 
their  official  and  formal  statement  of  their  intentions  in 
clear  and  unmistakable  terms.  Posterity  will  praise  the 
quahties  which  are  revealed  by  this  historic  document ;  the 
strength  of  will,  the  sentiment  of  uprightness,  the  unshak- 
able fidelity  to  the  spirit  of  Justice,  and  the  beneficent  and 
generous  sympathy  for  the  oppressed. 

But  the  feeling  of  joy  evoked  by  the  Declaration  is  much 
more  than  the  legitimate  satisfaction  aroused  by  the  success- 
ful result  of  our  representations  to  the  British  Government. 
Quite  apart  from  and  above  all  written  conventions,  we 
reahze  that  the  Declaration  symbolizes  that  harmonious 
union  of  spiritual  ideals  and  political  considerations  which 
have  made  and  will  make  of  the  Zionist  Movement  a  precious 
instrument  working  for  civilization  and  for  the  brotherhood 
and  emancipation  of  all  oppressed  peoples  and  for  their  final 
deliverance  from  the  sad  heritage  of  age-long  hatreds  and 
misunderstandings,  which  have  dismembered  them  and 
subjected  them  to  the  forces  of  oppression. 

Three  problems  confront  the  world  at  this  hour  :  the 
problem  of  nationality,  the  problem  of  territory,  and  the 
problem  of  liberty.  Nationalities  are  being  reconstituted  ; 
peoples  are  seeking  one  another,  joining  together,  or  separ- 
ating from  one  another  ;  territories  are  being  redistributed  ; 
the  spirit  of  freedom  is  spreading,  seeking  incarnation  in 
new  forms,  and  giving  a  new  lease  of  life  to  ancient  peoples. 
Everywhere  is  instabihty,  ferment,  movement ;  from  all 
sides  are  heard  complaints,  demands,  claims  ;  all  things  are 
being  recast  in  new  moulds  ;  everywhere  new  groupings  are 
forming  round  new  interests.  The  world  is  fighting  for  the 
untrammelled  self-expression  of  nations  and  races,  for  an 
unaggressive  international  order  ;  the  hundreds  or  thousands 
of  years'  old  aspirations,  purposes,  and  aims  of  nations  have 
become  the  demands  of  the  moment  and  the  programmes 
for  the  future.     He  only  would  be  certain  of  harvesting 


ii8  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

nothing  who  had  not  sown  during  the  present  world  storm. 
In  this  noise,  in  this  welter,  in  this  struggle,  ancient  Judea 
awakes,  claiming  her  right  to  live  again.  This  right  is  in- 
alienable and  unalterable.  All  the  force  of  the  indestructible 
Jewish  race  is  in  it.  All  the  sadness  of  the  two  thousand 
years  of  Jewish  martyrdom  is  in  it.  Is  this  right  to  be  denied 
because  of  its  being  so  old  ?  Humanity,  real  humanity,  will 
not  extinguish  old  rights.  It  has  not  extinguished  it  in  the 
case  of  Greece  ;  neither  will  it  extinguish  it  in  the  case  of 
Judea. 

History  has  demonstrated  that  a  nation  deprived  of  its 
heritage  and  Hberty,  which  is  determined  to  hve  and  regain 
her  lost  country,  no  matter  how  long  she  suffers,  cannot  be 
exterminated  by  any  conceivable  means  employed  by  her 
persecutors.  And  the  Jewish  people  is  determined  to  live 
and  to  work  for  all  that  is  good  and  ennobling,  believing 
firmly  that  justice  would  be  but  a  word  of  mockery  if  the 
sun  of  hberty  could  not  shine  over  it  again. 

In  the  midst  of  universal  war,  amid  grief  and  desolation 
which  go  beyond  the  most  tragic  imaginings.  Great  Britain 
has  proclaimed  the  idea  of  creating  a  centre  of  the  arts  of 
peace,  and  a  model  of  justice.  The  idea  is  not  only  ex- 
tremely practical,  it  is  profoundly  poetical.  We  are  living 
in  the  most  critical  time  in  history.  It  is  our  fate  to  be 
spectators  of  and  actors  in  the  greatest  drama  ever  known  to 
humanity.  The  present  war  will  take  its  place  in  history  as 
one  erf  the  events  which  irrevocably  divide  two  epochs.  The 
Jewish  people  is  fortunate  in  being  able  to  consider  itself 
one  of  the  models  which  have  inspired  the  noble  initiative 
of  Great  Britain  and  her  Allies.  It  is  still  more  fortunate  in 
having  been  found  worthy  of  the  generous  protection  of 
His  Majesty's  Government,  manifested  in  so  striking  a 
manner  by  the  recent  Declaration.  And  what  glory  awaits, 
on  the  other  hand.  Great  Britain  and  her  Allies,  if  they  will 
be  instrumental  in  the  creation  of  a  Jewish  National  Home 
m  Palestine  ! 

What  is  it  that  we  wish  to  preserve  in  our  National  Home  ? 
Our  own  precious  heritage.  You  all  know  it.  The  sacred 
Jewish  home-Hfe,  the  intimately  personal  sentiment  of  our 
quahties  and  of  our  inner  freedom.  That  is  our  heritage 
which  we  have  been  able  to  preserve  intact  during  the_ 
eighteen  centuries  of  our  Dispersion,  untouched  by  thi 
ambition  and  hatred  which  sought  to  undermine  them.  Wl 
wish  to  live  and  to  live  by  our  labour  and  untiring  efforts 


THE  AUTHOR'S  STATEMENT  119 

We  want  to  be  invigorated  by  that  force  which  the  children 
of  the  soil  absorb  from  contact  with  it.  We  want  to  give 
form  and  visibiHty  to  our  mental  conceptions.  We  desire  to 
perform  Israel's  allotted  part  in  the  purpose  of  the  eternal 
progress  of  humanity  in  all  branches  of  life,  in  all  human 
activities.  The  Jewish  National  Home  will  stand  out  in  the 
world  as  an  inspiring  symbol  of  the  triumph  of  justice  over 
tyranny,  as  a  proof  of  the  right  of  nationality  to  be  itself.  It 
will  be  a  priceless  monument  to  the  future  at  a  time  when 
ruins  of  the  past  are  everywhere,  and  the  whole  world  stands 
in  need  of  rebuilding. 

Our  object  in  establishing  the  Jewish  National  Home 
on  the  sacred  soil  of  our  fathers  is  to  carry  on  the  noblest 
traditions  of  our  race  in  all  their  beauty  and  plenitude. 
Judea  it  was  which  revealed  to  humanity  the  path  of  pro- 
gress, it  was  Judea  which  taught  the  greatest  and  noblest 
lessons  in  the  life  of  nations — the  lessons  of  Freedom  and 
Right — and  it  is  Judea  which  will  become  a  centre  of  hberty 
and  a  blessing  for  the  nations.  Palestine  is  not  to  be  weighed 
down  by  mihtary  powers.  She  is  a  home  for  a  small  and 
free  nation,  and  not  for  a  troop  of  subjects.  The  glory  of 
invaders  is  to  be  conquered  by  humanity.  The  glory  of 
tyrants  is  to  yield  to  civiUzation.  The  glory  of  the  land  of 
shadows  is  to  receive  the  lamp  of  Hght.  The  cloud  passed 
and  the  star  reappeared.  And  this  star  is  not  one  of  wrath. 
Nor  is  it  one  of  hatred,  or  fanaticism.  Christendom  has  its 
great  sanctuaries  in  Palestine.  Islam  has  there  some  of 
its  important  sanctuaries.  All  our  glorious  holy  places  are 
there.  They  will  be  respected  and  safeguarded  with  rever- 
ence and  devotion,  in  peace  and  mutual  love.  But  around 
the  places  of  worship  Ufe  will  spring — honest,  simple,  pure 
Hfe.  We  are  a  peaceful  people.  We  are  going  to  cultivate 
the  soil ;  we  are  going  to  cultivate  our  ideas.  Our  future  is 
the  ploughshare,  and  not  the  sword  ;  the  book,  and  not  the 
bullet.  The  beneficent  spiritual  influence  of  a  regenerated 
Palestine  is  undoubted ;  its  future,  which  is  boundless, 
belongs  to  you ;  each  of  you  already  possesses  a  portion 
within  himself.  Let  us  but  work  together  so  that  our  people 
may  preserve  and  improve  its  title  to  be  considered  the 
conscience  of  the  human  race. 

We  reaUze,  however,  that  our  position  needs  to  be 
clearly  defined.  We  must  be  fully  conversant  with  every 
side  of  the  problem.  Vague  complaints  or  expressions  of 
yearning  are  not  enough.    There  is,  first  of  all,  the  problem 


120  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

of  Emancipation.  We  have  been  accused  of  endangering 
by  our  aspirations  towards  a  National  Home  the  position  of 
the  Jews  in  the  various  countries  of  the  world.  We  have 
racked  our  brains  in  trying  to  discover  how  the  establish- 
ment of  a  National  Home  in  Palestine  could  possibly  harm 
the  emancipation  of  Jews  in  the  world.  We  have  failed  to 
solve  this  mystery.  The  British  Government  in  their 
Declaration  have  put  to  flight  this  fear,  which  is  a  pure  fig- 
ment of  the  imagination  without  foundation  in  theory  or 
fact.  It  would  undoubtedly  be  a  great  elevation  of  the 
Jewish  character  in  the  eyes  of  the  world  at  large,  could  the 
Jews  prove  themselves  capable  of  conducting  a  Common- 
wealth harmoniously  and  successfully  ;  and  we  are  sure  they 
will  be  able  to  do  so.  This  is  our  behef,  our  ambition,  our 
Jewish  optimism.  It  is  because  we  believe  in  Israel's  genius 
that  we  are  Zionists.  This  will  help  emancipation.  The 
Jews  of  the  various  countries  who  do  not  wish  to  participate 
actively  in  the  work,  who  do  not  desire  to  take  advantage  of 
the  right  to  settle  in  Palestine,  can  remain  where  they  are  at 
the  present  time.  We  are  not  emigration  agents.  We  are 
apostles  of  a  historic  ideal,  and  we  want  the  Jewish  people 
to  help  in  its  realization. 

It  would  be  a  crime  at  a  stage  of  Jewish  history  Hke  the 
present  to  paralyse  by  internal  dissension  a  movement 
which  may  be  productive  of  so  much  good.  This  should  not 
be.  Unity  of  Judaism  before  all,  above  all !  The  majority 
will  support  the  efforts  of  their  fellow- Jews  with  great  en- 
thusiasm for  Judaism,  and  those  who  refuse  to  take  any 
part  (a  type  which  is  doomed  to  disappear,  Hke  the  mam- 
moth, from  the  face  of  the  earth)  must  keep  the  peace.  The 
least  we  can  demand  of  them  is  not  to  disturb  us  or  hinder 
us  in  our  efforts.  Where  is  the  Jew  who  could  neglect  this 
duty  which  is  inspired  no  less  by  reason  and  well-understood 
interest  than  by  conscience  and  honour  ?  Where  is  the  Jew 
who  would  fail  to  offer  the  tribute  of  his  humble  share  of 
effort,  of  help,  and  of  faith  to  the  old  land  of  Israel,  now  so 
downtrodden,  but  all  the  greater  and  more  beautiful,  as  its 
sufferings  and  trials — so  heroically  endured — are  approach- 
ing their  end  and  leading  to  its  renascence  which,  far  from 
being  a  mere  satisfaction  of  national  egoism,  is  an  exaltation 
of  the  noblest  Jewish  and  human  ideal  ? 

The  attempt  has  also  been  made  to  put  forward  the 
non-Jewish  population  of  Palestine  and  the  neighbouring 
countries  as  an  obstacle  in  our  way.    The  breath  of  intriguers 


THE  AUTHOR'S  STATEMENT  121 

tends  to  poison  every  noble  aspiration  ;  they  seek  to  create 
among  us  also  a  spirit  of  dissension,  a  spirit  of  destruction. 
We  are  firmly  resolved  to  refuse  them  this  satisfaction.  In 
vain  do  they  raise  this  kind  of  bogey.  The  deep  sense  of  the 
realities  before  us  guards  us  from  any  error  of  this  kind. 
We  have  work  to  do  which  will  prevent  our  interests 
from  clashing  with  those  of  the  Arabs.  Are  we,  then, 
anti-Semitic  ? 

The  relations  between  the  Jews  and  the  Arabs  have 
hitherto  been  scanty  and  spasmodic,  largely  owing  to 
mutual  ignorance  and  indifference.  There  were  no  rela- 
tions whatever  between  the  two  nations  as  such  because 
the  oppressive  bureaucracy  did  not  recognize  either  of 
them,  and  whenever  points  of  connection  began  to  develop 
they  were  destroyed  by  intrigue  to  the  detriment  of  both 
nationahties. 

We  believe  that  the  present  hour  of  crisis  and  the  open- 
ing of  a  large  perspective  for  epoch-making  develop- 
ments offers  a  fruitful  opportunity  for  a  broad  basis  of 
permanent,  cordial  relations  between  the  peoples  who  are 
inspired  by  a  common  purpose.  We  mean  a  real  entente 
cordiale  between  the  Jews,  the  Arabs,  and  the  Armenians. 
Such  entente  cordiale  has  already  been  accepted  in  prin- 
ciple by  leading  representatives  of  these  three  nations. 
From  such  a  beginning  we  look  forward  with  confidence 
to  a  future  of  intellectual,  social,  and  economic  co-opera- 
tion. We  are  one  with  the  Arabs  and  Armenians  to-day 
in  the  determination  to  secure  for  each  of  us  the  free 
choice  of  their  own  destinies.  We  look  with  fraternal  love 
at  the  creation  of  an  Arab  kingdom  re-estabhshing  the 
ancient  Semitic  nationality  in  its  glory  and  freedom,  and 
our  heartfelt  wishes  go  out  to  the  noble,  hardly-tried 
Armenian  nationahty  for  the  realization  of  their  national 
hopes  in  their  old  Armenia. 

Our  roots  were  united  in  the  past,  our  destinies  will  be 
bound  together  in  the  future. 

This  is  our  declaration  to  our  future  neighbours.  And 
now,  one  more  word  to  our  brethren.  We  Jews,  we  who 
hoped  for  a  better  future,  an  era  in  which  moral  rights  would 
count,  what  were  we  before  the  present  situation  ?  Dream- 
ers and  madmen.  Material  power  believed  itself  unconquer- 
able. It  produced  an  atmosphere  of  indifference  in  which 
all  hope  seemed  Utopian.  We  slept  in  the  general  decadence. 
Now  we  arise,  endowed  with  an  unconquerable  moral  force 


122  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

by  the  Declaration  of  His  Majesty's  Government.  Our  first 
and  immortal  leader,  Theodor  Herzl,  insisted,  many  years 
ago,  in  having  the  institutions  of  Zionism  established  in  this 
great,  blessed  country,  for  which  every  Jew  has  a  warm 
corner  in  his  heart.  Was  he  a  statesman  or  a  prophet  ?  I 
think  he  was  both  a  statesman  and  a  prophet.  There  is  an 
old  Talmudical  saying : — 

Q)  :  ID  D^noQ 

Twenty  years  ago  220  Jews  from  aU  the  countries  of  the 
world  met  at  the  First  Zionist  Congress  at  Basle.  They 
possessed,  though  everything  else  was  wanting,  that  wonder- 
ful power  of  improvising  things.  And  such  was  the  power 
of  right  these  220  men,  having  nothing  to  support  them 
but  the  goodness  of  their  cause,  made  headway  against 
millions  of  opponents  among  their  people.  During  the  long 
duration  of  the  struggle,  a  struggle  without  truce,  where  all 
the  strength  and  rage  was  on  one  side  and  all  the  right  on 
the  other,  not  a  single  section  of  those  220  men  failed  to 
respond  to  the  call  of  duty,  and,  although  divided  in  their 
views,  not  one  section  drew  back  from  the  fundamental 
national  idea,  not  one  gave  way.  They  increased  in  numbers 
and  they  increased  in  activity.  Let  me,  at  this  solemn  hour, 
render  honour  to  those  men,  to  that  insulted,  calumniated 
and  misunderstood  Zionist  Organization  which  always 
stepped  gallantly  into  the  breach,  which  never  took  rest  for 
a  single  day,  and  which  defended  Zionism  even  when  aban- 
doned and  momentarily  hopeless,  and  that  not  only  with 
tongue  and  brains,  but  also  with  heavy  sacrifices.  Thanks 
t*  them  we  exist,  and  thanks  to  the  progress  we  made  here 
new  life  and  new  energy  will  enter  not  only  into  our  Zionist 
Organization,  but  into  the  whole  Jewish  people.  Mr.  Balfour 
has  sent  the  Declaration  to  Lord  Rothschild  for  the  Zionist 
Organization.  We  received  and  accepted  it  joyfully  ;  but, 
I  am  afraid — or  I  am  rather  glad — that  we  shall  have 
to  re-address  it  to  the  Jewish  people,  and  I  hope  they 
will  receive  and  accept  it  as  joyfully  as  ourselves,  the 
Zionists.  This  is  perhaps  the  greatest  achievement  of 
the  British  Government  that  before  having  given  us 
Palestine  they  already  gave  us  something  which  is  very 
precious  and  very  necessary — Jewish  unity.     History  will 

^  "  Leave  Israel  alone  ! — If  they  are  not  Prophets,  they  are  the  sons  of 
Prophets." — Pesachim,  66a. 


THE  AUTHOR'S  STATEMENT  123 

record  that  Mr.  Balfour  was  the  greatest  peace-maker 
among  the  Jewish  people,  greater  than  many  Rabbis  and 
Conjoint  Committees. 

We  were  divided,  distracted  ;  and  now  we  are  indis- 
solubly  united,  all  one  band  of  brothers  in  arms  for  Liberty  ! 
I  welcome  the  representatives  of  the  Jewish  Territorial 
Organization,  with  their  famous  leader,  Israel  Zangwill.  I 
welcome  the  oldest  Jewish  organization  of  this  country,  the 
Board  of  Deputies,  and  all  other  organizations  which  are 
represented  at  this  meeting.  The  opponents  of  yesterday 
are  our  allies  of  to-day,  and  the  opponents  of  to-day  will  be 
our  alHes  of  to-morrow,  if  they  will  read  the  signs  of  the  time. 
Much  is  still  to  be  done  in  this  direction,  but  much  has 
already  been  done.  Yes  ;  this  is  the  miracle  which  has 
brought  about  our  spiritual  rebirth. 

What  does  this  mean  if  not  that  wrong  has  always  feet 
of  clay  :  that  right,  truth  and  liberty  are  from  this  time 
forward  the  true  paths  of  the  earth,  the  only  ways  which  no 
physical  force  will  ever  dishonour  ? 

Friends,  brothers,  our  new  society  makes  of  you  new 
men.  This  is  a  day  of  alUance  and  of  reconciHation.  Old 
words — Virtue,  Love,  Liberty — which  had  lost  their  bright- 
ness by  long  disuse  have  regained  their  lustre  as  on  the  day 
when  they  were  first  engraved  on  the  heart  of  man.  Awake 
from  the  long  night.  It  is  a  new  dawn  which  arises.  The 
Jewish  people  which  has  endured,  and  will  still  endure,  with 
great  firmness  of  heart  the  heaviest  sacrifices,  rising  to  the 
heights  of  the  great  arguments  of  this  War  of  Nationahties, 
affirms  that  it  is  ready  and  determined  to  work  with  all  its 
power  and  full  loyalty  for  Governments  and  peoples  until 
the  reaUzation  of  its  destiny.  May  this  destiny  be  one  in 
which  Liberty  will  triumph — one  from  which  man  and 
humanity,  the  individual  and  the  Nation,  will  derive  benefit, 
one  bringing  to  the  Jewish  people  as  to  every  oppressed 
people  the  possibihty  of  living  and  of  realizing  its  ideal.  It 
is  in  this  spirit  that  the  Zionist  Organimtion  recommends  to 
you  the  resolution. 

On  the  14th  of  December  the  Zionist  representatives,  Lord 
Rothschild,  Mr.  James  de  Rothschild,  Dr.  E.  W.  Tschlenow, 
Dr.  Chaim  Weizmann,  and  the  Author,  were  received  by  the 
War  Cabinet.  They  offered  to  the  British  Government  the 
gratitude  of  the  Jewish  people  for  the  Declaration  of  the 
2nd  November  and  at  the  same  time  expressed  their  con- 
gratulations on  the  occasion  of  the  capture  of  Jerusalem. 


124  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Mr.  Bonar  Law,  who  replied  to  the  deputation  on  behalf 
of  His  Majesty's  Government,  thanked  them  for  the  kind 
sentiments  they  had  expressed. 

The  following  Manifesto  was  issued  shortly  after  the 
British  Declaration  : — 

To  THE  Jewish  People. 

The  17th  of  Marcheshvan,  5678  (2nd  November,  1917),  is 
an  important  milestone  on  the  road  to  our  national  future  ; 
it  marks  the  end  of  an  epoch,  and  it  opens  out  the  beginning 
of  a  new  era.  The  Jewish  people  has  but  one  other  such  day 
in  its  annals  :  the  28th  August,  1897,  the  birthday  of  the 
New  Zionist  Organization  at  the  first  Basle  Congress.  But 
the  analogy  is  incomplete,  because  the  period  which  then 
began  was  Expectation,  whereas  the  period  which  now 
begins  is  Fulfilment. 

From  then  till  now,  for  over  twenty  years,  the  Jewish 
people  has  been  trying  to  find  itself,  to  achieve  a  national 
resurrection.  The  advance-guard  was  the  organized  Zionist 
party,  which  in  1897  by  its  programme  demanded  a  home 
for  the  Jewish  people  in  Palestine  secured  by  pubUc  law.  A 
great  deal  was  written,  spoken,  and  done  to  get  this  demand 
recognized.  The  work  was  carried  out  by  the  Zionist  Organ- 
ization on  a  much  greater  scale  and  in  a  more  systematic 
manner  than  had  been  possible  for  the  Choveve  Zion, 
the  first  heralds  of  the  national  ideal,  who  had  tried  to  give 
practical  shape  to  the  yearning  which  had  burnt  like  a  light 
in  the  Jewish  spirit  during  two  thousand  years  of  exile  and 
had  flamed  out  at  various  periods  in  various  forms.  The 
Choveve  Zion  had  the  greatest  share  in  the  practical  colon- 
ization. The  Zionist  movement  wrestled  with  its  opponents 
and  with  itself.  It  collected  means  outside  Palestine,  and 
laboured  with  all  its  strength  in  Palestine.  It  founded 
institutions  of  all  kinds  for  colonization  in  Palestine.  That 
was  a  preface,  full  of  hope  and  faith,  full  of  experiments  and 
illusions,  inspired  by  a  sacred  and  elevating  ideal,  and  pro- 
ductive of  many  valuable  and  enduring  results. 

The  time  has  come  to  cast  the  balance  of  the  account. 
That  chapter  of  propaganda  and  experiments  is  complete, 
and  the  glory  of  immortahty  rests  upon  it.  But  we  must  go 
further.  To  look  back  is  the  function  of  the  historian ; 
life  looks  forwards. 

The   turning-point   is   the    Declaration    of   the   British 


A  MANIFESTO  125 

Government  that  they  '*  view  with  favour  the  estabHshment 
in  Palestine  of  a  National  Home  for  the  Jewish  people, 
and  will  use  their  best  endeavours  to  facihtate  the  achieve- 
ment of  this  object." 

The  progress  which  our  idea  has  made  is  so  colossal  and 
so  obvious  that  it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  describe  it  in  words. 
None  the  less,  a  few  words  must  be  addressed  to  the  Jewish 
people,  not  so  much  by  way  of  explanation,  as  to  demand 
the  new  and  greater  efforts  which  are  imperative. 

The  outstanding  feature  of  the  Declaration  is,  that  what 
has  been  a  beautiful  ideal — and  according  to  our  opponents 
an  empty  dream — ^has  now  been  given  the  possibihty  of 
becoming  a  reahty.  The  aspirations  of  1897  now  find  solid 
ground  in  the  British  Government's  official  Declaration  of 
the  2nd  November,  1917.  That  in  itself  is  a  gigantic  step 
forward.  The  world's  history,  and  particularly  Jewish 
history,  will  not  fail  to  inscribe  in  golden  letters  upon  its 
bronze  tablets  that  Great  Britain,  the  shield  of  civilization, 
the  country  which  is  pre-eminent  in  colonization,  the  school 
of  constitutionalism  and  freedom,  has  given  us  an  official 
promise  of  support  and  help  in  the  realization  of  our  ideal  of 
liberty  in  Palestine.  And  Great  Britain  will  certainly  carry 
with  her  the  whole  poHtical  world. 

The  Declaration  of  His  Majesty's  Government  coincides 
with  the  triumphant  march  of  the  British  Army  in  Palestine. 
The  flag  of  Great  Britain  waves  over  Jerusalem  and  all 
Judea.  It  is  at  such  a  moment,  while  the  army  of  Great 
Brijtain  is  taking  possession  of  Palestine,  that  Mr.  Balfour 
assures  us  that  Great  Britain  will  help  us  in  the  establish- 
ment of  a  National  Home  in  Palestine.  This  is  the  begin- 
ning of  the  fulfilment. 

To  appreciate  and  to  understand  accurately  is  the  first 
essential,  but  it  is  not  all.  It  is  necessary  to  go  further,  to 
determine  what  is  the  next  step.  This  must  be  set  forth  in 
plain  words. 

The  Declaration  puts  in  the  hands  of  the  Jewish  people 
the  key  to  a  new  freedom  and  happiness.  All  depends  on 
you,  the  Jewish  people,  and  on  you  only.  The  Declaration 
is  the  threshold,  from  which  you  can  place  your  foot  upon 
holy  ground.  After  eighteen  hundred  years  of  suffering 
your  recompense  is  offered  to  you.  You  can  come  to  your 
haven  and  your  heritage,  you  can  show  that  the  noble  blood 
of  our  race  is  still  fresh  in  your  veins.  But  to  do  that  you 
must  begin  work  anew,  with  new  power  and  with  new  means 


126  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

— the  ideas  and  the  phrases  and  the  methods  ^f  the  first 
period  no  longer  suffice.  That  would  be  an  anachronism. 
We  need  new  conceptions,  new  words,  new  acts.  The 
methods  of  the  period  of  reaUzation  cannot  be  the  methods 
of  the  time  of  expectation. 

In  the  first  place,  the  whole  Jewish  people  must  now 
unite.  Now  that  fulfilment  is  displacing  expectation,  that 
which  was  potential  in  the  will  of  the  Jewish  people  must 
become  actual  and  reveal  itself  in  strenuous  labour.  The 
whole  Jewish  people  must  come  into  the  Zionist  Organ- 
ization. 

Secondly,  a  word  to  our  brothers  in  Palestine.  The 
moment  has  come  to  lay  the  foundations  of  a  national  home. 
You  are  now  under  the  protection  of  the  British  mihtary 
authorities,  who  will  guard  your  lives,  your  property,  your 
freedom.  Be  worthy  of  that  protection,  and  begin  immedi- 
ately to  build  the  Jewish  National  Home  upon  sound 
foundations,  thoroughly  Hebrew,  thoroughly  national, 
thoroughly  free  and  democratic.  The  beginning  may  decide 
all  that  follows. 

Thirdly,  our  loyal  acknowledgment  of  the  support  of 
Great  Britain  must  be  spontaneous  and  unmeasured.  But 
it  must  be  the  acknowledgment  of  free  men  to  a  country 
which  breeds  and  loves  free  men.  We  must  show  that  what 
Great  Britain  has  given  us  through  her  generosity,  is  ours 
by  virtue  of  our  intelligence,  skill,  and  courage. 

Fourthly,  we  must  have  ample  means.  The  means  of 
yesterday  are  ridiculously  small  compared  with  the  needs 
of  to-day.  Propaganda,  the  study  of  practical  problems, 
expeditions,  the  founding  of  new  offices  and  commissions, 
negotiations,  preparations  for  settlement,  relief  and  re- 
construction in  Palestine — for  all  these,  and  other  indis- 
pensable tasks,  colossal  material  means  are  necessary,  and 
necessary  forthwith.  Small  and  great,  poor  and  rich,  must 
rise  to  answer  the  call  of  this  hour  with  the  necessary 
personal  sacrifice. 

Fifthly,  we  need  discipHne  and  unity.  This  is  no  time  for 
hair-splitting  /controversy.  It  is  a  time  for  action.  We  ask 
for  confidence.  Be  united  and  tenacious,  be  quick  but  not 
impatient,  be  free  men,  but  well-discipUned,  firm  as  steel. 
From  now  onwards  every  gathering  of  Jews  must  have  a 
practical  aim,  every  speech  must  deal  with  a  project,  every 
thought  must  be  a  brick  with  which  to  build  the  National 
Home. 


DECLARATION  OF  FRENCH  GOVERNMENT     127 

These  are  the  directions  for  your  work  to-day. 

Worn  and  weary  through  your  two  thousand  years  of 
wandering  over  desert  and  ocean,  driven  by  every  storm 
and  carried  on  every  wave,  outcasts  and  refugees,  you  may 
now  pass  from  the  misery  of  exile  to  a  secure  home  ;  a  home 
where  the  Jewish  spirit  and  the  old  Hebrew  genius,  which  so 
long  have  hovered  broken-winged  over  strange  nests,  can 
also  find  heahng  and  be  quickened  into  new  life. 

M.  SOKOLOW. 

E.  W.  TSCHLENOW. 

Ch.  Weizmann. 

declarations  of  the  entente  governments 

After  this  most  important  achievement  which  is  considered 
as  the  foundation-stone  of  future  policy  in  and  regarding 
Palestine,  it  was  found  necessary  to  come  into  closer 
pohtical  relations  with  the  other  Entente  countries,  in  the 
light  of  the  new  situation  created  by  the  British  Declar- 
ation. 

Negotiations  were  carried  on  with  the  proper  authorities 
in  the  French  and  Italian  Governments :  the  negotia- 
tions were  crowned  with  success,  and  the  official  endorse- 
ments by  France  and  Italy  of  the  British  Declaration  were 
communicated  to  the  world  in  the  following  official  docu- 
ments : — 

The  follo\ving  is  the  text  of  the  French  Government's 
Declaration  communicated  in  a  letter  to  the  author : — 

RepubUque  fran^aise. 
Ministere  des  Affaires  £trangeres  : 
Direction  des  Affaires  PoHtiques  et  Commercials. 

Paris,  le  i^mefevrier,  1918. 

Monsieur, 

Comme  il  a  ete  convenu  au  cours  de  notre  entretien 
le  Samedi  9  de  ce  mois,  le  Gouvernement  de  la  Repubhque, 
en  vue  de  preciser  son  attitude  vis-a-vis  des  aspirations 
sionistes,  tendant  a  creer  pour  les  juifs  en  Palestine  un  foyer 
national,  a  public  un  communique  dans  la  presse. 

En  vous  communiquant  ce  texte,  je  saisis  avec  empresse- 
ment  Toccasion  de  vous  feliciter  du  genereux  devouement 
avec  lequel  vous  poursuiviez  la  reahsation  des  voeux  de  vos 
co-religionnaires,  et  de  vous  remercier  du  zele  que  vous 
apportez  k  leur  faire  connaitre  les  sentiments  de  sympathie 


128  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

que  leurs  efforts  eveillent  dans  les  pays  de  rentente  et 
notamment  en  France. 

Veuillez  agreer,  Monsieur,  I'assurance  de  ma  considera- 

(Signed)  Pichon. 

M.  "SOKOLOW, 

Hotel  Meurice,  Paris. 

Le  Communique. 
Monsieur  Sokolow,  representant  des  Organisations  Sion- 
istes,  a  ete  re9u  ce  matin  au  Ministere  des  Affaires 
Etrangeres  par  Monsieur  Stephen  Pichon,  qui  a  ete  heureux 
de  lui  confirmer  que  I'Entente  est  complete  entre  les 
Gouvernements  frangais  et  britannique  en  ce  qui  conceme 
la  question  d'un  etablissement  juif  en  Palestine." 

[Translation.] 

Republique  frangaise. 
Ministere  des  Affaires  fitrangeres  : 
Direction  des  Affaires  Politiques  et  Commerciales. 

^  Paris,  i^th  February,  1918. 

As  arranged  at  our  meeting  on  Saturday,  the  9th  of 
this  month,  the  Government  of  the  Republic,  so  as  to  make 
definite  its  views  on  the  subject  of  Zionist  aspirations  with 
regard  to  the  creation  of  a  Jewish  national  home  in  Palestine, 
has  sent  a  communication  to  the  Press. 

In  sending  you  this  text,  I  wish  to  take  the  opportunity 
of  congratulating  you  on  the  splendid  devotion  with  which 
you  are  furthering  the  aspirations  of  your  co-religionists, 
and  of  thanking  you  for  the  way  in  which  you  have  made 
known  to  them  the  sympathy  with  which  all  the  countries  of 
the  Entente,  and  especially  France,  are  watching  their  efforts. 

Please  accept  assurances  of  my  most  cordial  sympathy. 

{Signed)  Pichon. 

M.  Sokolow, 

Hotel  Meurice,  Paris. 

Mr.  Sokolow,  representing  the  Zionist  Organizations,  was 
this  morning  received  by  Mons.  Pichon,  Minister  for  Foreign 
Affairs,  who  was  happy  to  inform  him  that  there  is  complete 
agreement  between  the  French  and  British  Governments 
in  all  matters  which  concern  the  estabhshment  of  a  Jewish 
national  home  in  Palestine. 


A.  F.  J.  RiBOT 


Jules  M.  Cambon 

Henri  Manuel,  Paris 


Baron  Sidney  Sonnino 


S.   J.   M.   PiCHON 

Henri  Manuel,  Paris 


G.  E.  B.  Clemenceau 

Henii  Manuel,  Paris 


4 


DECLARATION  OF  ITALIAN  GOVERNMENT     129 

The  following  is  the  Declaration  which  was  made  by  the 
Italian  Government  to  myself  as  representative  of  the 
Zionist  Organization,  through  the  ItaUan  Ambassador  in 
^^^^on:-  LONDRA, 

li  9  Maggio,  1918. 

Pregiatissimo  Signore, 

D'ordine  di  Sua  Eccellenza  il  Barone  Sonnino, 
Ministro  per  gh  Affari  Estri  del  Re,  ho  Tonore  d'informarla 
che,  in  relazione  alle  domande  che  gli  sono  state  rivolti,  il 
Governo  di  Sua  Maest^  e  lieto  di  confermare  le  precedenti 
dichiarazioni  gia  fatte  a  mezzo  dei  suoi  rappresentanti  a 
Washington,  I'Aja  e  Salonicco,  di  essere  cioe  disposto  ad 
adoperarsi  con  piacere  per  facilitare  lo  stabihrsi  in  Palestina 
di  un  centro  nazionale  ebraico,  nell'  intesa  pero  che  non  ne 
venga  nessun  pregiudizio  alio  stato  giuridico  e  politico  delle 
gja  esistenti  comunita*  religiose  ed  ai  diritti  civili  e  pohtici 
che  gl'  IsraeUti  gia  godono  in  ogni  altro  paese. 

Gradisca,  Pregiatissimo  Signore,  gli  atti  della  mia  Distin- 

tissima  considerazione.  ,^.       ,.  -r- 

(Signed)  Imperiali. 

I       Signor  Nahum  Sokolow, 

^B  35-3S  Empire  House, 

^B^  175  Piccadilly,  W.  i. 

^H^^  [Translation.] 

mff  Italian  Embassy,  London, 

Imv  DEAR  Sir,  9th  May.  xgiS. 

On  the  instructions  of  His  Excellency,  Baron  Sonnino, 

,    His  Majesty's  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  I  have  the  honour 

to  inform  you  that  v^ith  reference  to  your  representations 

I    His   Majesty's   Government    are   pleased   to   confirm   the 

j   Declaration  already  made  through  their  representatives  in 

j   Washington,  The  Hague,  and  Salonica,  to  the  effect  that 

'    they  will  use  their  best  endeavours  to  facihtate  the  estabUsh- 

ment  in  Palestme  of  a  Jewish  National  Centre,  it  being 

i   understood  that  this  shall  not  prejudice  the  civil  and  religious 

I   rights  of  existing  non- Jewish  communities  in  Palestine  or 

the  legal  or  poUtical  status  enjoyed  by  Jews  in  any  other 

country. 

Pray  accept,  my  dear  sir,  the  assurance  of  my  distinguished 

consideration.  -^.       ,,   ^ 

(Signed)  Imperiali. 

M.  Nahum  Sokolow, 

i75Piccadilly,  \V.  I. 


130  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

In  President's  Wilson's  address  to  Congress  of  January  8th, 
1918,  a  speech  commonly  regarded  as  a  complete  statement 
of  the  objects  for  which  the  Allied  Powers  were  fighting,  the 
twelfth  of  the  articles  in  the  programme  of  the  world's  peace 
was  stated  thus  : — 

"  The  Turkish  portions  of  the  present  Ottoman  Empire 
should  be  assured  a  secure  sovereignty,  but  the  other  nation- 
alities which  are  now  under  Turkish  rule  should  he  assured  an 
undoubted  security  of  life  and  an  absolutely  unmolested 
opportunity  of  autonomous  development,  and  the  Dardanelles 
should  be  permanently  opened  as  a  free  passage  to  ships 
and  commerce  of  all  nations  under  international  guarantees." 

This  statement  was  regarded  by  Zionists  as  signifying 
the  sympathetic  attitude  of  the  American  Government,  and 
especially  of  its  President,  to  the  Zionist  movement.  Presi- 
dent Wilson  is  regarded  as  the  spokesman  of  the  Entente 
principles,  and  it  is  well  known  to  Zionists  that  his  attitude 
is  favourable  to  the  realization  of  Zionist  aims,  because  the 
latter  are  in  complete  harmony  with  the  principle  of  justice 
to  small  nationalities,  of  which  President  Wilson  is  the 
clearest  and  most  outspoken  exponent.  His  address  makes 
no  specific  reference  to  the  Jewish  question  or  to  Palestine, 
but  his  intention  is  perfectly  clear. 

In  August,  1918,  President  Wilson  wrote  the  following 
letter  :— 

"  I  have  watched  with  deep  and  sincere  interest  the  re- 
constructive work  which  the  Weizmann  Commission  has 
done  in  Palestine  at  the  instance  of  the  British  Government, 
and  I  welcome  an  opportunity  to  express  the  satisfaction  I 
have  felt  in  the  progress  of  the  Zionist  Movement  in  the 
United  States  and  in  the  Allied  countries  since  the  Declara- 
tion by  Mr.  Balfour  on  behalf  of  the  British  Government  of 
Great  Britain's  approval  of  the  establishment  in. Palestine 
of  a  National  Home  for  the  Jewish  people,  and  his  promise 
that  the  British  Government  would  use  its  best  endeavours 
to  facilitate  the  achievement  of  that  object,  with  the  under- 
standing that  nothing  would  be  done  to  prejudice  the  civil 
and  religious  rights  of  non- Jewish  people  in  Palestine  or  the 
rights  and  political  status  enjoyed  by  Jews  in  other  countries. 
I  think  that  all  Americans  will  be  deeply  moved  by  the 
report  that  even  in  this  time  of  stress  the  Weizmann  Com- 
mission has  been  able  to  lay  the  foundation  of  the  Hebrew 


Ih>:-er  S licet  Studios 


President 
Thomas  Wooduow   Wilson 


THE  RT.  HON.  D.  LLOYD  GEORGE  131 

University  at  Jerusalem  with  the  promise  that  that  bears  of 
spiritual  rebirth." 

Public  opinion  in  America  regarded  this  letter  as  a 
precious  document  embodying  full  American  support  of 
the  Zionist  aims,  in  harmony  with  the  British  Declaration. 

Many  opportunities  have  been  taken  by  British  statesmen 
to  refer  to  the  British  Declaration  in  terms  which  show  that 
they  attach  the  very  greatest  value  to  it.  Thus,  the  Rt 
Hon.  George  N.  Barnes  said,  in  a  speech  delivered  on  the 
14th  of  July,  a  full  extract  of  which  appears  below : — 

"  The  British  Government  proclaimed  its  policy  of 
Zionism  because  it  believed  that  Zionism  was  identified 
with  the  policy  and  aims  for  which  good  men  and  women 
are  struggling  everywhere.  That  policy  is  the  policy  of  the 
Allies  in  the  war.  It  is  the  policy  to  which  we  are  pledged  ; 
it  is  the  policy  which  we  believe  accords  with  the  wishes  of 
vast  numbers  of  the  Jewish  people,  many  of  whom  have 
cast  wistful  eyes  to  Palestine  as  again  destined  to  be  their 
national  home." 

Lord  Robert  Cecil,  in  regretting  his  inability  to  be  present 
at  the  meeting  held  on  July  14th  to  welcome  the  American 
Zionist  Medical  Unit,  wrote  : — 

**  The  Zionist  movement  represents  a  great  ideal  which 
may  have  incalculable  consequences  for  the  future  welfare 
of  the  world." 

The  Rt.  Hon.  A.  J.  Balfour,  in  his  address  to  a 
deputation  of  the  Medical  Unit  (given  in  full  further  on), 
said  : — 

'*  The  destruction  of  Judea  that  occurred  nineteen  cen- 
turies ago  is  one  of  the  great  wrongs  which  the  Allied 
Powers  are  trying  to  redress." 

Mr.  Lloyd  George  wrote  to  the  Author,  on  the  29th  of  June, 
in  connection  with  the  Government  declaration  safeguarding 
the  rights  of  the  Roumanian  Jews  : — 

Dear  Sir, 

I  am  desired  by  the  Prime  Minister  to  acknowledge 
the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  21st  inst.,  and  the  enclosure. 
Mr.  Lloyd  George  wishes  me  to  thank  you  for  what  you 
say  in  regard  to  the  friendship  which  exists  between  this 
country  and  the  Jewish  people,  of  which  there  has  lately 
been  such  abundant  evidence,  and  to  reiterate  the  hope 


132  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

that  the  triumph  of  the  AlHes'  cause  will  make  possible 
the  realization  of  your  people's  aim  to  establish  for  them- 
selves once  again  a  national  home  in  Palestine. 

Yours  faithfully, 

(Signed)  F.  L.  Stevenson. 
N.  SoKOLOw,  Esq. 

On  Wednesday,  September  nth,  the  Prime  Minister, 
Mr.  Lloyd  George,  visited  Manchester  for  the  purpose  of 
receiving  the  freedom  of  that  city  and  of  other  towns.  The 
Zionists  took  the  opportunity  of  presenting  to  him  the 
following  address  :-- 

"  The  undersigned  representatives  of  the  Jewish  Com- 
munity of  Manchester,  headed  by  our  distinguished  Zionist 
leader,  Mr.  Nahum  Sokolow,  gladly  avail  ourselves  of  the 
opportunity  of  your  visit  to  Manchester  to  place  on  record 
the  gratitude  which  the  Jewish  people  feels  for  the  interest 
shown  by  the  Government,  of  which  you  are  the  head,  in  the 
fulfilment  of  Jewish  national  aspirations. 

"  We  are  confident  that  the  Government's  historic 
declaration  of  2nd  November,  1917,  expresses  not  only  its 
own  considered  policy  at  the  present  time,  but  the  permanent 
attitude  of  the  British  nation  to  our  people.  We  look  forward 
to  the  early  fruition  of  the  hopes  which  we  build  on  that 
declaration,  and  we  know  that  in  the  brighter  days  of  peace 
the  restored  and  revived  Hebrew  nation  will  show  in  practical 
form  its  regard  for  Great  Britain  and  for  the  British  tradi- 
tion of  help  and  justice  to  small  nations.  For  the  sake  of  the 
Jewish  nation  and  of  the  cause  of  the  free  peoples  throughout 
the  world,  struggling  to  escape  from  the  pitiless  desire  for 
conquest  of  the  German  people,  who  have  been  intoxicated 
with  the  belief  that  their  army  can  override  all  obstacles  and 
all  rights,  we  trust  that  Great  Britain  and  her  Allies  will, 
at  an  early  date,  see  the  downfall  of  the  German  power  as  an 
indispensable  preliminary  to  the  commencement  of  the  new 
era  of  peace  and  justice,  foretold  by  our  national  prophets 
and  seers  in  that  great  Jewish  Bible  which  has  become  part 
of  the  patrimony  of  the  peoples  of  this  great  Empire. 

"  We  venture  to  think  that  among  the  many  triumphs 
which  it  will  be  your  privilege  to  recall  in  after  days  you  will 
remember,  with,  perhaps,  a  unique  pride  and  pleasure,  that 
it  was  under  the  guidance  of  your  statesmanship  that  Great 
Britain  extended  its  right  hand  in  friendship  to  the  Jewish 


Vandyke^  plioto.\ 


R*'  Hon,  David  Lloyd  George 


THE  AMERICAN  MEDICAL  UNIT  133 

people  to  help  it  to  regain  its  ancient  national  home  and  to 
realize  its  age-long  aspirations/' 

The  Zionists'  address  was  signed  by  Mr.  E.  H.  Langdon, 
the  Rahhi  Dr.  Berendt  Salomon,  Mr.  Nathan  Laski,  j.p., 
Mr.  S.  J.  Cohen,  Councillor  S.  Finburgh,  Mr.  L.  Friedson, 
Captain  Dulberg,  and  Mr.  Simon  Marks. 

Mr.  Lloyd  George  gave  the  following  reply  : — 

"It  is  with  feelings  of  the  greatest  satisfaction  that 
I  accept  the  address  which  you  have  done  me  the  privilege 
of  presenting  to  me.  The  aspirations  which  you  share  with 
multitudes  of  your  race  scattered  throughout  the  world 
found  a  natural  response  in  the  minds  of  those  responsible 
for  the  government  of  this  country,  because  they  are  in 
permanent  accord  with  the  sentiments  of  the  people  of 
Great  Britain.  I  have  to-day  had  the  honour  of  receiving 
addresses  from  the  representatives  of  three  elements  most 
intimately  concerned  in  the  establishment  of  a  rule  of  order 
and  justice  in  an  area  which  has  hitherto  been  the  prey  of 
tyranny  and  outrage.  The  fulfilment  of  the  historic  hopes 
and  aspirations  to  which  you  refer  in  your  address  is,  I 
beheve,  an  essential  corollary  to  the  necessary  enfranchise- 
ment of  the  oppressed  peoples  of  the  Near  East." 

Considerable  interest  was  taken  everywhere  in  the 
evidences  of  the  effect  produced  in  America  by  the 
political  success  of  the  Zionist  movement.  The  Zionists 
of  America,  unable  to  participate  in  many  of  the  Zionist 
activities  of  the  day,  owing  to  the  fact  that  America  was 
not  at  war  with  Turkey,  conceived  the  idea  of  helping 
in  the  reconstruction  and  extension  of  the  Jewish  colonies 
after  they  were  reheved  from  disasters  due  to  the  war,  by 
sending  a  Medical  Unit  to  the  Holy  Land. 

The  Unit  was  organized  by  and  at  the  expense  of  American 
Zionists,  the  principal  promoters  being  a  group  of  women 
Zionists  who  are  banded  together  under  the  name  of  the 
Hadassah,  It  consisted  of  about  forty-five  persons — doctors, 
nurses,  mechanics,  chemists,  specialists,  secretaries,  dentists, 
a  social  expert,  an  administrator,  and  a  representative  of 
the  Hadassah.  The  Provisional  Executive  Committee  for 
General  Zionist  Affairs  in  America  voted  a  sum  of  fifty 
thousand  pounds  from  their  Palestine  Restoration  Fund 
for  its  equipment.  The  plans  in  Palestine  will  necessarily 
depend  upon  the  conditions  prevailing  in  that  country  at 


134  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

the  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  Unit,  but  the  present  inten- 
tion is  to  set  up  a  central  hospital  of  one  hundred  beds 
in  Jerusalem,  a  branch  hospital  in  Jaffa,  as  well  as  dis- 
pensaries and  a  nursing  school,  and  several  travelling  hos- 
pitals, which  will  be  equipped  for  service  in  the  colonies 
and  wherever  needed  and  will  be  supplied  from  permanent 
dispensaries  in  the  large  cities.  A  hospital  in  Jerusalem, 
originally  owned  by  a  German  society,  the  L'maan  Zion, 
was  handed  over  to  this  Unit,  as  well  as  the  Shaare  Zedek 
Hospital.  In  connexion  with  the  equipment  of  these  "  Red 
Cross  '*  ambulances  for  the  reUef  of  civilians,  the  Hadassah 
collected  quantities  of  clothes,  bed-linen  and  towels,  as  well 
as  medical  stores  for  the  use  of  the  destitute  of  Palestine. 
Eighty-six  cases,  containing  twenty-four  thousand  garments, 
one  thousand  pairs  of  boots,  thirteen  thousand  men's  socks, 
and  two  tons  of  soap,  have  been  sent  out.  Mrs.  Mary  Fels 
contributed  largely  to  this  stock. 

The  Unit  is  under  the  general  control  of  Mr.  Levin 
Epstein,  Treasurer  of  the  American  Zionist  Organization. 

On  its  way  to  Palestine  the  Unit  passed  through 
London,  where  it  was  welcomed  by  a  great  meeting  at  the 
London  Opera  House,  on  July  14th.  The  Right  Hon. 
George  N.  Barnes,  a  member  of  the  War  Cabinet,  in  a  speech 
then  delivered,  said  : — 

'*  Palestine  has  for  three  hundred  years  been  under  the 
tyranny  of  Ottoman  oppression,  and  I  take  it  that  it  is  now 
ready  for  the  word  of  the  teacher,  and  the  knowledge  of  the 
scientist,  to  make  the  desert  places  again  into  smiling 
villages.  Our  visitors  will  take  part  in  that  transformation. 
They  will  Hnk  together  the  knowledge,  the  science,  and 
material  resources  of  the  present  and  the  future.  It  is  a 
great  thought  and  a  happy  augury  that  the  first  definite  act 
of  Zionism  is  to  go  East  and  to  take  part  in  the  reahzation 
of  a  great  ideal  for  the  uplifting  of  all  the  people,  irrespective 
of  class  or  creed,  or  condition  of  any  kind  whatsoever.  That 
is  indeed  a  great  ideal,  and  I  congratulate  our  visitors  in 
being  pioneers  in  its  achievement.  They  are  going  to  help 
to  lay  in  Palestine  that  basis  of  sanitation  and  conditions  of 
healthy  Ufe  which  are  the  chief  foundations  of  civiUzation. 
It  is  a  work  not  only  of  interest  to  the  Jewish  race  ;  it  is  a 
work  which  is  of  interest  and  value  to  the  whole  world, 
because  the  prosperity  of  Palestine  is  the  concern  of  us  all. 
Irrespective  of  race  or  religion,  we  look  to  Palestine  as  the 
Holy  Land.    From  it  there  came  those  great  moral  inspira- 


THE  AMERICAN  MEDICAL  UNIT  135 

tions  which  still  guide  the  life  and  conduct  of  half  the  world. 
From  it  there  issued  forth  those  wondrous  influences  of 
which  the  mind  of  man  can  scarcely  yet  conceive  the  full 
meaning.  It  has  been  the  inestimable  privilege  of  the  Allies 
in  this  war  to  have  rescued  this  land,  consecrated  by  religion 
and  history,  from  the  sacrilegious  hands  of  the  German  and 
the  Turk,  who  have  slain  and  enslaved  the  people.  It  will 
be  their  greater  privilege  to  rebuild  the  holy  places,  to 
create  conditions  under  which  opportunities  will  be  given 
to  all  peoples  to  live  together  in  tolerance  and  mutual  help. 
It  will  be  the  aim  of  Zionism  once  more  to  make  Palestine  a 
fountain  of  knowledge  and  idealism,  and  by  the  creating  of 
places  of  knowledge  and  education,  open  to  all,  again  to 
clothe  ancient  truths  in  modern  garb.  The  British  Govern- 
ment proclaimed  its  policy  of  Zionism  because  it  believed 
that  Zionism  was  identified  with  the  policy  and  aims  for 
which  good  men  and  women  are  struggling  everywhere. 
That  policy  is  the  policy  of  the  Allies  in  this  war. 
It  is  the  policy  to  which  we  are  pledged ;  it  is  the  policy 
which  we  believe  accords  with  the  wishes  of  vast  numbers  of 
the  Jewish  people,  many  of  whom  have  cast  wistful  eyes  to 
Palestine  as  again  destined  to  be  their  national  home.  Using 
the  word  in  its  largest  and  best  sense,  they  are  going  on  an 
errand  of  mercy,  being  the  harbingers  of  health  and  happi- 
ness to  a  people  who  have  been  long  oppressed  and  heavy 
laden.  They  have,  I  doubt  not,  many  difficulties  in  front  of 
them — perhaps  a  long  road  to  travel,  but  I  feel  sure  they  will 
be  borne  up  by  the  consciousness  of  what  they  are  doing,  and 
that  they  have  the  good  wishes  of  all  good  men  and  women." 

In  addressing  the  Unit  in  Paris,  M.  Tardieu,  High  Com- 
missioner of  the  Government  of  the  French  Republic  in  the 
United  States,  said  : — 

*'  Vous  savez  avec  quel  interet  sympathique  le  gouverne- 
ment  fran^ais  a  suivi  le  progres  de  Tideal  sioniste.  De  cet 
interet,  le  gouvernement  frangais  a  donne  des  preuves  des 
le  printemps  de  1916,  aussitot  que  Tamelioration  de  la 
situation  en  Palestine  nous  a  permis  de  regarder  du  cote  de 
I'avenir.  J'ai  a  peine  besoin,  ensuite,  de  vous  rappeler  la 
declaration  publique  et  officielle  que  le  Ministre  des  Affaires 
Etrangeres,  M.  Pichon,  publiait  si  heureusement  I'annee 
derniere.  S'il  existe  une  nation  naturellement  faite  pour 
comprendre  la  cause  des  Juifs  et  I'ideal  juif,  cela  a  et^ 
assurement  toujours  la  nation  frangaise." 


136  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Shortly  before  they  left  England  the  American  Zionist 
Medical  Unit  were  received  by  Mr.  Balfour,  who  said  he 
was  very  happy  to  be  able  to  address  the  deputation  of  the 
Unit  on  their  way  to  Palestine,  where  they  were  going  to 
contribute  their  share  to  the  beginnings  of  a  great  National 
undertaking.  The  far-reaching  importance  of  the  idea 
represented  by  Zionism  was  not  sufficiently  understood  ; 
the  influence  of  that  great  National  revival  would  be 
felt  not  only  by  those  Jews  who  would  settle  in 
Palestine,  but  also  by  Jewry  in  every  country  of  the 
world,  and  even  by  the  other  nations  of  humanity,  for 
though  Palestine  was  but  a  small  country,  the  good 
which  it  had  done  for  mankind  was  immeasurable.  The 
destruction  of  Judea  nineteen  centuries  ago  was  one  of  the 
great  wrongs  which  the  Allied  Powers  were  trying  to  redress. 
This  destruction  was  a  national  tragedy.  It  deprived  the 
Jews  of  the  opportunities  enjoyed  by  other  nations, 
to  develop  their  national  genius  and  their  own  spirit  to  the 
full  extent  of  which  it  was  capable.  The  Jews  occupied  a 
unique  position  among  nations  of  the  present  day,  because 
they  lacked  that  element  of  nationahty  which  appeared  to 
be  indispensable  to  a  complete  National  Hfe — ^to  the 
possession  of  a  National  Home.  The  present  moment 
witnessed  the  entrance  on  the  world's  stage  of  great 
and  important  National  factors,  and  he  felt  sure  that 
among  these  the  Zionist  idea,  which  had  already  accom- 
pUshed  so  much  in  Palestine,  would  play  a  noble  and 
beneficial  part.  He  congratulated  the  members  of  the  Unit 
on  their  great  humanitarian  mission.  He  knew  they  were 
moved  by  a  high  idea  and  not  by  any  self-seeking. 
Nothing,  he  said,  could  be  accompHshed  in  this  world  except 
under  the  inspiration  of  a  great  ideal.  He  wished  them  God- 
speed and  complete  success. 

Direct  evidence  of  the  spread  of  Zionism  in  America  was 
furnished  by  a  resolution  of  the  American  Jewish  Com- 
mittee, a  body  which  has  hitherto  been  held  to  represent 
the  assimilated  American  Jews  and  to  be  hostile  to  Jewish 
nationalism,  at  a  special  meeting  held  on  Sunday,  April 
28th,  which  was  attended  by,  among  others,  Mr.  Jacob 
Schiff,  Mr.  Louis  Marshall,  Dr.  Cyrus  Adler,  ex- Judge 
Mack,  and  ex- Judge  Sulzberger. 

The  Committee  declared  by  the  resolution  that  it  could 
not  be  unmindful  of  the  fact  that  there  are  Jews  everywhere 
throughout  the  world  who,  moved  by  traditional  Jewish 


THE  RUMANIAN  JEWS  137 

sentiment,  yearn  for  a  Home  in  the  Holy  Land  for  the  Jewish 
people.  This  hope,  which  has  been  nurtured  for  centuries, 
had  the  Committee's  whole-hearted  sympathy.  When 
therefore,  the  British  Government  made  the  Declaration 
which  is  now  supported  by  the  French  Government,  that  it 
views  with  favour  the  establishment  in  Palestine  of  a 
National  Home  for  the  Jewish  People,  and  will  use  its  best 
endeavours  to  facihtate  the  achievement  of  this  object,  the 
announcement  was  received  by  the  members  of  the  Com- 
mittee with  profound  appreciation. 

The  Committee  regards  as  of  essential  importance  the 
conditions  annexed  to  the  Declaration,  "  that  nothing 
shall  be  done  which  may  prejudice  the  civil  and  religious 
rights  of  existing  non- Jewish  communities  in  Palestine 
or  the  rights  and  political  status  enjoyed  by  Jews  in  any 
other  country."  The  latter  of  these  conditions  corresponded 
entirely  with  the  general  principles  on  the  basis  of  which  the 
Committee  had  ever  striven  to  attain  civil  and  political 
rights  for  Jews  the  world  over,  and  with  the  ideals  of  all 
American  Jewry. 

The  opportunity  foreshadowed  by  Mr.  Balfour's  letter  was 
welcomed  by  the  Committee,  which  would  help  to  the  best 
of  its  power  to  realise  in  Palestine,  placed  under  such  pro- 
tectorate or  suzerainty  as  the  Peace  Congress  may  determine, 
the  objects  set  forth  in  the  Declaration ;  and  the  Committee 
resolved  to  co-operate  with  all  those  who,  attracted  by 
religious  or  historic  associations,  shall  seek  to  establish  in 
Palestine  a  centre  for  Judaism  for  the  stimulating  of  our 
faith,  the  pursuit  and  development  of  hterature,  science, 
and  art  in  a  Jewish  environment,  and  the  rehabilitation  of 
the  Land. 

The  British  and  Italian  Governments  indicated  to  the 
Zionist  Organization  their  interest  in  the  welfare  of  the 
Jewish  people  by  the  opinion  they  expressed  with  regard  to 
the  clause  in  the  Rumanian-German  Treaty  referring  to 
Jewish  rights.  Ever  since  the  Treaty  of  Berlin,  the  position 
of  the  Rumanian  Jews  had  been  one  of  the  scandals  of 
Europe.  That  Treaty  forbade  all  legal  discriminations  on 
account  of  religious  faith.  This  clause  was  made  a  useless 
"  scrap  of  paper  "  by  Rumania  considering  its  Jews  "  aliens 
not  subject  to  alien  protection."  The  Jew  has  been  pre- 
vented from  living  in  country  districts  or  owning  land  out- 
side towns.  This  does  not  prevent  it  from  being  a  standing 
accusation  against  the  Jews  of  Rumania  that  they  do  not 


138  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

work  as  agricultural  labourers.  They  have  been  excluded 
from  the  civil  service  and  the  Uberal  professions  ;  they  have 
been  disfranchised  ;  factories  and  mills  were  forbidden  to 
employ  more  Jewish  workers  than  one  quarter  of  their 
entire  staff.  Yet  the  Jews  in  Rumania  by  no  means  gave 
rise  to  this  state  of  affairs  by  obvious  separatism  ;  the 
younger  generation  all  spoke  Rumanian,  both  at  home  and 
in  intercourse  with  the  outer  world,  and  they  wore  no 
distinctive  dress. 

It  should  be  stated  that  the  Rumanians  are  a  peasant 
people ;  the  landowners,  all  Christians,  are  largely  an 
absentee  class,  spending  their  money  in  Western  Europe. 
Anti-Semitism  has  been  a  convenient  safety-valve  for 
diverting  the  discontent  of  the  peasants  from  the  real 
authors  of  their  misery. 

These  anti- Jewish  laws  have  caused  an  immense  exodus 
of  Jews  from  Rumania. 

Rumania  continued  its  anti- Jewish  policy  during  the  war. 
Rumanian  Jews  were  registered  and  supervised  as  aliens, 
because,  owing  to  defective  registration,  they  could  not 
prove  that  they  were  born  in  Rumania.  Many  elderly 
persons  were  born  in  places  where  no  registers  were  kept. 
There  were  no  registers  before  1866,  and  it  was  only  in  1880 
that  the  whole  country  began  to  keep  such  registers.  This 
brings  us  directly  to  the  Jewish  clause  of  the  treaty  with 
Germany.  The  German  Government  had  led  the  Jews  in 
Germany  to  beheve  that  it  would  protect  the  rights  of  Jews 
in  the  treaty.  But  the  treaty  merely  stated  that  those  Jews 
hitherto  considered  aliens  were  to  be  naturahzed  by  law  if 
they  could  prove  that  they  and  their  parents  were  born  in 
Rumania,  or  that  they  had  taken  part  in  the  war,  either  in 
active  service  or  in  army  service  (Hilfsdienst) .  Such  a 
clause  could  only  open  the  way  to  further  equivocations. 
By  the  addition  of  this  clause  to  the  general  statement  that 
differences  of  reUgious  faith  shall  have  no  influence  on  the 
legal  rights  of  inhabitants,  and  in  particular  on  their  political 
and  civil  rights,  the  treaty  of  19 18  actually  went  back  from 
the  position  taken  by  the  treaty  of  1878.  It  is  not  even 
found  possible  to  make  the  officers  of  a  regiment  in  Rumania 
give  a  Jewish  soldier  the  paper  necessary  to  prove  that  he 
has  served  in  the  army. 

The  letters  to  the  Author,  in  which  the  two  Entente 
Powers  (England  and  Italy)  expressed  their  desire  to  rectify 
this  unjust  state  of  affairs,  are  as  follows  : — 


THE  RUMANIAN  JEWS  139 

Foreign  Office, 
Sir,  /^^^^  15^^.  1918. 

In  reply  to  your  letter  of  the  3rd  instant,  relative  to 
the  question  of  Jewish  rights  in  Rumania,  I  am  directed 
by  Mr.  Secretary  Balfour  to  state  that  His  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment fully  realize  that  the  enfranchisement  promised  to  the 
Jews  in  Rumania  under  the  recent  treaty  is  less  liberal  than 
that  by  which  the  former  Rumanian  Government  had 
publicly  pledged  themselves.  They  take  this  opportunity 
of  assuring  your  Organization  that  they  are  most  anxious 
to  do  everything  in  their  power  to  secure  a  just  and  per- 
manent settlement  of  the  Jewish  question  in  that  country. 

I  am.  Sir, 
Your  most  obedient,  humble  Servant, 
N.  SOKOLOW,  Esq.,  ^^'Sned)  W.  Langley. 

35  Empire  House, 
175  Piccadilly,  W.  i. 

The  Italian  Ambassador,  the  Marquis  ImperiaH,  honoured 
me  with  a  communication  to  a  like  effect,  of  which  the 
following  is  a  translation  : — 

London, 

Dear  Sir,  August  2nd,  1918. 

On  the  instructions  of  His  Excellency,  Baron 
Sonnino,  I  have  pleasure  in  communicating  to  you  the 
following  : 

"  The  Italian  Government  recognizing  that  the  provision 
contained  in  the  Treaty  of  Bucharest  of  May  7th,  1918, 
between  Rumania  and  the  Central  Empires,  relating  to 
religious  equahty  in  Rumania,  are,  so  far  as  the  Jews  are 
concerned,  less  liberal  than  those  which  the  Rumanian 
Government  itself  had  spontaneously  promised  to  grant, 
now  declares  that  at  the  final  settlement  of  the  Rumanian 
question,  it  will  use  its  best  endeavours  to  secure  for  the 
Jews  in  Rumania  a  settlement  which  will  definitely  assure 
them  of  a  permanent  position  of  equality.'* 

Accept,  dear  Sir,  the  expression  of  my  most  distinguished 

consideration.  ,^.       ^  ^ 

(Signed)  Imperial!. 

N.  SoKOLOw,  Esq. 

One  of  the  first  practical  results  of  the  British  Govern- 
ment's declaration  was  the  appointment  in  March,  1918,  of  a 
Zionist  Commission  for  Palestine. 


140  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

The  objects  and  status  of  the  Commission  were  laid  down 
as  follows  : — 

The  Commission  should  represent  the  Zionist  Organiza- 
tion. 

It  should  act  as  an  advisory  body  to  the  British 
authorities  in  Palestine  in  all  matters  relating  to  Jews, 
or  which  may  affect  the  establishment  of  a  national 
home  for  the  Jewish  people  in  accordance  with  the  Declara- 
tion of  His  Majesty's  Government. 

The  objects  of  the  Commission  were  : — 

1.  To  form  a  link  between  the  British  authorities  and  the 
Jewish  population  of  Palestine. 

2.  To  co-ordinate  the  relief  work  in  Palestine  and  to  assist 
in  the  repatriation  of  exiled  and  evacuated  persons  and  refugees. 

3.  To  assist  in  restoring  and  developing  the  Colonies  and 
in  organizing  the  Jewish  population  in  general. 

4.  To  assist  the  Jewish  organization  and  institutions  in 
Palestine  in  the  resumption  of  their  activities. 

5.  To  help  in  establishing  friendly  relations  with  the  Arabs 
and  other  non- Jewish  communities. 

6.  To  collect  information,  and  report  upon  the  possibilities 
of  the  further  development  of  the  Jewish  settlement  and  of  the 
country  in  general. 

7.  To  inquire  into  the  feasibility  of  the  scheme  of  establishing 
a  Jewish  University. 

In  order  to  be  able  to  achieve  the  foregoing  objects  the 
Commission  obtained  permission,  subject  to  military  neces- 
sities, to  travel,  investigate,  and  make  reports  upon  the 
above-mentioned  matters. 

The  Commission  left  London  on  March  8th.  It  con- 
sisted of  : — 

Dr.  Chaim  Weizmann,  the  Chairman  of  the  Commission  ; 
Mr.  Joseph  Co  wen,  Director  of  the  Anglo-Palestine  Com- 
pany ;  Dr.  Eder,  Medical  Adviser,  Representative  of  the 
Jewish  Territorial  Association  ;  Mr.  Leon  Simon,  selected 
to  be  Chairman  of  the  Relief  Committee  of  the  Commission  ; 
and  Professor  Sylvain  L6vi,  College  de  France.  Mr.  Israel  M. 
Sieff,  of  Manchester,  acted  as  Secretary  to  the  Commission. 

Two  representatives  of  Italian  Jewry  joined  the  Com- 
mission after  an  interval  of  some  time — Commendatore 
Bianchini  and  Dr.  Artom. 

The    Commission    was    accompanied    by    the    following 


THE  PALESTINE  COMMISSION  141 

gentlemen  :  Mr.  Aaron  Aaronsohn,  Agricultural  Expert, 
formerly  of  the  Jewish  Colony  of  Zichron  Jacob ;  Mr.  David 
Levontin,  Manager  of  the  Jaffa  branch  of  the  Anglo-Pales- 
tine Bank  ;  Mr.  Rosenack,  Agent  of  the  Jewish  Coloniza- 
tion Association,  and  Mr.  Walter  Meyer  of  New  York. 

Major  the  Hon.  W.  Ormsby-Gore  acted  as  Political 
Officer  and  communicated  the  Commission's  views  and 
requirements  to  the  Government  and  the  military  authori- 
ties. 

It  had  been  intended  that  representatives  of  the  Jews  of 
Russia  should  join  the  Commission,  but  the  disorganization 
of  communications  in  Russia  caused  by  the  revolution  pre- 
vented them  from  doing  so  until  about  October,  1918,  when 
Mr.  Isaac  Goldberg  and  Mr.  Israel  Rosoff  started  for  Pales- 
tine. 

A  few  isolated  incidents  alone  can  be  referred  to  here  out 
of  a  large  amount  of  work  which  was  done  by  the  Com- 
missioners. They  succeeded  in  obliterating  the  ill  effects  of 
warfare,  they  restored  refugees  to  their  homes,  restarted 
the  normal  course  of  peaceful  activities,  reorganized  the 
hitherto  unsatisfactory  and  disunited  Jerusalem  com- 
munities belonging  to  the  old  settlements  of  pre-Zionist 
times  and  pre-Zionist  feelings,  and  extended  the  Hebrew 
system  of  schools. 

The  Commission  started  part  of  its  work  in  Egypt  before 
it  reached  Palestine.  The  Arabs  had  been  given  wrong 
ideas  concerning  the  meaning  of  the  British  declaration  and 
the  intention  of  the  Zionists  :  pro -German  agents  had 
spread  rumours  intended  to  be  both  anti-English  and  anti- 
Jewish.  They  declared  that  rich  Jews  would  exploit  the 
land  of  Palestine  and  would  destroy  Moslem  holy  places. 
Dr.  Weizmann  met  certain  Arab  leaders  in  Egypt  and 
succeeded  in  removing  their  fears  and  anxieties.  It  was 
found  that  the  Felaheen  cultivators  in  Palestine  do  not  fear 
the  Jews.  They  realize  that  the  Jewish  colonies  increase 
the  prosperity  of  the  country  by  introducing  improved 
agricultural  methods.  But  the  Effendi  Arabs,  who  are 
landlords,  fear  the  establishment  of  a  just  rule  over  the 
land.  These  Effendi  are  largely  cosmopolitans  and  absentee 
landlords,  living  in  Syria  and  Egypt.  The  Zionists  are 
anxious  to  prevent,  if  they  can,  any  speculation  in  land, 
whether  by  natives  of  Palestine  or  by  foreigners.  The 
prosperity  of  the  colonies  is  bound  up  with  a  just  land 
policy,  which  will   prevent  the  fruits  of  a  man's  labour 


142  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

enriching  others  and  will  place  at  the  disposal  of  the  Jewish 
colonies  unused  and  State  lands  as  well  as  badly  cultivated 
large  estates. 

The  Zionists  have  been  fortunate  in  gaining  the  confi- 
dence of  the  King  of  the  Hedjaz  and  of  Prince  Feisal. 

Although  by  the  Hague  Convention  the  military  authori- 
ties could  not  make  any  alteration  in  the  laws  of  the  land, 
they  did  in  two  matters  of  administration  increase  the  power 
of  self-government  possessed  by  the  Jews.  They  allowed 
certain  colonies  to  appoint  their  own  police  and  their  own 
Jewish  tax-collectors.  So  corrupt  had  the  Turkish  tax- 
collectors  been,  that  the  Jewish  tax-collectors,  while  taking 
less  from  the  colonists,  were  able  to  hand  a  larger  sum  to 
the  Government. 

Much  consideration  was  given  by  the  Commission  to  the 
work  of  strengthening  and  supporting  the  organizations  for 
relieving  distress — orphanages,  hospitals,  and  so  on  :  a  work 
much  needed  owing  to  war  conditions.  Special  reports  on 
the  utilities  of  the  various  hospitals,  schools,  and  orphanages 
were  drawn  up.  In  Jerusalem  great  distress  was  found. 
The  Halukah  Jews,  settled  in  Jerusalem  to  study  and  pray 
and  entirely  dependent  on  the  support  of  the  Jews  of  other 
countries,  had  been  by  the  war  cut  off  from  their  means  of 
hvelihood.  Widows  and  orphans  were  many,  the  adult  men 
having  suffered  excessively  from  epidemics.  The  Com- 
mission opened  laundries  and  a  kind  of  shirt  factory  to 
provide  employment  for  women  and  did  its  best  to  find 
employment  for  the  men,  although  the  importation  of  raw 
materials  was  very  difficult. 

On  17th  June  there  was  opened  at  Jaffa  the  first  con- 
ference of  Jews  of  the  liberated  area  of  Palestine.  Major 
Ormsby-Gore,  the  PoHtical  Officer  in  charge  of  the  Zionist 
Commission,  delivered  the  following  speech  : — 

'*  You  have  asked  me,  as  Political  Officer  in  charge  of  the 
Zionist  Commission  which  has  been  sent  out  to  Palestine  by 
H.M.  Government,  to  attend  this  historic  gathering  and  to 
say  a  few  words  of  good  wishes  to  you,  the  representatives 
of  all  Jewry  in  the  occupied  part  of  Palestine,  on  behalf  of 
my  Government.  I  do  so  with  a  full  heart.  My  Govern- 
ment— the  British  Government — has  said  one  or  two  im- 
portant things  during  this  war  concerning  Palestine. 

"  My  Government  has  said  that,  if  England  and  her  Allies 
win  this  war,  the  future  Government  of  Palestine  shall  not 
be  Turkish,  because  in  this  war  England  and  her  Allies  are 


MAJOR  THE  HON.  W.  ORMSBY-GORE       143 

fighting,  not  for  the  extension  of  any  Empire,  nor  for  the 
acquisition  of  further  power  or  further  territory,  but  they 
are  fighting  for  an  ideal,  shared  by  all  our  Allies,  namely, 
that  countries  shall  be  governed  in  the  interests  and  accord- 
ing to  the  wishes  and  the  aspirations  of  the  inhabitants  of 
those  countries.  We  are  satisfied  when  we  look  at  the  results 
of  Turkish  rule  upon  the  land  and  the  people  of  Palestine, 
that  such  rule  ought  to  disappear  in  the  interests  of  Palestine 
and  of  civihzation.  The  Turkish  rule  in  Palestine  was 
an  aUen  rule,  and  was  not  in  the  best  interests  of  any 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Palestine,  and,  moreover,  such  a  rule 
crippled  the  free  development,  economic  and  political,  of 
this  country. 

"  My  Government  has  said  that  it  wishes  to  see  the  people 
of  Palestine  among  others  freed  from  the  rule  of  the  Turks, 
but  it  has  as  yet  said  nothing  as  to  what  Government  should 
take  its  place — that  is  a  matter  for  the  Peace  Conference. 
But  Mr.  Balfour  has  made  an  historic  declaration  with 
regard  to  the  Zionists,  that  he  wishes  to  see  created  and 
built  up  in  Palestine  a  National  Home  for  the  Jewish 
people. 

"  What  do  we  understand  by  this  ?  We  mean  that  those 
Jews  who  voluntarily  come  to  live  in  Palestine  should  live  in 
Palestine  as  Jewish  nationalists,  i.e.  that  they  should  be 
regarded  as  Jews  and  nothing  else,  and  that  they  should  be 
absolutely  free  to  develop  Hebrew  education,  to  develop  the 
country,  and  Hve  their  own  life  in  their  own  way  in  Palestine 
freely,  but  only  submitting  equally  with  all  others  to  the 
laws  of  the  land. 

"  I  shall  tell  the  British  Government,  when  I  go  back, 
what  the  Jews  of  Palestine  have  done  already  to  realize 
their  ideals,  and  what  they  feel  with  regard  to  this  National 
Home.  I  can  say  when  I  go  back  that  I  can  see  in  this 
gathering  to-day  the  pioneer  work  of  the  National  Home, 
i.e.  a  National  Home  built  up  on  a  Hebrew  foundation  with 
a  definite  consciousness  and  ideal  of  its  own.  I  can  say  that 
whether  you  come  from  Russia,  from  Salonica,  from  Bok- 
hara, from  Poland,  from  America,  from  England,  or  from 
Yemen,  you  are  bound  together  in  Palestine  by  the  ideal  of 
building  up  a  Jewish  nation  in  all  its  various  aspects  in 
Palestine,  a  national  centre  for  Jewry  all  over  the  world  to 
look  to.  This  is  the  ideal  of  the  future,  an  ideal  which  I  am 
convinced  will  be  reaHzed  without  doing  any  injustice  or 
injury  to  any  of  your  neighbours  here.    But  while  I  look 


144  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

forward  to  the  realization  of  this  ideal,  I  must  remind  you  of 
the  grim  realities  of  the  present. 

**  We  can  still  hear  the  guns,  and  we  are  in  the  midst  of  a 
desperate  struggle — not  merely  between  nations,  but 
between  ideals.  Be  patient  with  the  British  Government, 
who  wish  you  well.  Do  not  expect  a  great  deal  from  them, 
but  expect  a  great  deal  from  yourselves.  At  present  we  are 
bound  to  carry  on  the  Turkish  system  of  law,  taxation,  and 
Government.  We  are  bound  to  do  this  by  international 
law,  and  England  has  always  tried  to  respect  this  inter- 
national law.  England  set  its  seal  to  the  Hague  Convention, 
which  said  that  when  an  advance  was  made  into  enemy 
country,  the  administration  should  be  military  and  not 
political,  and  that  such  military  administration  should 
make  no  attempt  to  alter  or  change  the  institutions  of  the 
occupied  country  ;  it  is  not  our  wish  that  this  is  so,  but  it  is 
so  by  the  rule  of  law,  and  we  shall  do  our  best  to  respect 
this  law  no  matter  who  else  breaks  it. 

"It  is  difficult  for  a  military  administration  to  make 
radical  changes  or  to  do  much  to  help  you  and  others  in  the 
country.  Nevertheless,  some  great  things  have  been  done 
already  ;  the  British  Government  has  given  opportunity  to 
the  young  men  to  join  the  battalion  of  Jews  from  other 
countries  to  liberate  this  country.  This  splendid  response 
of  your  young  men  will  have  a  great  moral  value  when 
history  comes  to  be  written.  Every  one  of  these  fine  and 
splendid  recruits  now  enrolled  and  who  are  going  to  the 
battalions  which  have  come  from  England  and  America, 
will  go  as  missionaries  of  Jewish  nationalism  in  Palestine, 
so  that  these  men  will  stay  in  Palestine  and  help  to  develop 
it  on  just  and  right  lines.  The  British  Government  has  done 
something  more  of  great  service  to  you.  The  Government 
has  sent  out  to  Palestine  the  Zionist  Commission.  It  has 
sent  out  Dr.  Weizmann,  i.e.  the  British  Government  has  sent 
out  a  man  in  whom  it  has  confidence  to  help  the  Jews  in 
Palestine  in  their  greatest  hour  of  need  What  this  help  has 
meant  to  you  I  need  not  go  into  in  detail.  The  Zionist  Com- 
mission speaks  for  itself.  Dr.  Weizmann  came  here  as  a 
stranger  to  the  British  authorities,  but  in  a  few  weeks  he  has 
won  for  himself,  and  for  the  people  whom  he  represents,  a 
position  among  the  British  authorities  and  amongst  all  with 
whom  he  has  come  into  contact  in  Egypt,  Arabia,  and 
Palestine  ;  a  position  which  is  not  merely  a  help,  but  a 
comer  stone  of  the  work  which  lies  before  you.    The  Zionist 


Idffi 


THE  HEBREW  UNIVERSITY  145 

Commission  is  in  a  position  to  do  much  to  acquaint  not  only 
Jewry  throughout  the  world,  but  also  the  Governments  of 
the  AlHed  countries,  with  the  needs,  ideals,  and  aspirations 
of  Palestine  Jewry.  It  is,  therefore,  only  right  that  you 
should  be  guided  in  patience  by  him,  your  leader,  and  accept 
his  advice  and  direction.  Dr.  Weizmann  is  a  leader  who  will 
see  you  through.  He  is  a  man  worthy  of  your  confidence, 
as  well  as  of  the  confidence  of  all  of  the  AlHed  Govern- 
ments. 

"  The  work  of  the  conference  which  I  am  addressing  is 
very  important.  You  have  a  great  deal  to  prepare  for.  You 
have  to  prepare  for  peace,  for  the  day  when  war  is  no  more, 
and  when  there  will  be,  please  God,  a  free  Palestine.  Gentle- 
men, make  sure  that  your  foundation-stones  are  truly  laid 
in  your  agricultural,  cultural,  and  educational  work.  So 
much  depends  for  civilization  on  the  work  for  which  you  are 
now  preparing  and  which  you  will  perform  during  the  next 
few  months.  You  will  be  faced  with  all  the  difficult  trivial- 
ities of  life,  but  in  the  Zionist  movement  there  is  a  spirit, 
and  just  as  good  transcends  evil,  so  does  the  spiritual 
transcend  the  material.  You  can  build  up  a  centre  of 
civilization  here.  We  English  owe  all  that  is  best  in  our 
civilization  to  the  Bible,  and  that  is  why  we  feel  a  deep 
interest  and  a  bond  of  sympathy  in  the  work  which  you  are 
doing.  The  Zionist  movement  is  not  merely  a  political  move, 
but  it  is  a  spiritual  force,  and  if  it  succeeds  I  feel  it  will 
bring  something  great  and  noble  to  the  world,  a  message 
which  will  not  only  do  so  much  for  the  sad  but  beautiful  land, 
but  for  the  scattered  hosts  of  Israel  and  for  humanity." 

On  24th  July,  191 8,  the  foundation-stones  of  the  Hebrew 
University  in  Jerusalem  were  laid.  This  was  an  event 
which  Zionists  had  conceived  long  before,  an  event  likely 
to  be  of  great  importance  in  enabling  Jerusalem  to  become 
a  spiritual  centre  for  the  still  dispersed  communities  of  Israel, 
and  destined,  let  us  hope,  to  influence  and  elevate  the  mental 
life,  social  aspirations  and  religious  conceptions  of  the  Jews 
of  the  world. 

The  site  of  the  University  is  a  beautiful  one.  It  is  on 
Mount  Scopus,  on  an  estate  purchased  from  the  late  Sir  John 
Gray  Hill  of  Liverpool,  who  was  personally  in  deep  sym- 
pathy with  the  scheme.  It  faces  Jerusalem  on  the  one  side 
and  the  valley  of  the  Jordan  and  the  Dead  Sea  on  the  other. 

At  the  ceremony  of  laying  the  foundation-stones  those 
present  included,  besides  the  members  of  the  Zionist  Com- 


146  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

mission,  the  Commander-in-Chief  and  senior  members  of 
his  staff,  the  Military  Governor  of  Jerusalem,  staff  repre- 
sentatives of  the  French  and  Italian  military  detachments 
in  Palestine  and  other  officers,  the  Mufti  of  Jerusalem, 
Bishop  Maclnnes,  Anglican  Bishop  of  Jerusalem,  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  Armenian  and  Greek  Churches,  the  Mayor 
and  Vice-Mayor  of  Jerusalem,  Baron  and  Baroness  Felix 
Menasce  of  Alexandria,  Maurice  Cattaui  Pacha,  President 
of  the  Cairo  Jewish  Community,  Mr.  Victor  Mosseri,  the 
Chief  Rabbis  of  Cairo  and  Alexandria,  the  Sephardi  and 
Ashkenazi  Chief  Rabbis,  and  representatives  of  all  Jewish 
organizations  and  committees  in  Jerusalem,  Jaffa,  and  the 
colonies.  The  day  was  declared  a  public  Jewish  hoHday  in 
Jerusalem,  and  a  crowd  numbering  about  six  thousand 
people  witnessed  the  ceremony. 

After  the  ceremony  had  been  opened  by  a  chant  of  praise, 
Dr.  Weizmann  laid  the  first  foundation-stone  of  the  Uni- 
versity on  behalf  of  the  Zionist  Organization.  He  was 
followed  by  the  two  Chief  Rabbis  of  Jerusalem  and  the 
heads  of  the  United  Council,  who  laid  a  stone  on  behalf  of 
the  Jerusalem  Community.  The  Mupi  then  laid  a  stone, 
and  was  followed  by  the  Anglican  Bishop.  Stones  were  also 
laid  on  behalf  of  the  following  :  The  Zionist  Organization, 
the  Jewish  Regiment,  Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild,  the 
town  of  Jaffa,  the  Colonies,  Hebrew  Literature,  Hebrew 
Teachers,  Hebrew  Science,  Jewish  Artisans  and  Labourers, 
Isaac  Goldberg  (whose  generosity  it  was  that  provided  so 
largely  for  the  purchase  of  the  site),  and  the  Future  Genera- 
tions. 

Dr.  Weizmann  then  added  his  signature  to  a  parchment 
scroll  inscribed  with  the  blessing  :  ^ 

:  ntn  p]b  win)  ^:D'>p)  irnnty  nb)v^  hVd  iiM^«  ^»  nn«  nna 

Wednesday,  the  fifteenth  day  of  the  fifth  month, 
the  month  of  Menachem-Ab,  being  in  the  year  Five 
Thousand  six  hundred  and  seventy-eight  from  the 
creation  of  the  World,  One  thousand  eight  hundred 
and  forty-nine  from  the  destruction  of  our  second 
Temple,  and  the  twenty-first  year  after  the  first  Zionist 
Congress  called  by  Dr.  Benjamin  Zeeb  ben  Jacob  Herzl,  the 
first  year  of  the  Declaration  of  the  British  Government 

*  "Blessed  art  Thou  0 1  Lord  our  God,  King  of  the  Universe  who  hast 
preserved  us  alive,  and  sustained  us  and  brought  us  to  {tnjoy)  this  season." 


DR.  CHAIM  WEIZMANN'S  ADDRESS  147 

issued  through  the  Rt.  Hon.  Arthur  James  Balfour  prom- 
ising to  grant  a  National  Home  to  the  Jewish  People  in 
the  land  of  Israel, — the  day  on  which  was  laid  the  first  stone 
of  the  building  which  shall  become  the  first  Hebrew  Uni- 
versity in  Jerusalem.  In  testimony  of  which  we  add  our 
signatures."  The  signatures  included  that  of  the  Sephardi 
Chief  Rabbi  Nissim  Elyashar,  the  Ashkenazi  Chief  Rabbi 
Zerach  Epstein,  the  Mufti  of  Jerusalem,  Bishop  Maclnnes, 
Chief  Rabbi  Uziel  of  Jaffa  in  the  name  of  Baron  Edmond  de 
Rothschild,  M.  Libowitz,  one  of  the  last  of  the  heroic  band 
of  Bilu,  Dr.  Thon,  Mr.  D.  Levontin,  and  some  boys  and 
girls  in  the  name  of  the  future  generation. 
The  signed  scroll  was  buried  under  the  first  stone. 
Dr.  Weizmann  then  delivered  an  address.  He  said  : — 
"  We  have  to-day  laid  the  foundation-stone  of  the  first 
Jewish  University,  which  is  to  be  erected  on  this  hill,  over- 
looking the  city  of  Jerusalem.  Many  of  us  will  have  had 
their  thoughts  cast  back  to  the  great  historic  scenes  associ- 
ated with  Jerusalem,  scenes  that  have  become  part  of  the 
heritage  of  mankind.  It  is  not  too  fanciful  to  picture  the 
souls  of  those  who  have  made  our  history  here  with  us  to-day 
inspiring  us,  urging  us  onwards,  to  greater  and  ever  greater 
tasks.  Many  again  will  have  had  their  attention  riveted  on 
the  apparent  contrast  between  to-day's  ceremony  and  the 
scenes  of  warfare  within  a  few  miles  of  us.  For  only  a  brief 
moment  we  are  allowing  ourselves  to  indulge  in  a  mental 
armistice,  and  in  laying  aside  all  thoughts  of  strife  we  try  to 
pierce  the  veil  of  war  and  glance  into  the  future.  A  week 
ago  we  were  keeping  the  Fast  of  Ab,  reminding  us  that  the 
Temple  had  been  utterly  destroyed  and  the  Jewish  national 
political  existence  extinguished  apparently  for  ever.  But 
throughout  the  long  centuries  we,  the  stiff-necked  people, 
have  refused  to  acknowledge  defeat,  and  '  Judcea  Capta  '  is 
once  more  on  the  eve  of  triumph.  Here,  out  of  the  misery 
and  the  desolation  of  war,  is  being  created  the  first  germ  of 
a  new  life.  Hitherto  we  have  been  content  to  speak  of  Re- 
construction and  Restoration.  We  know  that  ravished 
Belgium,  devastated  France,  Poland  and  Russia  must  and 
will  be  restored.  In  this  University,  however,  we  have  gone 
beyond  Restoration  and  Reconstruction,  we  are  creating 
during  the  period  of  war  something  which  is  to  serve  as  a 
symbol  of  a  better  future.  It  is  fitting  that  Great  Britain, 
aided  by  her  great  Allies,  in  the  midst  of  tribulation  and 
sorrow,  should  stand  sponsor  to  this  University.     Great 


148  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Britain  has  understood  that  it  is  just  because  these  are  times 
of  stress,  just  because  men  tend  to  become  lost  in  the  events 
of  the  day,  that  there  is  a  need  to  overlay  these  details  by 
this  bold  appeal  to  the  world's  imagination.  Here  what 
seemed  but  a  dream  a  few  years  ago  is  now  becoming  a 
reality. 

*'  What  is  the  significance  of  a  Hebrew  University — ^what 
are  going  to  be  its  functions,  whence  will  it  draw  its  students, 
and  what  languages  will  it  speak  ?  It  seems  at  first  sight 
paradoxical  that  in  a  land  with  so  sparse  a  population,  in  a 
land  where  everything  still  remains  to  be  done,  in  a  land 
crying  out  for  such  simple  things  as  ploughs,  roads,  and 
harbours,  we  should  begin  by  creating  a  centre  of  spiritual 
and  intellectual  development.  But  it  is  no  paradox  for 
those  who  know  the  soul  of  the  Jew.  It  is  true  that  great 
social  and  poHtical  problems  still  face  us  and  will  demand 
their  solution  from  us.  We  Jews  know  that  when  the  mind 
is  given  fullest  play,  when  we  have  a  centre  for  the  develop- 
ment of  Jewish  consciousness,  then  coincidently  we  shall 
attain  the  fulfilment  of  our  material  needs.  In  the  darkest 
ages  of  our  existence  we  found  protection  and  shelter  within 
the  walls  of  our  schools  and  colleges,  and  in  devoted  study 
of  Jewish  science  the  tormented  Jew  found  rehef  and  con- 
solation. Amid  all  the  sordid  squalor  of  the  Ghetto  there 
stood  schools  of  learning  where  numbers  of  young  Jews  sat 
at  the  feet  of  our  Rabbis  and  teachers.  Those  schools  and 
colleges  served  as  large  reservoirs  where  there  was  stored  up 
during  the  long  ages  of  persecution  an  intellectual  and 
spiritual  energy  which  on  the  one  hand  helped  to  maintain 
our  national  existence,  and  on  the  other  hand  blossomed 
forth  for  the  benefit  of  mankind  when  once  the  walls  of  the 
Ghetto  fell.  The  sages  of  Babylon  and  Jerusalem,  Maimon- 
ides  and  the  Gaon  of  Wilna,  the  lens  polisher  of  Amsterdam 
and  Karl  Marx,  Heinrich  Heine  and  Paul  Ehrlich  are  some 
of  the  links  in  the  long,  unbroken  chain  of  intellectual 
development. 

"  The  University,  as  its  name  impHes,  is  to  teach  every- 
thing the  mind  of  man  embraces.  No  teaching  can  be  fruitful 
nowadays  unless  it  is  strengthened  by  a  spirit  of  enquiry 
and  research  ;  and  a  modern  University  must  not  only 
produce  highly  trained  professional  men,  but  give  ample 
opportunity  to  those  capable  and  ready  to  devote  them- 
selves to  scientific  research  to  do  so  unhindered  and  un- 
disturbed.    Our  University  will  thus  become  the  home  of 


DR.  CHAIM  WEIZMANN'S  ADDRESS  149 

those  hundreds  of  talented  young  Jews  in  whom  the  thirst 
for  learning  and  critical  enquiry  has  been  engrained  by 
heredity  throughout  ages,  and  who  in  the  great  multitude 
of  cases  are  at  present  compelled  to  satisfy  this  their  burning 
need  amid  un- Jewish,  very  often  unfriendly  surroundings. 

''  A  Hebrew  University  !  1  do  not  suppose  that  there  is 
anyone  here  who  can  conceive  of  a  University  in  Jerusalem 
being  other  than  a  Hebrew  one.  The  claim  that  the  Uni- 
versity should  be  a  Hebrew  one  rests  upon  the  values  the  Jews 
have  transmitted  to  the  world  from  this  land.  Here  in  the 
presence  of  adherents  of  the  three  great  religions  of  the  world, 
which  amid  many  diversities  build  their  faith  upon  the  Lord 
who  made  Himself  known  unto  Moses,  before  this  world 
which  has  founded  itself  on  Jewish  law,  has  paid  reverence 
to  Hebrew  seers,  has  acknowledged  the  great  mental  and 
spiritual  values  the  Jewish  people  have  given  to  it,  the 
question  is  answered.  The  University  is  to  stimulate  the 
Jewish  people  to  reach  further  truth.  Am  I  too  bold  if  here 
to-day  in  this  place  among  the  hills  of  Ephraim  and  Judah, 
I  state  my  conviction  that  the  seers  of  Israel  have  not  utterly 
perished,  that  under  the  aegis  of  this  University  there  will 
be  a  renaissance  of  the  Divine  power  of  prophetic  wisdom 
that  once  was  ours  ?  The  University  will  be  the  focus  of  the 
rehabilitation  of  our  Jewish  consciousness  now  so  tenuous, 
because  it  has  become  so  world-diffused.  Under  the  atmo- 
spheric pressure  of  this  Mount,  our  Jewish  consciousness  can 
become  diffused  without  becoming  feeble,  our  consciousness 
will  be  rekindled  and  our  Jewish  youth  will  be  reinvigorated 
from  Jewish  sources. 

"  Since  it  is  to  be  3.  Hebrew  University,  the  question  hardly 
arises  as  to  its  language.  By  a  strange  error,  people  have 
regarded  Hebrew  as  one  of  the  dead  languages,  whilst  in  fact 
it  has  never  died  off  the  lips  of  mankind.  True,  to  many  of 
us  Jews  it  has  become  a  second  language,  but  for  thousands 
of  my  people  Hebrew  is  and  always  has  been  the  sacred 
tongue,  and  in  the  streets  of  Tel  Aviv,  in  the  orchards  of 
Rischon  and  Rechoboth,  on  the  farms  of  Hulda  and  Ben 
Shemen,  it  has  already  become  the  mother  tongue.  Here  in 
Palestine,  amid  the  Babel  of  languages,  Hebrew  stands  out 
as  the  one  language  in  which  every  Jew  can  communicate 
with  every  other  Jew.  Upon  the  technical  difficulties  con- 
nected with  Hebrew  instruction  it  is  unnecessary  for  me  to 
dwell  at  the  moment.  We  are  alive  to  them  ;  but  the 
experience  of  our  Palestinian  schools  has  already  shown  to 


150  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

us  that  these  difficulties  are  surmountable.  These  are  all 
matters  of  detail  which  have  been  carefully  examined  and 
will  be  dealt  with  at  the  appropriate  time.  I  have  spoken 
of  the  Jewish  Universit}^  where  the  language  will  be  Hebrew, 
just  as  French  is  used  at  the  Sorbonne,  or  English  at  Oxford. 
Naturally,  other  languages,  ancient  and  modern,  will  be 
taught  in  the  respective  faculties ;  among  these  languages 
we  may  expect  that  prominent  attention  will  be  given  to 
Arabic  and  other  Semitic  languages. 

"  The  Hebrew  University,  though  intended  primarily  for 
Jews,  will,  of  course,  give  an  affectionate  welcome  to  the 
members  of  every  race  and  creed.  '  For  my  house  will  be 
called  a  house  of  prayer  for  all  the  nations. '  Besides  the  usual 
schools  and  institutions  which  go  to  form  a  modern  Uni- 
versity, there  will  be  certain  branches  of  science  which  it  will 
be  peculiarly  appropriate  to  associate  with  our  University. 
Archaeological  Research,  which  has  revealed  so  much  of  the 
mysterious  past  of  Egypt  and  of  Greece,  has  a  harvest  still 
to  be  reaped  in  Palestine,  and  our  University  is  destined  to 
play  an  important  part  in  this  field  of  knowledge. 

"  The  question  as  to  the  faculties  with  which  our  University 
may  begin  its  career  is  limited  to  some  extent  by  practical 
considerations.  The  beginnings  of  our  University  are  not 
entirely  lacking.  We  have  in  Jerusalem  the  elements  of  a 
Pasteur  Institute  and  a  Jewish  Health  Bureau,  whence 
valuable  contributions  to  bacteriology  and  sanitation  have 
already  been  issued.  There  is  the  school  of  Technology  at 
Haifa,  and  the  beginning  of  an  agricultural  experimental 
station  at  Athlit.  It  is  to  scientific  research  and  its  applica- 
tion that  we  can  confidently  look  for  the  banishment  of  those 
twin  plagues  of  Palestine,  malaria  and  trachoma  ;  for  the 
eradication  of  other  indigenous  diseases  ;  it  is  to  true 
scientific  method  that  we  may  look  for  the  full  cultivation 
of  this  fair  and  fertile  land,  now  so  unproductive.  Here, 
chemistry  and  bacteriology,  geology  and  cUmatology,  will 
be  required  to  join  forces,  so  that  the  great  value  of  the 
University  in  the  building  up  of  our  National  Home  is 
apparent.  All  that  again  reminds  us  of  the  fact  which  one 
is  likely  to  forget  after  four  years  of  a  terrible  war,  with  its 
misapplication  of  scientific  methods,  that  we  must  look  to 
science  as  to  the  healer  of  many  wounds  and  the  redeemer  of 
many  evils.  Side  by  side  with  scientific  research  the  human- 
ities will  occupy  a  distinguished  place.  Ancient  Jewish 
learning,   the   accumulated,   half-liidden   treasures  of  our 


THE  HEBREW  UNIVERSITY  151 

ancient  philosophical,  rehgious  and  juridic  literature,  are  to 
be  brought  to  Hght  again  and  freed  from  the  dust  of  ages. 
They  will  be  incorporated  in  the  new  Hfe  now  about  to 
develop  in  this  country,  and  so  our  past  will  be  linked  up 
with  the  present. 

"  May  I  be  allowed,  before  concluding,  to  point  to  one  very 
important  aspect  of  our  University  ?  The  University,  while 
trying  to  maintain  the  highest  scientific  level,  must,  at  the 
same  time,  be  rendered  accessible  to  all  classes  of  the  people. 
The  Jewish  workman  and  farm  labourer  must  be  enabled  to 
find  there  a  possibihty  of  continuing  and  completing  their 
education  in  their  free  hours.  The  doors  of  our  hbraries, 
lecture  rooms,  and  laboratories,  must  be  opened  widely  to 
them  all.  Thus  the  University  will  exercise  its  beneficial 
influence  on  the  nation  as  a  whole.  The  bare  nucleus  of  the 
Hbrary  is  already  in  existence  here,  and  very  valuable  addi- 
tions to  it  are  at  present  stored  up  in  Russia  and  elsewhere. 
The  setting-up  of  a  University  hbrary  and  of  a  University 
press  are  contemplated  soon  after  the  war.  Manifold  are 
the  preparations  yet  to  be  made.  Some  of  them  are  already 
in  progress  ;  some,  hke  the  actual  building,  must  necessarily 
be  postponed  until  the  happy  day  of  peace  arrives.  But 
from  this  day  the  Hebrew  University  is  a  reality.  Our 
University,  formed  by  Jewish  learning  and  Jewish  energy, 
will  mould  itself  into  an  integral  part  of  our  national  structure 
which  is  in  process  of  erection.  It  will  have  a  centripetal 
force,  attracting  all  that  is  noblest  in  Jewry  throughout  the 
world  ;  a  unif3dng  centre  for  our  scattered  elements.  There 
will  go  forth,  too,  inspiration  and  strength,  that  shall  revivify 
the  powers  now  latent  in  our  scattered  communities.  Here 
the  wandering  soul  of  Israel  shall  reach  its  haven  ;  its 
strength  no  longer  consumed  in  restless  and  vain  wanderings. 
Israel  shall  at  last  remain  at  peace  within  itself  and  with  the 
world.  There  is  a  Talmudic  legend  that  tells  of  the  Jewish 
soul  deprived  of  its  body,  hovering  between  heaven  and 
earth.  Such  is  our  soul  to-day  ;  to-morrow  it  shall  come  to 
rest,  in  this  our  sanctuary.    That  is  our  faith." 

Dr.  Weizmann  then  read  the  following  message  from 
Mr.  Balfour : — 

"  Please  accept  my  cordial  good  wishes  for  the  future  of 
the  Hebrew  University  on  Mount  Scopus.  May  it  carry  out 
its  noble  purpose  with  ever-increasing  success  as  the  years 
go  on.  I  offer  my  warm  congratulations  to  all  who  have 
laboured  so  assiduously  to  found  this  school  of  learning, 


152  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

which  should  be  an  addition  to  the  forces  of  progress 
throughout  the  world." 

Captain  Coulandre,  on  behalf  of  the  French  Government, 
presented  the  following  message  : — 

"  Le  Gouvernement  de  la  Republique  est  heureux  d'ex- 
primer  les  sentiments  de  sympathie  avec  lesquels  il  accueille 
la  fondation  de  TUniversite  Juive.  II  forme  des  vceux 
sinceres  pour  que  de  la  rayonnent  les  grandes  pensees  de 
fraternite  et  d'ideal  auxquels  le  Judaisme  s'est  si  fermement 
attache  a  travers  les  siecles  au  cours  desquels  il  a  resiste  a 
toutes  les  persecutions,  et  pour  que  dans  un  monde  debarasse 
des  violences  engendrees  par  les  ambitions  forcenees  du 
regime  Prussien  les  Juifs  qui  le  desireront  puissent  trouver 
en  Palestine  en  parfaite  entente  avec  les  autres  groupements 
ethniques  un  foyer  a  la  fois  intellectuel  et  social." 

The  whole  ceremony  was  a  deeply  moving  one,  and 
produced  an  effect  which  will  long  remain  with  those  who 
witnessed  it. 

The  work  of  the  Commission  was  made  possible  by  the 
work  of  the  British  Army  and  its  scope  was  greatly  increased 
by  General  Allenby's  complete  conquest  of  the  country.  In 
September,  1918,  General  AUenby  secured  a  victory  which 
resounded  throughout  the  world  by  its  completeness  as 
well  as  by  its  brilUance.  By  most  skilful  procedure  the 
Turkish  hne  was  broken  in  several  places  and  Nablus  and 
Beisan  were  captured.  The  bridge  of  the  Daughters  of  Jacob 
over  the  Jordan  was  seized  and  British  troops  wheeling 
round  by  quick  marches  along  the  coastal  plain,  passed 
through  the  defile  of  Megiddo  and  cut  off  the  greater  portion 
of  the  Turkish  army.  The  strong  Turkish  positions  in  the 
hills  about  Nahlns  were  surrounded  and  positions  which  if 
directly  attacked  would  have  cost  thousands  of  lives  were 
taken  with  comparatively  few  losses. 

Eighty  thousand  prisoners  were  captured  and  a  vast 
amount  of  guns,  munitions,  and  stores.  The  cavalry  swept 
northward  and  captured  Damascus  within  a  few  days,  and 
even  moved  on  to  Beirout  and  Sidon  on  the  coast,  while 
the  Arabs  under  the  King  of  the  Hedjaz  defeated  the  Turks 
in  the  south-east  of  Palestine  and  Jewish  troops  were  sent 
forward  to  the  capture  of  Amman  and  Essalt.  In  a  period 
of  a  fortnight,  three  armies  were  defeated  and  ceased  to 
exist.    Turkey's  mihtary  power  was  destroyed  instant ane- 


DEFEAT   OF  TURKEY  153 

ously.  The  only  defences  left  to  the  Turkish  Empire  were 
bad  communications,  immense  distances,  and  the  sub- 
marines in  the  Eastern  Mediterranean.  The  victories  in 
Palestine  stirred  the  world  and  gave  new  vigour  to  Zionist 
efforts.  To  the  outside  world,  these  victories  marked  the 
first  decisive  step  in  the  final  defeat  of  the  German  federa- 
tion. To  the  Zionists,  they  brought  great  joy  because  they 
definitely  ended  the  corrupt  rule  of  Turkey.  Supported  by 
the  most  powerful  nations  in  the  world,  the  Jews  are  asked 
to  create  in  Palestine  a  typically  Hebrew  society.  A  great 
responsibility  and  a  great  opportunity  are  thus  offered  to 
us.  We  have  to  consider  many  new  and  difficult  problems. 
But  for  the  solution  of  these  practical  problems,  we  con- 
fidently expect  to  receive  much  help  from  Jews  all  over 
the  world.  The  Declaration  of  the  Allies  has  been  like  a 
trumpet-call.  Our  wonderful  successes  in  the  world  of 
diplomacy  fascinate  all  to  whom  the  fate  of  Israel  is  of 
importance.  The  history  of  the  past  few  years,  which  has 
transformed,  at  the  cost  of  terrible  injuries  to  humanity, 
what  seemed  dreams  into  plain  facts,  and  made  what  were 
facts  into  dream-like  memories,  will  surely  bring  us  active 
help  from  all  who  sympathize  with  our  ideal,  the  ideal  for 
which  Jews  have  unceasingly  prayed  and  hoped  for  twenty 
centuries. 


This  mighty  war  has  now  come  to  an  end  and  the  world 
breathes  freely  once  more.  The  cruelties  and  horrors  of 
more  than  four  years  seem  now  like  a  nightmare.  That 
nightmare  has  vanished — let  us  hope  for  ever.  Day  has 
dawned  again,  a  day  of  victory,  whose  power  for  good  out- 
weighs the  evil  powers  let  loose  by  the  world-war.  The 
great  armies  of  the  Western  Allies  and  of  the  United  States 
of  America  have  been  victorious.  In  consequence  of  this 
victory  an  old  world  order  has  been  destroyed  and  a  new 
and  a  better  one  brought  into  being.  State  organizations 
which  had  forced  diverse  nations  into  their  artificial 
and  incongruous  structures  only  by  power  are  collapsing  like 
houses  of  cards.  Those  who  ruled  by  the  sword  perished 
by  the  sword.  Despotism,  supported  by  militarism,  is 
shattered.  The  victory  of  the  Allies  ought  to  be  more  than 
a  victory  of  one  group  of  states  over  another  ;  this  ought 
to  be  the  victory  of  what  is  good  in  man  over  what  is  evil. 


154  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

This  victory  must  benefit  the  conquered  not  less  than  the 
conquerors.  One  great  idea  has  been  victorious  in  this  war, 
namely,  the  national  principle  :  liberty,  equality,  and  self- 
determination  of  all  peoples,  great  and  small,  old  and  young. 
Every  nation  has  the  right  to  live,  given  the  will  to  do  so. 
Every  nation  has  a  right  to  the  land  in  which  it  grew  to  be 
a  nation.  It  is  all  one,  whether  this  was  accomplished  a 
hundred  years  ago  as  in  Belgium,  or  many  hundreds  of 
years  ago  as  in  Armenia,  or  as  in  Greece  some  thousands  of 
years  ago.  The  right  of  a  people  to  its  historical  home  can- 
not be  limited  by  time. 

On  the  basis  of  this  principle  a  new  Europe  is  shaping 
itself.  Every  nation  must  have  its  own  land,  its  share  in 
human  civilization,  with  its  own  speech  and  customs,  its 
right  to  do  as  it  wills.  Alsace-Lorraine  wants  to  be  French, 
and  therefore  it  shall  be  French  again.  The  Czechs  and  the 
Southern  Slavs  wish  to  form  independent  states  ;  Poland, 
Belgium,  Serbia,  and  others,  too,  are  reasserting  their  inde- 
pendence. Wherever  historical  rights  exist,  these  must 
now  be  realized.  Every  nation  regains  now  its  Zion  for 
which  it  has  longed  and  suffered.  Although  this  is  a  great 
progress  in  itself,  it  would  be  a  poor  safeguard  unless  the 
other  great  principle  were  also  adopted,  the  principle  of 
freedom.  With  the  regeneration  of  national  freedom  it 
follows  also  that  the  progress  of  human  liberty,  equality, 
and  social  justice  both  in  the  existing  states  and  in  the  old 
ones  now  to  be  re-established  will  be  assured.  No  despotism, 
no  subjection  of  minorities,  but  liberty,  equality,  and 
fraternity  for  all  citizens,  equal  duties  and  equal  rights. 

For  this  ideal  seven  millions  of  men,  the  vigorous  youth 
of  mankind,  have  sacrificed  their  lives,  and  many  millions 
more  have  been  crippled.  For  this  ideal  of  justice  several 
countries  have  been  laid  waste  and  civilization  itself  has 
been  threatened  with  complete  destruction.  This  great 
ideal  of  justice,  however,  will  be  worthy  of  the  terrible 
sacrifices  which  have  been  made  ;  it  must  now  be  attained. 

A  new  Europe  and — a  new  Asia.  Light  is  shining  again 
from  the  East.  The  glorious  British  Army  has  reconquered 
ancient  East  for  civilization.  The  Arabs,  our  Semitic 
kindred,  the  descendants  of  a  chivalrous  and  one-time 
famous  race,  side  by  side  with  inspired  Jewish  volunteer 
forces  who  had  flocked  together  to  fight  with  love  and 
enthusiasm  for  the  Land  of  Promise,  have,  with  the  assist- 
ance of  French  and  Italian  reinforcements,  done  their  duty 


THE  JEWISH  DEMAND  155 

in  assisting  the  British  Army.  Mesopotamia,  Arabia, 
Syria,  and  Palestine  are  now  freed  for  their  nations.  An 
Arabian  Kingdom,  a  free,  well-ordered  Syria,  the  remnants 
of  the  unfortunate,  hard-tried  Armenian  nation  established  as 
an  Armenian  State,  and  a  new  Erez  Israel,  all  these  will  have 
to  be  created  on  a  basis  of  historical  rights  and  of  the  real- 
ization of  the  national  principle,  each  under  the  protection  of, 
and  receiving  assistance  from,  some  suitable  Great  Power, 
in  accordance  with  their  own  desire,  in  their  gradual  and 
peaceful  progress  towards  their  ultimate  goal. 

What,  we  ask,  will  now  be  the  position  of  the' Jews  at  this 
juncture  ?  What  will  the  great  victory  bring  to  this  people 
who  have  been  so  hard  hit  by  this  war  ?  Hundreds  of 
thousands  of  Jews  have  lost  their  lives,  most  of  them  in 
countries  where  they  had  no  share  in  human  rights,  and 
nothing  to  fight  for.  Dying  on  the  Carpathian  moun- 
tains or  in  the  plains  of  Moldavia,  the  last  glance  of  their 
closing  eyes  was  turned  to  the  East,  to  the  hills  of  Zion, 
Innumerable  masses  have  been  maimed,  millions  nerve- 
shattered  and  starved  out,  tens  of  thousands  of  Jewish 
homes,  thousands  of  old  Jewish  communities  wiped  out, 
never  to  be  reconstructed.  Will  all  this  not  be  taken  into 
account  in  the  general  reckoning  of  the  great  victory  ? 
Jews  live  in  larger  or  smaller  numbers  in  different  countries, 
where  they  are  faithful  and  devoted  citizens.  The  majority 
of  the  Jewish  people  have  suffered  too  long  and  too  bitterly 
in  many  countries,  and  it  must  be  the  task  of  the  nations 
and  their  governments,  once  and  for  all,  to  put  an  end  to  these 
unspeakable  sufferings  in  the  old  states  and  in  those  soon 
to  be  founded,  by  solemn  declarations  and  binding  obliga- 
tions. The  Jews  desire  to  be  emancipated,  that  is,  released 
from  servile  tutelage  ;  in  a  free  state  they  do  not  wish  to  be 
the  only  pariahs  and  slaves.  They  demand  to  be  free  ; 
that  means  in  the  first  place  that  they  want  to  breathe 
freely,  to  breathe  wherever  they  wish  without  fear  that 
a  policeman  or  a  neighbour  should  point  out  to  them  that  a 
Jew  may  not  breathe  everywhere.  They  demand  to  be  free  ; 
that  means  in  the  second  place,  that  they  should  have 
the  right  to  use  their  powers  of  mind  and  body  un- 
hindered in  any  honest  calling,  in  any  useful  art,  in  any 
branch  of  science  ;  so  that  they  can  be  active  and  industri- 
ous, follow  skilled  employments,  or  discharge  the  functions 
of  office  in  order  to  maintain  themselves  and  their  families 
and  not  be  a  burden  upon  others.    This  they  desire  without 


156  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

having  to  fear  that  the  Gentile  competitor  should  be  able 
to  say  to  them  :  only  Gentile  hands,  only  Gentile  craftsmen 
may  be  employed  in  skilled  trades,  only  Gentile  applicants 
are  admitted  to  official  positions,  only  Gentile  abilities  can 
assert  themselves.  And  as  there  are  too  many  of  you,  we 
must  make  laws  to  limit  your  activities — otherwise  we  shall 
boycott  you  !  They  demand  to  be  free  ;  that  means  in  the 
third  place  that  they  must  be  free  also  as  regards  their 
conscience  :  if  their  sons  possess  sufficient  talent  and  know- 
ledge to  serve  the  country  as  scholars  or  as  public  officials, 
they  should  be  able  to  do  so  as  honest  Jews,  and  not  be 
compelled  to  parade  as  dishonest  Christians,  that  is  to  pro- 
fane the  ceremony  of  baptism  and  to  use  the  certificate  of 
baptism  as  a  passport  to  office  ;  they  do  not  wish  to  act 
as  hypocrites,  they  do  not  wish  to  enter  Christian  com- 
munities by  lying  and  knavery,  or  to  smuggle  themselves  in 
that  way  into  civic  life.  They  wish  to  live  as  Jews,  that 
means  to  maintain  and  to  develop  undisturbed  in  their  true 
spirit  their  customs,  their  traditions,  their  system  of  educa- 
tion, their  communities,  etc.  In  short,  they  wish  to  be 
human  beings,  since  he  that  may  not  be  a  citizen  with  a 
citizen's  full  rights  in  the  place  where  he  lives  and  works  and 
bears  his  share  in  all  social  burdens,  has  been  denied  the 
right  to  be  a  human  being ;  or  if  rights  are  granted  to  a  man 
under  the  condition  that  he  should  become  assimilated  and 
cease  to  be  what  he  has  been,  thanks  to  his  race  and  the 
traditions  sacred  to  him,  against  that  man's  manhood  the 
crime  of  murder  has  been  committed.  They  wish  to  be  free 
human  beings. 

This  question  indeed  concerns  humanity.  It  was  raised 
at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  by  the  great  French 
Revolution,  and  in  some  states  with  small  Jewish  popula- 
tions it  has  been  solved  in  a  spirit  of  liberty.  France,  Eng- 
land, Italy  were  the  pioneers  of  equal  rights  for  all.  The 
United  States  of  America  were  an  example  in  establishing 
the  freedom  of  citizenship.  Nevertheless  the  majority  of 
the  Jews  presented  during  the  course  of  the  nineteenth 
century  a  pitiful  spectacle  of  unceasing  martyrdom — ^with 
many  shades  from  semi-emancipation  linked  with  anti- 
semitism,  to  boycott  and  massacres. 

The  world  is  changing  all  its  values,  and  should  there  be 
in  any  country  a  continuation  of  tyranny,  oppression,  and 
barbarous  persecution  with  regard  to  the  Jews,  under  any 
pretext — of  which  there  has  never  and  nowhere  seemed  to 


THE  JEWISH  PROBLEM  157 

be  a  lack — ^then  the  great  ideal  of  this  world-war  will  remain 
an  idle  dream.  For  justice  can  never  exist  together  with 
injustice.  This  problem  of  humanity  must  now  be  and  will 
be  solved. 

But  the  essential  problem  of  modern  political  evolution 
lies  deeper  than  this  :  it  is  the  problem  of  the  peoples  that 
have  been  robbed  of  their  lands.  No  matter  how  the  posi- 
tion of  the  Jews  may  be  ameliorated,  and  although  many 
Jews  may  find  a  home  here  and  there,  nevertheless  the 
genius  of  the  Jewish  people,  the  energy  of  its  constructive 
power,  its  creative  force  will  have  no  adequate  means  of 
expression.  To  have  a  strong  impulse  to  live  their  own 
full  life  and  not  to  be  able  to  do  so — ^that  is  the  heart- 
breaking tragedy  of  this  people.  This  essential  dilemma  is 
left  untouched  by  the  vague  formula  of  Emancipation. 
Zionism  is  the  only  remedy  for  the  deeper  Jewish  problem, 
because  Zionism  alone  goes  to  the  real  root  of  the  trouble. 
There  can  be  no  Emancipation  worthy  of  the  name  without 
a  homeland.  The  greatest  danger  to  Zionism  as  well  as  to 
anti-Zionism  is  that  the  ideal  of  Zionism  on  the  one  hand 
and  that  of  Emancipation  on  the  other  should  be  separated, 
and  that  people  should  come  to  regard  as  antagonistic  objects 
which  are  essentially  related  and  complementary  to  one 
another.  Not  all  Jews  will  return  to  Palestine,  but  large 
numbers  will.  Zionism  represents  one  of  the  highest  mani- 
festations of  that  aspiration  to  free  national  existence  which 
is  the  basis  of  the  reconstruction  of  the  world.  When  a 
people,  uprooted  for  centuries  from  its  soil,  scattered  like 
dust  over  the  whole  world,  wants  to  restore  its  homeland 
to-day,  to  have  a  land  where  it  can  be  reunited,  then  we  have 
before  us  a  proof  of  the  new  power  that  lies  in  the  national  idea. 
Millions  of  Jews  are  attached  to  Palestine  with  all  their  soul 
and  strength,  just  as  on  the  first  day  of  the  forced  expulsion 
of  their  ancestors  from  their  old  home  :  their  prayers,  their 
lamentations,  their  dreams  have  centred  for  generations 
upon  this  magnetic  pole  of  their  love  and  reverence.  Hun- 
dreds of  times  they  made  desperate  efforts  to  return,  but 
were  prevented  by  powerful  circumstances  from  doing  so, 
and  as  soon  as  they  had  the  opportunity  of  beginning  again 
the  re-settlement  of  Palestine,  notwithstanding  unspeakable 
sufferings  and  the  greatest  sacrifices,  they  instantly  and 
energetically  availed  themselves  of  it.  If  the  millions  of 
Jewish  emigrants  who  formed  the  new  ghettoes  of  Europe 
and  America  from  about  1880  to  now  had  had  the  possi- 


158  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

bility  of  going  to  Palestine,  they  would  have  gladly  seized 
it,  because  they  wished  to  hve  as  a  nation,  but  that  was  not 
possible  at  that  time.  Israel  must  have  its  own  home. 
Palestine  must  become  the  spiritual  and  cultural  centre  of 
the  Jews.  Properly  developed,  it  can  hold  miUions  of  home- 
less Jews  who  will  at  last  have  their  own  homeland  and 
their  own  full  nationahty.  If  it  is  a  misfortune  for  a 
people  to  be  robbed  of  its  country,  where  it  could 
live  in  peace  and  prosperity  as  a  nation  and  enjoy 
in  common  with  the  rest  of  the  family  of  nations 
the  fruits  of  its  labour,  then  this  misfortune  is  not 
smaller  but  rather  has  become  greater  for  having 
existed  two  thousand  years.  If  it  is  an  injustice  to  withhold 
from  a  people  a  land  to  which  they  have  a  right,  then  this 
injustice  is  not  the  smaller,  but  rather  the  greater,  when  a 
people  has  suffered  it  for  two  thousand  years.  Never  has  a 
nation  governed  its  own  home  for  a  longer  period  ;  no 
nation's  history,  rehgion,  literature,  and  traditions  are  more 
closely  bound  up  with  its  land  ;  and  no  nation  has  ever 
suffered  a  more  terrible  martyrdom  after  having  been  dis- 
inherited. Can  anyone  doubt  the  right  of  the  Jewish  people 
to  the  land  of  Israel  ?  The  validity  of  the  Jewish  title  to 
Palestine  rests  on  the  same  basis  as  the  title  of  any  nation 
to  any  particular  area  of  the  world  where  it  has  ruled  and 
existed  for  centuries.  The  Jews*  historical  right  on  the 
Land  of  Israel,  with  due  consideration  for  the  rights  and 
interests  of  the  non- Jewish  population  which  will  be  safe- 
guarded and  respected,  must  become  the  decisive  factor 
in  the  question  of  Palestine. 

At  last  the  time  has  come.  The  spirit  of  freedom  is  on 
the  wing,  the  Great  Creative  Spirit  is  once  more  moving 
among  the  nations.  The  new  territorial  settlement  is  going 
to  lay  the  foundations  of  the  world's  peace  on  a  basis  of 
justice  and  national  union.  The  liberation  of  oppressed 
nationalities,  the  restoration  of  territories  violently  annexed 
in  the  past,  the  recognition  of  the  desire  of  racial  units  and 
groups  for  autonomy  are  the  great  objects  in  view.  The 
wrongs  of  the  centuries  are  going  to  be  righted,  and  the 
Jewish  race  to  be  placed  on  an  equal  footing  with  other  races. 
The  Jewish  people  is  standing  at  a  momentous  turning 
point  in  its  history  of  four  thousand  years,  to  which  the 
determined  labour  of  Zionism  has  paved  the  way.  The 
very  roots  of  Jewish  nationality  are  set  in  that  soil  which 
after  being  for  ages  in  shadow  is  again  turning  to  light. 


THE  SUPREME  TASK  159 

With  the  victory  of  the  national  idea  Zionism  also  has  won 
a  victory.  Now  that  Palestine  is  freed,  much  is  possible 
which  formerly  was  only  an  aspiration.  The  field  is  immense 
and  ready.  The  evil  demon  of  the  Pharaohs  and  of  Antio- 
chus  Epiphanes  has  been  cast  out ;  the  glorious  genius  of 
Cyrus  the  Great  hovers  with  wings  of  love  over  the  wonder- 
ful destiny  of  the  Jewish  people.  Powerful  nations  and 
governments — ^the  guardians  of  freedom  and  the  champions 
of  justice — ^have  solemnly  pledged  themselves  to  further 
with  all  the  forces  at  their  disposal  the  revival  of  the  Jewish 
nation  in  the  land  of  Israel.  Under  this  guiding  symbol 
the  problem  of  Palestine  will  be  discussed  and  settled  by  the 
Peace  Conference  among  all  the  important  questions  before 
it.  The  work  is  stupendous  in  its  implications  and  its 
responsibilities.  No  one  imagines  that  this  result  can  be 
speedily  attained.  Its  accomplishment  will  take  time,  and 
quite  possibly  a  long  time.  To  restore  a  scattered  people  to 
a  land  long  neglected  is  not  an  easy  task.  The  Jewish 
colonization  of  Palestine  must  be  carefully  built,  stone  upon 
stone,  by  the  steady  hands  of  Zionists  with  that  spirit  of 
self-sacrificing  endurance  which  saved  our  nationality,  with 
wisdom  and  self-restraint.  Zionists  are  aware  of  what  the 
Holy  Places  of  Palestine,  places  of  traditional  associations 
and  religious  faith,  consecrated  by  a  thousand  cherished 
memories,  are  to  the  great  religions.  These  places  will  receive 
equal  respect  ;  they  will  be,  not  less,  but  more  than  hitherto 
reverently  exalted  as  places  of  the  rarest  and  sweetest 
memories  in  the  world.  Zionists  have  the  most  scrupulous 
regard  for  all  spiritual  things  and  needs  of  all  religions,  and 
are  confident  that  all  Holy  Places  will  be  safeguarded  by 
arrangements  to  be  introduced  Zionists  are  also  alive  to  the 
legitimate  interests  and  needs  of  the  non- Jewish  population, 
whose  liberty  and  welfare,  in  peace  and  harmony  and 
mutual  respect,  are  most  essential  for  the  success  of  the 
Jewish  national  rebirth.  The  new  Jewish  centre  must  be 
made  worthy  of  its  glorious  past.  The  noblest  ambitions  of 
Jews  all  over  the  world  are  concentrated  on  this  point. 

Zionists  have  now  an  opportunity  never  dreamt  of — 
an  opportunity  that  may  never  return.  The  Jewish  masses, 
all  those  who  want  to  live  their  own  life,  the  clean, 
free  life  of  ;  farmers  and  settlers,  will  be  enabled  to 
cultivate 'all  the  possibilities  of  their  nature.  Industry, 
art,  and  science  are  to  join  hands  in  this  great  work. 
The    long-desired    goal    of    the    Jewish    people,    the    re- 


i6o  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

habilitation  of  the  old  national  home  in  the  land  of 
their  fathers,  is  nearing  reahzation.  This  is  a  great  historical 
event  which  must  touch  and  stimulate  the  imagination  of 
all  for  whom  history,  right  of  nations,  and  justice  for  small 
nationalities  have  any  meaning  or  any  message.  Ancient 
Israel,  reawakened  to  new  life,  is  preparing  itself  to  enter 
the  family  of  nations  as  a  small  but  free  nation  in  its  old 
home. 

Zionism  is  not  a  mere  abstract  idea.  It  is  connected  by 
every  bond  with  modern  democracy  and  aspirations  for 
liberty.  All  peoples  for  whom  democracy  is  not  a  vain 
word  owe  it  moral  and  material  support.  The  Peace  Con- 
ference must  permit  it  to  attain  its  ends.  The  League  of 
Nations  will  not  be  complete  if  the  oldest  and  most  oppressed 
Jewish  nationality  will  not  have  its  place  there.  Of  all  the 
consequences  of  the  Great  War  and  the  still  greater  Victory, 
none  could  be  invested  with  so  splendid  a  degree  of  romance 
as  the  re-establishment  of  Israel.  Of  all  the  small  nations 
which  shall  spring  full  fledged  from  this  world  crisis,  none 
will  have  so  ancient  a  claim,  so  fascinating  a  history  as 
the  Hebrew  people  reinstalled  among  the  consecrated  hills 
of  Judah  and  by  the  sacred  waters  of  Galilee.  This  will  be 
an  everlasting  memorial  to  the  principle  for  which  the  free 
peoples  of  the  earth  have  made  the  greatest  sacrifice  in  the 
history  of  the  human  race.  And  the  names  of  all  those  who 
have  given  their  support  and  help  towards  this  work  of 
Peace,  Justice,  and  Libert 3^  will  live  for  ever  in  the  annals  of 
the  world  and  of  Israel. 


APPENDICES 

B.  M. :  British  Museum  Library. 
I.  S, :     Israel  Solomons'  Collection. 


The  Prophets  and  the  Idea  of  a  National  Restoration 

The  first  prophet  who  has  left  any  definite  revelation  concerning 
the  Dispersion  of  the  Jews  and  their  ultimate  restoration  in 
Palestine  was  Moses,  our  Law-giver. 

"  And  I  will  bring  the  land  into  desolation ;  and  your  enemies 
that  dwell  therein  shall  be  astonished  at  it."    (Leviticus  xxvi.  32.) 

"  And  you  will  I  scatter  among  the  nations,  and  I  will  draw  out 
the  sword  after  you  ;  and  your  land  shall  be  a  desolation,  and  your 
cities  shall  be  a  waste."    {Ibid.  33.) 

"  And  yet  for  all  that,  when  they  are  in  the  land  of  their  enemies, 
I  will  not  reject  them,  neither  will  I  abhor  them,  to  destroy  them 
utterly,  and  to  break  My  covenant  with  them^;^  for  I  am  the  Lord 
their  God."    {Ibid.  44.) 

"  But  I  will  for  their  sakes  remember  the  covenant  of  their 
ancestors,  whom  I  brought  forth  out  of  the  land  of  Egypt  in  the  sight 
of  the  nations,  that  I  might  be  their  God :  I  am  the  Lord."    {Ibid.  45.) 

Here  we  have  a  promise  not  to  abhor  or  utterly  destroy  the 
Jewish  people,  but  to  remember  the  covenant  which  God  made 
with  their  ancestors.  We  find  the  purport  of  this  covenant  in  an 
early  chapter  of  the  Pentateuch  : — 

"  And  the  Lord  said  unto  Abram,  .  .  .  '  Lift  up  now  thine  eyes, 
and  look  from  the  place  where  thou  art,  northward  and  southward 
and  eastward  and  westward  ;  "  (Genesis  xiii.  14.) 
"  for  all  the  land  which  thou  seest,  to  thee  will  I  give  it,  and  to  thy 
seed  for  ever  :  "  {Ibid.  15.) 

It  is  impossible  to  understand  how  it  can  be  said  that  this 
covenant  will  be  remembered,  if  the  Jewish  people  is  to  continue 
dispersed,  and  is  to  he  for  ever  excluded  from  the  land  here  spoken 
of.  As  to  the  return  from  Babylonian  captivity,  that  will  not 
answer  the  intention  of  the  covenant  at  all.  For  to  restore  a 
small  part  of  the  Jewish  people  to  its  own  land  for  a  few  genera- 
tions, and  afterwards  disperse  it  among  all  nations  for  many 
times  as  long,  without  any  hope  of  return,  cannot  be  the  meaning 
of  giving  that  land  to  the  seed  of  Abram  for  ever. 

II.— M  161 


i62  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Again  we  read  : — 

"  And  the  Lord  shall  scatter  you  among  the  peoples,  ..." 

(Deuteronomy  iv.  27.) 

**  But  from  thence  ye  will  seek  the  Lord  thy  God  ;  and  thou  shalt 
find  Him,  if  thou  search  after  Him  with  all  thy  heart  and  with  all  thy 
soul."    {Ibid.  29.) 

"  In  thy  distress,  when  all  these  things  are  come  upon  thee,  in  the 
end  of  days,  thou  wilt  return  to  the  Lord  thy  God,  and  hearken  unto 
His  voice  ;  "  {Ibid.  30.) 

"  for  the  Lord  thy  God  is  a  merciful  God ;  He  will  not  fail  thee, 
neither  destroy  thee,  nor  forget  the  covenant  of  thy  fathers  which 
He  swore  unto  them."    {Ibid.  31.) 

This  prophecy  refers  to  the  thirteenth  chapter  of  Genesis,  as  is 
shown  by  this  thirty-first  verse  ;  and  confirms  again  the  return 
to  the  Holy  Land,  and  its  possession  for  ever  : — 

"  And  it  shall  come  to  pass,  when  all  these  things  are  come  upon 
thee,  the  blessing  and  the  curse,  which  I  have  set  before  thee,  and 
thou  shalt  bethink  thyself  among  all  the  nations,  whither  the  Lord 
thy  God  hath  driven  thee,"  (Deuteronomy  xxx.  i.) 
"  and  shalt  return  unto  the  Lord  thy  God,  and  hearken  to  His  voice 
according  to  all  that  I  command  thee  this  day,  thou  and  thy  children, 
with  all  thy  heart,  and  with  all  thy  soul ;  "  {Ibid.  2.) 

"  that  then  the  Lord  thy  God  will  turn  thy  captivity,  and  have  com- 
passion upon  thee,  and  will  return  and  gather  thee  from  all  the 
peoples,  whither  the  Lord  thy  God  hath  scattered  thee."    {Ibid.  3.) 

"  If  any  of  thine  that  are  dispersed  be  in  the  uttermost  parts  of 
heaven,  from  thence  will  the  Lord  thy  God  gather  thee,  and  from 
thence  will  He  fetch  thee."    {Ibid.  4.) 

"  And  the  Lord  thy  God  will  bring  thee  into  the  land  which  thy 
fathers  possessed,  and  thou  shalt  possess  it ;  and  He  will  do  thee 
good,  and  multiply  thee  above  thy  fathers."    {Ibid.  5.) 

Amongst  the  "things  which  should  come  upon  them,"  which 
axe  described  at  large  in  the  twenty-eighth  and  twenty-ninth 
chapters  of  Deuteronomy,  it  is  particularly  said  : — 

"  And  the  Lord  shall  scatter  thee  among  all  peoples,  from  the  one 
end  of  the  earth  even  unto  the  other  end  of  the  earth  ;  .  .  ." 

{Ibid,  xxviii.  64.) 
But  observe  that  subsequently  we  are  told  : — 

"  And  the  Lord  thy  God  will  bring  thee  into  the  land  which 
thy  fathers  possessed,  and  thou  shalt  possess  it ;  and  He  will  do  thee 
good,  and  multiply  thee  above  thy  fathers."     {Ibid.  xxx.  5.) 

which  promises  do  not  appear  to  have  been  fulfilled  during  the 
time  of  the  Babylonian  captivity,  or  after  the  return  from 
Babylon. 

Here  we  have  in  plain  words,  simple  and  clear,  the  funda- 
mental idea  of  Moses :  the  Jewish  national  future  and  the 
possession  of  the  land  for  ever.  This  cannot  be  explained  away 
b  y  sophistry.    In  vain  some  Jews  declare  :  We  are  not  nationalist 


APPENDICES  163 

Jews,  we  are  religious  Jews  !  What  is  the  Jewish  religion  if  the 
Bible  is  not  accepted  as  an  Inspired  Revelation  ?  It  is  strange 
and  sadly  amusing  that  some  Jews,  adherents  of  the  monotheistic 
principle,  describe  themselves  as  Germans,  Magyars,  and  so  on, 
"  of  the  persuasion  of  Moses."  If  this  is  not  blasphemy,  it  is 
irony.  The  real  Moses,  the  Moses  of  the  Pentateuch,  brands 
Dispersion  as  a  curse,  and  his  whole  religious  conception,  with  all 
the  laws,  ceremonies,  feasts,  etc.,  is  built  up  on  the  basis  of  the 
covenant  with  the  ancestors,  a  covenant  immovable  and  un- 
alterable. No  matter  whether  Jews  call  themselves  religious  or 
nationalist :  the  Jewish  religion  cannot  be  separated  from 
nationalism,  unless  another  Bible  is  invented. 

Judaism,  or  the  Jewish  religion,  is  based  first  upon  the  teaching 
of  Moses,  and  next  upon  that  of  the  prophets,  and  it  is  a  favourite 
claim  of  the  modern  school  of  Jewish  reform  that  their  Judaism 
is  "  Prophetic  Judaism,"  in  opposition  to  the  Judaism  of  orthodox 
Jews,  who  lay  particular  stress  upon  the  Talmud.  But  what  do 
the  prophets  teach  ? 

The  next  revelation  in  chronological  order  after  the  inspired 
predictions  of  Moses,  is  that  of  Joel  the  son  of  Pethuel,  who  began 
to  prophesy  to  the  Kingdom  of  Judah  about  eight  hundred  years 
before  the  civil  era  : — 

"  Then  was  the  Lord  jealous  for  His  land, 
And  had  pity  on  His  people."     (Joel  ii.  18.) 

"  And  the  Lord  answered  and  said  unto  His  people  : 

Behold,  I  will  send  you  corn,  and  wine,  and  oil, 

And  ye  shall  be  satisfied  therewith  ; 

And  I  will  no  more  make  you  a  reproach  among  the  nations  ;  " 

[Ibid.  19.) 
"  For,  behold,  in  those  days,  and  in  that  time. 

When  I  shall  bring  back  the  captivity  of  Judah  and  Jerusalem," 

{Ibid.  iv.  I.) 
"  So  shall  ye  know  that  I  am  the  Lord  your  God, 

Dwelling  in  Zion  My  holy  mountain  ; 

Then  shall  Jerusalem  be  holy,  ..."     {Ibid.  17.) 

"  But  Judah  shall  be  inhabited  for  ever, 
And  Jerusalem  from  generation  to  generation."    {Ibid.  20.) 

Amos,  who  was  among  the  herdmen  of  Tekoa,  lived  in  the  days 
of  Jeroboam,  the  son  of  Joash,  King  of  Israel,  and  prophesied  to 
the  Kingdom  of  Israel  from  eight  hundred  and  eight,  to  seven 
hundred  and  eighty-three  years  before  the  civil  era  : — 

"  And  I  will  turn  the  captivity  of  My  people  Israel, 

And  they  shall  build  the  waste  cities,  and  inhabit  them  ;    ..." 

(Amosix.  14.) 
"  And  I  will  plant  them  upon  their  land. 

And  they  shall  no  more  be  plucked  up 

Out  of  their  land  which  I  have  given  them, 

Saith  the  Lord  thy  God."     {Ibid.  15.) 


i64  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Hosea,  the  son  of  Beeri,  prophesied  to  the  Kingdom  of  Israel, 
in  the  days  of  the  same  Jeroboam  from  about  seven  hundred  and 
eighty-five,  to  seven  hundred  and  twenty-five  years  before  the 
civil  era  : — 

"  For  the  children  of  Israel  shall  sit  solitary  many  days  without 
king,  and  without  prince,  .  .  ."  (Hosea  iii.  4.) 

"  afterward  shall  the  children  of  Israel  return,  and  seek  the  Lord 
their  God,  and  David  their  king  ;  .  .  ."  {Ibid.  5.) 

This  prophecy,  being  given  to  the  Kingdom  of  Israel  in  parti- 
cular, cannot  be  applied  to  the  return  of  Judah  from  Babylon. 

Isaiah  the  son  of  Amoz  (The  First  Isaiah)  was  the  foremost 
of  the  four  who  are  called  the  greater  prophets.  He  lived  in  the 
time  of  Uzziah,  Jotham,  Ahaz  and  Hezekiah,  Kings  of  Judah, 
and  prophesied  about  seven  hundred  and  sixty,  to  six  hundred 
and  ninety-eight  years  before  the  civil  era  : — 

"  And  it  shall  come  to  pass  in  that  day. 
That  the  Lord  will  set  His  hand  again  the  second  time 
To  recover  the  remnant  of  His  people. 
That  shall  remain  from  Assyria,  and  from  Egypt, 
And  from  Pathros,  and  from  Cush,  and  from  Elam, 
And  from  Shinar,  and  from  Hamath,  and  from  the  islands  of  the 
sea."     (Isaiah  xi.  11.) 

"  And  he  will  set  up  an  ensign  for  the  nations, 
And  will  assemble  the  dispersed  of  Israel, 
And  gather  together  the  scattered  of  Judah 
From  the  four  comers  of  the  earth."    {Ihid.  12.) 

"  The  envy  also  of  Ephraim  shall  depart, 
And  they  that  harass  Judah  shall  be  cut  off  ; 
Ephraim  shall  not  envy  Judah, 
And  Judah  shall  not  vex  Ephraim."     {Ibid.  13.) 

This  prophecy,  alone,  is  sufficiently  definite  with  regard  to  a 
second  restoration  of  Israel,  as  appears  from  the  eleventh  verse, 
even  if  there  were  no  other  to  be  found. 

As  to  the  second  Isaiah,  his  prophecies  may  be  called  the 
"  Song  of  Songs  "  of  the  restoration  of  Israel : — 

"  Lift  up  thine  eyes  round  about,  and  see  : 
They  all  are  gathered  together,  and  come  to  thee  ; 
Thy  sons  come  from  far. 
And  thy  daughters  are  borne  on  the  side."     (Isaiah  Ix.  4.) 

"  Who  are  these  that  fly  as  a  cloud. 
And  as  the  doves  to  their  cotes  ?  "     {Ibid.  8.) 

"  Surely  the  isles  shall  wait  for  Me, 
And  the  ships  of  Tarshish  first, 
To  bring  thy  sons  from  far. 
Their  silver  and  their  gold  with  them, 
For  the  name  of  the  Lord  thy  God, 

And  for  the  Holy  One  of  Israel,  because  He  hath  glorified  thee." 

{Ibid.  9.) 


APPENDICES  165 

"  For  as  the  new  heavens  and  the  new  earth,  which  I  will  make, 
shall  remain  before  Me,  said  the  Lord,  so  shall  your  seed  and  your 
name  remain."     [Ihid.  Ixvi.  22.) 

Micah  the  Morashtite  prophesied  in  the  days  of  Jotham, 
Ahaz  and  Hezekiah,  kings  of  Judah,  about  750  years  before  the 
civil  era : — 

"  I  will  surely  assemble,  O  Jacob,  all  of  thee ; 
I  will  surely  gather  the  remnant  of  Israel ;  ..."    (Micah  ii.  12.) 

"  In  that  day,  saith  the  Lord,  will  I  assemble  her  that  halteth. 
And  I  will  gather  her  that  is  driven  away. 
And  her  that  I  have  afflicted  ;  "     {Ihid.  iv.  6.) 

"  And  I  will  make  her  that  halted  a  remnant. 
And  her  that  was  cast  far  off  a  mighty  nation  ; 
And  the  Lord  shall  reign  over  them  in  Mount  Zion  from  thence- 
forth even  for  ever,"     {Ihid.  7.) 

"  Thou  wilt  show  faithfulness  to  Jacob,  mercy  to  Abraham, 
As  Thou  hast  sworn  unto  our  fathers  from  the  days  of  old." 

{Ihid.  vii.  20.) 

Here  we  again  meet  the  covenant  of  Truth  and  Mercy  sworn 
unto  Abraham,  that  the  land  Abraham  then  stood  upon  should 
be  given  to  him  and  to  his  seed  for  ever. 

Zephaniah,  the  son  of  Cushi,  the  son  of  Gedaliah,  the  son  of 
Amariah,  the  son  of  Hezekiah,  prophesied  in  the  days  of  Josiah, 
the  son  of  Amon,  king  of  Judah,  about  six  hundred  and  thirty 
years  before  the  evil  era  : — 

"  At  that  time  will  I  bring  you  in. 
And  at  that  time  will  I  gather  you  ; 
For  I  will  make  you  to  be  a  name  and  a  praise 
Among  all  the  peoples  of  the  earth. 
When  I  turn  your  captivity  before  your  eyes, 
Saith  the  Lord."     (Zephaniah  iii.  20.) 

Jeremiah  the  son  of  Hilkiah,  of  the  priests  that  were  in 
Anathoth,  in  the  land  of  Benjamin,  also  prophesied  in  the  days 
of  Josiah,  about  six  hundred  and  twenty-nine  to  five  hundred  and 
eighty-eight  years  before  the  civil  era  : — 

"  In  those  days  the  house  of  Judah  shall  walk  with  the  house  of 
Israel,  and  they  shall  come  together  out  of  the  land  of  the  north  to 
the  land  that  I  have  given  for  an  inheritance  unto  your  fathers." 

(Jeremiah  iii.  18.) 

"  In  his  days  Judah  shall  be  saved. 

And  Israel  shall  dwell  safely  ;  .  .  ."    {Ihid.  xxiii.  6.) 
"  Thus  saith  the  Lord, 

Who  giveth  the  sun  for  a  light  by  day. 

And  the  ordinances  of  the  moon  and  of  the  stars  for  a  light  by 
night. 

Who  stirreth  up  the  sea,  that  the  waves  thereof  roar, 

The  Lord  of  hosts  is  His  name  :  "     {Ihid.  xxxi.  35.) 


i66  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  If  these  ordinances  depart  from  before  Me, 
Saith  the  Lord, 

Then  the  seed  of  Israel  also  shall  cease 
From  being  a  nation  before  Me  for  ever."     {Ibid,  36.) 

"  Considerest  thou  not  what  this  people  have  spoken,  saying  : 
The  two  families  which  the  Lord  did  choose,  He  hath  cast  them  ofE  ? 
and  they  contemn  My  people,  that  they  should  be  no  more  a  nation 
before  them."    {Ibid,  xxxiii.  24.) 

"  Thus  saith  the  Lord  :  If  My  covenant  be  not  with  day  and 
night,  if  I  have  not  appointed  the  ordinances  of  heaven  and 
earth ; "  {Ibid.  25.) 

"  then  will  I  also  cast  away  the  seed  of  Jacob,  and  of  David  My 
servant,  ..."  {Ibid.  26.) 

"  But  fear  not  thou,  O  Jacob  My  servant. 
Neither  be  dismayed,  O  Israel ; 
For,  lo,  I  will  save  thee  from  afar. 
And  thy  seed  from  the  land  of  their  captivity  ; 
And  Jacob  shall  again  be  quiet  and  at  ease, 
And  none  shall  make  him  afraid."     {Ibid.  xlvi.  27.) 

Ezekiel  the  Priest,  the  son  of  Buzi,  prophesied  in  the  land  of 
the  Chaldeans  by  the  river  Cebar,  about  five  hundred  and  ninety- 
five,  to  five  hundred  and  seventy-four  years  before  the  civil  era. 
In  the  thirty-sixth  chapter  he  describes  the  restoration  of  Judah 
and  Israel  in  words  so  plain  and  clear  that  nobody  could  possibly 
mistake  them,  and  in  the  next  chapter,  by  the  wonderful  vision 
of  dry  bones  reviving,  he  shows  that,  however  unpromising  the 
state  of  Israel  may  seem,  while  they  are  dispersed  through  the 
world,  yet  will  God  most  certainly  effect  the  reunion  of  the  tribes 
which  is  here  foretold  : — 

"  Moreover  I  will  make  a  covenant  of  peace  with  them — it  shall 
be  an  everlasting  covenant  with  them  ;  and  I  will  establish  them, 
and  multiply  them,  and  will  set  My  sanctuary  in  the  midst  of  them 
for  ever."    {Ibid,  xxxvii.  26.) 

Chapters  thirty-eight  and  thirty-nine  give  a  most  circum- 
stantial description  of  the  return,  which  excluded  the  possibility 
of  an  allegorical  explanation. 

Obadiah  prophesied  about  five  hundred  and  eighty-seven  years 
before  the  civil  era  : — 

"  But  in  Mount  Zion  there  shall  be  those  that  escape. 
And  it  shall  be  holy  ; 
And  the  house  of  Jacob  shall  possess  their  possessions." 

(Obadiah  i.  17.) 

"  And  the  captivity  of  this  host  of  the  children  of  Israel, 
That  are  among  the  Canaanites,  even  unto  Zarephath, 
And  the  captivity  of  Jerusalem,  that  is  in  Sepharad, 
Shall  possess  the  cities  of  the  South."    {Ibid.  20.) 


APPENDICES  167 

Zechariah,  the  son  of  Berechiah,  the  son  of  Iddo,  prophesied 
about  five  hundred  and  twenty  years  before  the  civil  era,  to  those 
that  had  returned  from  captivity.  He  had  the  idea  of  a  great 
future  restoration. 

'  "And  it  shall  come  to  pass  that,  as  ye  were  a  curse  among  the 
nations,  O  house  of  Judah  and  house  of  Israel,  so  will  I  save  you,  and 
ye  shall  be  a  blessing  ;  fear  not,  but  let  your  hands  be  strong." 

(Zechariah  viii.  13.) 

"  I  will  bring  them  back  also  out  of  the  land  of  Egypt, 
I  ff  And  gather  them  out  of  Assyria  ; 

1".  And  I  will  bring  them  into  the  land  of  Gilead  and  Lebanon, 
And  place  shall  not  sufl&ce  them."    {Ibid.  x.  10.) 

Malachi  prophesied  about  four  hundred  and  twenty  years 
before  the  civil  era  : — 

"  And  all  nations  shall  call  you  happy  ; 
For  ye  shall  be  a  delightsome  land, 
Saith  the  Lord  of  hosts."     (Malachi  iii.  12.) 

"  Behold,  I  will  send  you 
EUjah  the  prophet 
Before  the  coming 
:  Of  the  great  and  terrible  day  of  the  Lord."    {Ibid.  23.) 

Daniel's  (Belteshazzar)  prophecies  from  about  five  hundred 
and  thirty-four,  to  five  hundred  and  seven  years  before  the  civil 
era  relate  not  only  to  the  affairs  of  Judah  and  Israel,  but  also  to  the 
various  monarchies  and  kingdoms  that  are  to  arise  successively 
in  the  world.  In  the  following  verses  he  foretells  the  national 
future  of  his  own  people  : — 

"  And  in  the  days  of  those  kings  shall  the  God  of  heaven  set  up  a 
kingdom,  which  shall  never  be  destroyed  ;  nor  shall  the  kingdom  be 
left  to  another  people  ;  .  .  .,  but  it  shall  stand  for  ever."  (Daniel  ii.  44.) 

"  And  the  kingdom  and  the  dominion,  and  the  greatness  of  the 
kingdoms  under  the  whole  heaven,  shall  be  given  to  the  people  of 
the  saints  of  the  Most  High ;  their  kingdom  is  an  everlasting  king- 
dom, and  all  dominions  shall  serve  and  obey  them."   {Ibid.  vii.  27.) 

"...  and  there  shall  be  a  time  of  trouble,  such  as  never  was  seen 
since  there  was  a  nation  even  to  that  same  time ;  and  at  that  time 
thy  people  shall  be  deUvered,  .  .  ."     {Ibid.  xii.  i.) 

These  predictions  undoubtedly  signify  that  the  Children  of 
Israel  shall  enjoy  a  kingdom  and  dominion  under  the  whole  heaven, 
i.e.  upon  the  earth,  which  shall  never  be  destroyed,  nor  shall  the 
kingdom  be  left  to  another  people.^ 

1  The  most  notable  Talmudic  and  Rabbinical  passages  referring  to  the 
future  of  the  Jewish  nation  are  :  Talm.  Bab.  Betachoth  28b,  34b  ;  Shahb. 
Ii8a  ;  Menahoth  45a  ;  Baha  Mezia  3a  ;  Eduyoth  VIII,  7  ;  Kiddushin  71a  ; 
Gen.  Rabba  LXXXV.  2  ;  Hagigah  14a  ;  Sanhedtin  38b  ;  98a.  99a,  nob, 
ma;    Ertibin  43b;    Cant.  Rabba  VII.  10;    Sifri  on  Deut.  1:1;    Baba 


i68  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

II 

Rev.  Paul  Knell  (1615-64),  Israel  and  England  Paralleled 

Israel  |  And  |  England  |  Paralelled,  |  In  a  Sermon  preached  before 
I  the  honourable  society  of  Grayes-\Inne,  upon  Sunday  in  the 
I  afternoon,  Aprill  16.  1648.  | 

By  Paul  Knell,  Master  in  Arts  of  Clare-Hall  \  in  Cambridge. 
I  Sometimes  Chaplaine  to  a  Regiment  of  Curiasiers  |  in  his 
Majesties  Army. 

London,  |  Printed  in  the  Yeare  1648.^ 

(4/0.  2 II. +  20  pp.)  [b.  M.] 

pp.  16-17.  " .  .  •  •  first,  we  may  compare  with  Israel  for  a 
fruitfull  scituation,  being  neither  under  the  torrid  nor  the  frozen 
Zone,  neither  burned  away  with  parching  heat,  nor  benummed 
away  with  pinching  cold,  but  seated  in  a  temperate  climate  & 
fertile  soile ;  our  folds  are  full  of  sheep,  our  vallies  stand  so  thick 
with  corne  that  we  may  laugh  &  sing.  God  hath  also  fenced  us 
about,  like  the  Israelites  in  the  red  sea,  with  a  wall  of  water,  the 
waters  are  as  a  wall  unto  us,  on  our  right  hand,  &  on  our  left,  .  .  . 
And  now,  England,  what  doth  thy  Lord  thy  God  require  of  thee, 
hut  to  fear  the  Lord  thy  God,  to  walk  in  all  his  waies,  and  to  love  him, 
and  to  serve  the  Lord  thy  God  with  all  thy  heart,  and  with  all  thy 
soule  ?  But  here  God  may  as  iustlv  complaine  of  us  as  he  did  of 
Israel,  .  ,  ." 

Bathra  76a.  For  the  views  of  the  Gaon  Saadia  ben  Joseph  (892-942)  see 
Guttman,  Religionsphilosophie  des  Saadia,  Gottingen,  1882,  p.  236  ;  for 
Hai  ben  Sherira  Gaon  (939-1038)  see  Taam  Zekenim,  Frankfort  on  the  Main, 
1854,  pp.  58-61  ;  for  Abraham  ben  Chiya  Albargeloni  Ha' nasi  (called 
Abraham  Judaeus  and  Savasorda)  (1065-1136)  see  Hegion  Ha'nefesh, 
Leipzig,  i860,  p.  40  ff.  ;  for  Judah  Halevi,  see  his  Poems  and  Kuzari  in 
Cassel's  edition,  Leipzig,  1869,  ii.  36-44,  pp.  143-7,  p.  iv.  23  ;  pt.  i.  115  ; 
for  Maimonides,  see  Hilchoth  Melachim  in  his  Yad  Ha'chazakah,  Chs.  XI. 
XII.  and  Hilchoth  Teshubah,  Ch.  IX.  2  ;  for  Nachmanides,  see  his  Comment, 
to  Gen.  2  :  3,  and  to  Exodus  17:9;  for  Abarbanel,  his  books  Yeshuat 
Meshicho,  Mashmia  Yeshuah,  Maeyenai  Ha'yeshua,  and  Klausner  :  Die 
Messianischen  Vorstellungen  .  .  .  Berlin,  1904,  and  also  Greenstone : 
The  Messiah  Idea  in  Jewish  History,  Philadelphia,  1906. 

^  It  was  re-issued  thirty-three  years  later  : — 
.  .  .  London,  Printed  in  the  year  1648.    And  now  Reprinted  for  a  Caution 
to  all  those  that  are  given  to  Change. 

Sold  by  Randal  Tayler  and    Robert  Stephens,  by  Stationers-Hall,  near 
Ludgate.    1681. 
4to.     2  II. -{-16  pp.  [i.  s.] 


APPENDICES  169 

III 

Matthew  Arnold  on  Righteousness  in  the  Old  Testament 

Matthew  Arnold,  in  his  Literature  and  Dogma,  insists  that 
righteousness  is  in  a  special  manner  the  object  of  Bible  religion. 
The  word  "  righteousness  "  is  a  master  word  in  the  Old  Testa- 
ment. What  would  England  have  been  were  it  not  for  the  im- 
portance which  Jeshurun,  the  upright,  attached  to  the  thought 
and  practice  of  righteousness  ?  She  might  have  been  eminent 
in  law,  in  arts  and  sciences  borrowed  from  the  Romans  and  the 
Greeks,  but  she  would  have  been  addicted  to  idolatry  and  the 
gratification  of  the  senses,  and  would  have  borne  the  doom  of 
destruction  within  herself.  He  draws  a  vivid  imaginary  picture 
of  the  authorities  of  one  of  the  English  great  Universities,  the 
vice-Chancellor,  beadles,  masters,  scholars,  and  all,  nay,  their 
very  professor  of  moral  philosophy,  going  in  procession  to 
worship  at  the  shrine  of  Aphrodite. 

"  If  it  had  not  been  for  Israel,"  he  continues,  "  and  the  stern 
check  which  Israel  put  upon  the  glorification  and  divinization  of 
this  natural  bend  of  mankind.  .  .  .  And  as  long  as  the  world 
lasts,  all  who  want  to  make  progress  in  righteousness  will  come  to 
Israel  for  inspiration,  as  to  the  people  who  have  had  the  sense 
for  righteousness  most  glowing  and  strongest ;  and  in  hearing 
and  reading  the  words  Israel  has  uttered  for  us,  carers  for  conduct 
will  find  a  glow  and  a  force  they  would  find  nowhere  else.  As 
well  imagine  a  man  with  a  sense  for  sculpture  not  cultivating  it 
by  the  help  of  the  remains  of  Greek  art,  or  a  man  with  a  sense  for 
poetry  not  cultivating  it  by  the  help  of  Homer  and  Shakespeare, 
as  a  man  with  a  sense  for  conduct  not  cultivating  it  by  the  help 
of  the  Bible."! 


IV 

"ESPERAN9A  DE  Israel,"  by  Manasseh  Ben- Israel 

:?KnfiJ^>  n^pD    I  Esto  es,  I  Esperangaj  De  Israel.  | 

Obra  con  suma  curiosidad  conpuesta  |  por  \  Menasseh  Ben  Israel  | 

Theologo,  y  Philosopho  Hebreo.  | 

Trata  del  admirable  esparzimiento  de  los  diez  |  Tribus,  y  su 

infalible  reduccion  con  los  de  |  mas,  a  la  patria :  con  muchos 

puntos,  I  y  Historias  curiosas,  y  declara-|cion  de  varias  Prophe- 

cias,  I  por  el  Author  rectamen- 1  te  interpretadas.  | 

^  Literature  and  Dogma  ...  By  Matthew  Arnold  .  . .  London  .  .  .  1873  .  .  . 
pp.  26,  36-37  and  56. 


170  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Dirigido  a  los  senores  Parnassim  delK.K.\de  Talmvd  Tora.| 
En  Amsterdam.  |  En  la  Imprension  de  |  Semvel  Ben  Israel  Soeiro.|  ^ 
Ano.  5410. 1 
(sw.  8°.  yU.  + 126  pp.)*  [I.  s.] 

^  The  surname  "  Ben  Israel  Soeiro  "  used  by  the  printer,  a  son  of  the 
author,  is  a  combination  of  those  of  his  paternal  grandparents  Joseph  Ben- 
Israel  and  Rachel  Soeiro,  who  had  been  marranos.  Joseph,  a  victim  of  the 
Inquisition,  on  returning  to  the  Jewish  fold,  it  may  be  surmised,  discarded 
his  gothic  patronymic  and  appropriately  assumed  that  of  Ben-Israel. 
Their  son,  the  author,  married  Rachel,  a  great-granddaughter  of  the 
famous  Bible  exegete  and  statesman  Don  Isaac  Abrabanel,  who  claimed 
Davidic  descent.  In  an  age  when  .Din>  was  highly  prized,  we  consequently 
find  that  in  the  following  year,  when  Samuel  printed  his  father's  Nishmath 
Chayyim,  his  surname  has  become  "  Abrabanel  Soeiro,"  and  in  the  Latin 
addition,  "  Ben  Israel  Abrabanel  Sueiro."  He  was  born  in  Amsterdam  in 
1625.  He  accompanied  his  maternal  uncle,  David  Abrabanel  [Manuel 
Martinez  Dormido],  to  England,  on  behalf  of  his  father,  arriving  here  oa 
ist  Sep.,  1654,  to  open  up  negotiations  with  CromweU  concerning  the 
admission  of  their  co-religionists  to  this  country.  It  was  decided  that  the 
presence  of  Manasseh  was  incumbent,  and  a  pass  to  Holland,  dated 
16  May,  1655,  was  granted  to  Samuel,  to  fetch  his  father.  They  arrived  in 
the  following  October,  and  resided  here  close  on  two  years.  On  Sunday, 
the  second  day  of  Rosh  Hashanah,  5418  [8  Sep.,  1657,  n.s.  :  29  Aug.  o.s.], 
at  the  early  age  of  thirty-two,  Samuel  went  to  his  Eternal  rest.  He 
had  conjured  his  father  that  he  would  take  his  body  to  Amsterdam,  where 
he  was  bom,  for  burial.  Manasseh  was  then  in  a  precarious  state  of  health, 
and  on  arriving  at  Middleburg  in  Zealand,  where  Ephraim  Abrabanel,  the 
maternal  uncle  of  the  deceased,  resided,  he  was  unable  to  continue  the 
journey.  The  interment  took  place  at  the  local  Beth  Haim,  and  the  Rev. 
Isidore  Harris,  m.a.,  a  few  years  ago  discovered  the  tombstone*  in  the  third 
carera,  which  has  the  following  inscription  : — 

Sa  I  Do  Doctor  Semvel  |    F°  Do  Haham  Menasseh  |  Ben  IsraCel  |  Faleceo 
em  2  Tisri  |  5418.] 

Manasseh's  illness  was  mortal.  His  son  Joseph  had  died  at  the  age  of 
twenty  about  eight  or  nine  years  before,  and  the  premature  death  of  his 
last  surviving  son  hastened  his  end.  A  few  weeks  later,  on  the  11  Kislev 
(20  Nov.),  he  passed  away  in  the  house  of  his  brother-in-law,  but  fifty- 
three  years  old.  He  was  interred  at  the  Sephardi  Beth  Haim  at  Oudekerk, 
Amsterdam. 

*  Another  issue,  with  a  similar  collation,  but  apparently  from  other  type, 
was  printed  in  the  same  year.  [i.  s.] 

It  appeared  again  during  the  last  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century 
under  the  following  title  : —  , 

Origen  De  Los  Americanos.  »7N1t5'*  T\)p1^  Esto  Es  Esperanza  De 
Israel .  .  .  Reimpresion  .  .  .  Del  Libro  De  Menasseh  Ben  Israel .  . .  Publicado 
En  Amsterdam  5410  (1650)  ...  y  la  biografia  del  autor.  For  Santiago  Perez 
Junquera. 

Madrid.— 1881.  .  .  . 
8**.    xxxvi  pp.-\-S  W.-f  126  pp.-\-3  II.  in  printed  wrapper  as  issued.      [i.  s.] 

*  Transactions  of  the  Jewish  Historical  Society  of  England,  vol.  viL,  191 1- 
1914  .  .  .  Edinburgh  and  London,  1915.  .  .  .p.  127  :  "A  Dutch  Burial- 
Ground  and  its  English  Connections."    By  the  Rev.  Isidore  Harris,  m.a. 


APPENDICES  171 

V 

"Spes  Israelis,"  by  Manasseh  Ben-Israel 

'PXX**  nipD  I  Hoc  est,  I  Spes  |  Israelis.  | 

Author e  |  Menasseh  Ben  Israel  |  Theologo  &  Philosopho  Hebrseo. 

Amstelodami.  |  Anno  1650.  | 

(sw.  8°.  6//.+  iii^^.)  [I.  s.] 

sig.  [A2]  Svpremo  Anglise  Consessvs  Parlamento,  ejusdemque 
ReipuUiccB  Status  Consilio  Honorando,  Salutem,  ac  felici- 
tatem  omnem,  a  Deo  apprecatur  Menasseh  Ben  Israel.* 


VI 

"  Hope  of  Israel— Ten  Tribes  ...  in  America— S«ik>*  nipD 
De  Hoop  Van  Israel,"  by  Manasseh  Ben- Israel 

The  I  Hope  of  Israel :  | 

Written  |  By  Menasseh  Ben  Israel,  |  an  Hebrew  Divine,   and 

Philosopher.  | 

Newly  extant,  and  Printed  in  |  Amsterdam,  and  Dedicated  by 

the  I  Author  to  the  High  Court,  the  |  Parhament  of  England, 

and  I  to  the  |  Councell  of  State.  | 

Translated  into  English,  and  (  published  by  Authority.  | 

In  this  Treatise  is  shewed  the  place  where  the  ten  \  Tribes  at  this 

present  are,  proved,  partly  by  \  the  strange  relation  of  one  Antony 

Monte-|  zinus,  a  Jew,  of  what  befell  him  as  he  tra-\  veiled  over  the 

Mountaines  Cordillaere,  with  \  divers  other  particulars  about  the 

restoration  of  \  the  Jewes,  and  the  time  when.  \ 

Printed  at  London  by  R.  I.  for  Hannah  Allen, \  at  the  Crown  in 

Popes-head  |  Alley,  1650.  | 

(sm.  8°.  7 II.  +  go  pp.)  [i.  s.] 

sig.  As .    "  To  the  Parhament,  the  Supream  Court  of  England, 

and  to  the  right  Honourable  the  Councell  of  State,  Menasseh  Ben 

Israeli,  prayes  God  to  give  health,  and  all  Happinesse."    But  the 

original  edition  in  Spanish  is  dedicated  "A  los  Muy  Nobles, 

Prudentes,  y  Magnificos  Senores,  Deputados  y  Parnassim  deste 

K.K.  de  Talmud  Tora."  .  .  .  Amsterdd.  a  13  de  Sebat.  An.  5410. 

In  this  first  English  version  the  name  of  the  translator  does  not 
appear  on  the  title  page,  nor  does  "  The  Translator  to  the  Reader  " 
bear  any  signature ;  but  "  Moses  Wall  "  does  appear  on  the  title 
pages  of  two  issues  of  a  second  edition  which  appeared  in  1651  and 
1652.    (4^0.  5  //.  -f-62  pp.)  [B.  M.l 

^  This  translation  was  probably  the  work  of  the  author.  Bound  up  with 
this  copy  is  a  folded  engraving  of  the  author  by  Salom  Italia. 


172  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

It  was  published  again  under  the  following  title  : — 
"  Accounts  Of  The  Ten  Tribes  of  Israel  Being  In  America ; 
Originally  Published  By  R.  Manasseh  Ben  Israel. 
With  Observations  Thereon,  And  Extracts  From  Sacred  And 
Profane,  Ancient  And  Modern  History,  Confirming  The  Same ; 
And  Their  Return  From  Thence  About  The  Time  Of  The  Return 
Of  The  Jews. 

By  Robert  Ingram,  a.m.  Vicar  of  Wormingford  and  Boxted, 
Essex. 

Colchester :  Printed  And  Sold  By  W.  Keymer ;  Sold  Also  By 
G.  G.  J.  And  J.  Robinson,  Pater-Noster-Row,  London,  1792. 
[Price  One  ShilUng.] 
(8°.    5^PP)  [I.S.] 

There  are  several  Hebrew  versions,  the  first  translation  appearing 
in  1698. 

\\\ihi  y^T  ^KitJ'*  in  r\m'o  .  .  i  xh^n  Dsnn  .  .  .  mn  h^y^r*  nip» 
Yinn  D*p*^^5  "n  .  .  .  ^"v  ^'^'\\>r\  \wbh  pnj;^  nnyi  ^  :  nN"nj^in  ^la 
n:tj>i  .  .  .  Dn")i3K'»N2  oaii  .  .  .  :  dtid^^idn  ^''pi  |tn  V'vt  f^  npy* 

,yyov  |»K^Np  DiQin  .  .  .  p^B^  [mn] 
(i6wo.    ID  (66)  II Y  [I.  s.] 

De  I  Hoop  I  Van  Israel.  | 

Een  Werck  met  groote  naiikeurigheyt  \  beschreven :  | 

Door  1  Menasseh    Ben    Israel  |  Hebreeuws    Godtgeleerde    en  | 

Wijsbegeer.| 

Waer  in  hy  handelt  van   de  wonderlijcke  \  verstroyinge  der   10 

Stammen,  en  hare  ge-\wisse  herstellinge   met  de  twee  Stammen 

Juda  I  en  Benjamin  in't  Vaderlandt.    Met  veele  aen-\wijsingen, 

naukeurige  vertellingen,   en  verkla-\ringen  van  verscheyde  Pro- 

phetien.  | 

Met  meer  als  90  Beschrijvers  bevestight :  | 

Met  een  verantwoordingh  voor  de  |  Eedele  Volcken  der  Jooden.  | 

Den    2.     Druck^     van    veel    Letter -mis    stellingen    gesuyvert.\ 

t 'Amsterdam,  |  Voor  Jozua  Rex,  Boeck-binder,  |  op  de  Cingel, 

recht  over  de  Appelen-marrickt,  |  in't  Jaer  1666.  | 

(l2mo.  6  //.  +  124  pp.     [De  Hoop  Van  Israel.])^  [l.  s.] 

1  It  was  composed  in  Spanish  in  1650  and  did  not  appear  in  Dutch 
until  1666. 

*  A  third  edition  was  published  in  the  same  year,  with  the  following 
addition  : — 

De  Reysen  van  R.  Benjamin  Jonasz  Tudelens,  In  de  drie  Deelen  der  Werelt, 
als  Europa,  Asia,  en  Afrika :  .  .  .  In't  Nederduyt  overgeschreven  door  Jan 
Bara.  .  .  .  iiy  pp.  [b,  m.] 

'  Bound  up  with  this  copy  is  a  folded  engraving  of  the  Author  by 
Salom  Italia. 

It  has  also  been  translated  into  Yiddish. 


APPENDICES  173 

VII 

|The  Humble  Addresses  of  Manasseh  Ben-Israel 

To  I  His   Highnesse  |  The  |  Lord   Protector  |  Of   The  |  Common- 
Wealth  Of  I  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland. 
The  Humble  Addresses  |  Of  |  Menasseh  Ben  Israel,  a  Divine, 
and  I  Doctor  of  Physick,  in  behalf e  \  of  the  Jewish  Nation.  \ 
(4to.  4  II. +  26  pp. )^  [I.  s.] 


VIII 

"VlNDICI^  JUDiEORUM,"  BY   MANASSEH   BEN-ISRAEL 

Vindiciae  |  Judaeorum,  |  Or    A  |  Letter  |  In    Answer    to    certain 
Questions  propounded  by  |  a  Noble  and  Learned  Gentleman, 
touching  I  the  reproaches  cast  on  the  Nation  of  the  |  Jevves ; 
wherein  all  objections  are  |  candidly,  and  yet  fully  cleared.  ( 
By  Rabbi  Menasseh  Ben  Israel  a  Divine  \  and  a  Physician.] 
Printed  by  i^.  Z>.  in  the  year  1656.  | 
(4/0.  I  I. +  41  pp. y  [I.  s.] 


IX 

Ensena  a  Pecadores 

Libro  I  Yntitulado  |  Enseiia  |  A  |  Pecadores  | 

Que  contiene  diferentes  |  obras,  mediante  las  qua- 1  lespide  el 

hombre  |  piedad  a  su  |  Criador.  | 

En  casa  y  acosta  |  de  David  de  castro  Tartaz.  \ 

En  Amsterdam  \  Anno  5426.] 

(I2W0.  88+n  (8) />/).)  [B.M.] 

^  This  was  probably  printed  in  Amsterdam,  in  anticipation  of  his  visit 
to  England. 

A  second  issue  from  another  press,  and  in  which  the  collation  varies 
(4  //.  +  23  pp.  [I.  S.])  may  have  been  printed  in  London,  as  at  the  end  it 
has  the  following  addition  : — 

"  Which  is  the  close  of  Rabbi  Menesse  Ben-Israel,  a  Divine,  and  Doctor 
in  Physick,  in  the  Strand  over  against  the  New-Exchange  in  London." 

The  British  Museum  copy  of  the  23  pp.  edition  has  the  following  date  in 
manuscript  on  the  title  page  :    "  November  5,  1655." 

2  In  1743  it  was  reprinted  in  octavo  form  (2  II. -\-67  pp.  [I.  S.]).  It  was 
translated  into  German  either  by  Dr.  Marcus  Herz  (i 747-1 803)  or  by  his 
wife,  the  celebrated  Henrietta  Herz  (i  764-1 847),  and  published  in  1782, 
with  an  introduction  by  Moses  Mendelssohn  (i  729-1 786)  {sm.  8°.  LI1  + 
64  pp.  [I.  S.]).  It  has  also  appeared  in  Hebrew  [I.  S.],  Polish  [I.  S.], 
French  and  Italian. 


174  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Page  2.  '*  Prologo.  .  .  .  Aviendo  pues  el  Senor  hecho  merced  al 
mundo  en  truer  a  luz  las  ohras  divinas  del  H.  Rihi  Esayah, 
su  memoria  sea  para  benedicion,  las  quales  son  llenas  de 
doctrinas  y  modos  de  encaminar  al  hombre  a  la  salvacion.  .  .  ." 

pp.  61-79.  "  Conficion  Muy  Copiosa  Maravillosay  llena  de  divinos 
conceptos  y  misterios,  hecha  por  el  divino  Theologo  y  excellentis- 
simo  Sabio,  Ribi  Yshac  Askenazi  de  Loria,  Traduzida  de 
Hebrico,  en  lengua  castellana,  por  el  doctissimo  Haham 
Menasseh  ben  Ysrael ;  el  Anno  5383.  la  qual  se  puede  dezir 
estando  el  hombre  enfermo  0  de  ajuno  0  en  qual  quiera  tiempo." 

pp.  80-88.    Vidvy  Penitencial  .  .  .  Auctor  Selomoh  De  Oliuera. 

,]w^i  nn«  n"n  aiy  in^nnn  fx»  ni^v^ix  n  hdVk^  .  .  .  msjD  nn^ 

pp.  n-fc<  :  :h  ntj>^  y^t^lit:  d^h'pn  ^n  »:ud  nx5^a 


"De  Terming  ViXiE— of  the  Term  of  Life,"  by  Manasseh 
Ben-Israel 

D^mn  nn!i  |  Menasseh  |  Ben    Israel,  |  De  |  Termino  |  Vitae :  | 

Libri  Tres.  | 

Quibus    veterum    Rabbi-\  norum,    ac    recentium    do-\  ctorum,    de 

hac  con-\troversia  sententia  \  explicatur.\ 

Amstelodami .  Typis  &  sumpti-|bus  authoris  An.  1639. | 

(I2W0.   8  U. +237  pp. +25  11.)^  [I.  S.] 

1  Sixty  years  later  it  was  translated  into  English  : — 
Of  The  I  Term  \  Of  |  Life.  |  viz.  |  Whether  it  is  fix'd  or  alterable ;  | 
With  the  Sense  of  the  Jewish  Doctors,  |  both  Ancient  and  Modem,  touching 
I  Predestination  and  Free-Will.  | 

Also  an  Explication  of  several  obscure  j  Passages  and  Prophecies  in  the 
Old  Testa-J  ment ;  together  with  some  remarkable  Cu-|  stoms  observ'd  by 
the  Jews.  \ 

Written  in  Latin  by  the  Famous  Menasseh  |  Ben-Israel  the  Jew  and  now 
Translated  j  into  English,  By  Tho,  Pocock,  m.a.  | 

To  which  are  added,  the  Author's  Life,  never  be-|  fore  Publish'd ;  and  a 
Catalogue  of  his  Works,  j 

London  Printed,  and  Sold  by  J.  Nutt,  near  |  Stationers-Hall,  and  by  the 
Booksellers  of  Lon-\  don  and  Westminster,  1699.  I 

(stw.  S°.  6  ll.  +  xvi-^  116  pp.)  [I.  s.] 

sig.  A2.     "  To  Colthorp  Parker,  Esq.  ;  " 


De  Termino  VitfS  :  \  Or  The  |  Term  |  Of  |  Life,  j  Viz.  |  Whether  it  is  fix'd  or 
alterable  ;  | 

With  the  Sense  of  the  Jewish  Doctors,  |  both  Ancient  and  Modern,  touch- 
ing')! Predestination  and  Free-Will,  j 


APPENDICES  175 


XI 

"D^^n    r\l2m—DE   IMMORTALITATE  ANIM^,"  BY   MANASSEH 

Ben-Israel 

:  p"sh  [2^r\]  n:\i^2  •n-'xiD  i^NmnN*  ^nide^  -inncn  p  Disnn  d^i: 
(4/0.  8  +  ni;p  (174)  +2  //.)  [I.  s.] 

Some  editions,  which  are  excessively  rare,  have  this  Latin  addi- 
tion : — 

D^^n  niDK'J    I    Menasseh    Ben     Israel  |   Libri    Quatuor  |    De  | 

Immortalitate  Animse.  | 

In  quibus  multse  insignes  &  ju-|cundae  quaestiones  ventilantur,  | 

uti  videre  est,  ex  argu-|mento  operis.  | 

Amstelodami,  |  Apud    Autoris    filium  |  Samuel    Ben    Israel 

Ahrabanel  Sueiro.\ 

Anno  cb.  olc.    Li.| 

(8//.)  [I.S.] 

sig.   A2.  (Epistola    Dedicatoria)    Ferdinando  iii.     Augustiss°. 
Romanorum  Imperatori.  .  .  . 

Also  an  Explication  of  several  obscure  Passages  and  |  Prophecies  in  the 

Old  Testament ;    together  with  |  some  remarkable  Customs  observed  by 

the  Jews.  J 

Written  in  Latin  by  the  Famous  Menasseh  |  Ben- Israel  the  Jew,  and  now 

Translated  into  EngUsh.  j 

To  which  are  added,  the  Author's  Life,  never  be-  |  fore  Publish'd  ;   and  a 

Catalogue  of  his  Works.  | 

London,   Printed  for   W.   Whitwood  at  the  Rose  \  and  Crown  in  Little- 

Britiain.     1700.  |  (sm.  8°.     6  II. -\-xvi+ii6  pp. +1.  [catalogue]).  [i.  s.] 

sig.  A2.     "  To  Colthrop  Parker,  Esq. ;  " 


Of  The  I  Term  |  Of  |  Life,  |  Viz. :  |  Whether  it  is  fix'd  or  alterable  ;  |  With 
the  Sense  of  the  Jewish  Doctors,  |  both  Ancient  and  Modern,  touching 
Pre- 1  destination  and  Free-Will.  | 

Also  an  Explication  of  several  obscure  [  Passages  and  Prophecies  in  the 
Old  Testa- 1  ment ;  together  with  some  remarkable  J  Customs  observed 
by  the  Jews.  \ 

Written  in  Latin  by  the  Famous  Menasseh  |  Ben-Israel  the  Jew,  and  now 

Transla-  |  ted  into  English,  By  Tho.  Pocock,  a.m.  |  Rector  of  Danbury  in 

Essex,  and  Chaplain  to  his  j  Grace  the  Duke  of  Bedford.  | 

To  which  are  added,  the  Author's  Life,  by  the  Translator  ;  and  a  Catalogue 

of  his  Works.  | 

London,  Printed  for  Tho.  Baker  at  the  |  Bible  and  Rose  in  Ludgate-street. 

1709.  I  {sm.  S**.     8//.4-xxiv4-ii7  pp.-\-i  I.)  [i.  s.] 

sig.  A2.     "  To  Christopher  Tilson,  Esq.  ;  Of  The  Treasury." 


176  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Sig.  A42.     Augustissimi    Imperatoris    Servus    humilltmus 

Menasseh  Ben  Israel. 

Amstelodami  Calendis  Decembris  Anno  cb.  be.  li. 


XII 

"  Rights  of  the  Kingdom,"  by  John  Sadler 

Rights  of  the  Kingdom ;  |  Or,  |  Customs  of  our  Ancestours :  .  .  . 

With  an  Ocasionall  Discourse  of  Great  Changes  yet  I  expected 

in  the  World.  I 

London,  |  Printed  by  Richard  Bishop.    1649.  |  ^ 

(4to.  4 II.  +  Aa — Mm  +F-Z  +A-C  in  fours.)  [i.  s.] 

sig.  G4.  "  How  they  are  Now,  I  need  not  say,  although  I  might 
also  beare  them  witnesse,  that  They  are  yet  Zealous  in  Their 
Way.  nor  doe  they  wholly  want,  ingenuous  able  men.  of 
whom  I  cannot  but  with  Honour,  mention  Him,  that  hath 
so  much  obHged  the  world,  by  his  learned  Writings ;  Rab 
Menasseh  Ben  Israel :  a  very  learned,  Civill  Man,  and  a 
Lover  of  our  Nation. 

"  The  more  I  think  upon  the  Great  Change,  now  comming 
on  Them,  and  All  the  World  ;  the  more  I  would  be  Just  and 
Mercifull  to  Them,  to  All." 


XIII 

"Nova  Solyma,"  edited  by  Rev.  Walter  Begley 

Nova  Solyma  The  Ideal  City  ;  Or  Jerusalem  Regained 
An  Anonymous  Romance  Written  In  The  Time  Of  Charles  I. 
Now  first  Drawn  From  Obscurity,  And  Attributed  To  The  Illus- 
trious John  Milton.* 

With  Introduction,  Translation,  Literary  Essays  And  A  BibUo- 
graphy 

By  The  Rev.  Walter  Begley 
vol.  i.,  ii. 

London  John  Murray,  Albemarle  Street.     1902. 
(p.  4).     "  The  book  was  first  presented  to  the  public  in  small 
octavo  form  with  this  title  page  : 

^  It  was  republished  thirty-three  years  later  anonymously,  as  was  the 
first  issue. 

London:  "Printed,  iox  J.  Kidgell.     1683,    4^0.  /^  II. -{-^ig  pp.  [b.  m.] 

2  The  author  was  Samuel  Gott  (1613-1671),  see  "The  Authorship  of 
Nova  Solyma,"  by  Stephen  K.  Jones  (1910),  and  B.M.  Catalogue. 


APPENDICES  177 

Novae  |  Solymae  |  Libri    Sex.  |  Londixu  Typis   Joannis   Legati.| 

MDCXLVIII.  I 

*'  The  book  contained  three  hundred  and  ninety-two  pages,  of 
which  the  last  contained  the  errata  and  the  printer's  short  notice 
to  the  reader.  There  was  no  preface  or  introduction  of  any  kind, 
and  no  notes.  The  only  printed  extra  was  this  Latin  motto  in 
the  middle  of  the  blank  page  facing  the  title  : 

*  Cujus  opus,  studio  cur  tantum  quaeris  inani  ?  ' 
'  Qui  legis,  etfrueris,feceris  esse  tuum.* 

which  I  turn  thus  : 

(/>.  5).  "  *  Whose  is  the  book  ? '  do  you  ask.  '  Why  start  such  a 
bootless  enquiry  ? 
If  you  but  read  and  enjoy,  you  will  have  made  it  your  own.'  " 
(pp.  5-6).  "...  The  next  year  the  same  book  was  published 
again — an  evident  attempt  to  utilise  the  unsold  remainder,  as 
there  was  no  difference  whatever,  except  a  new  title  page  with 
the  old  fly-leaf  motto  included  in  it  and  a  page  at  the  end  contain- 
ing the  autocriticon.  In  the  only  copy  I  have  seen,  [St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge],  the  title  page  runs  as  follows  : 

Novee  Solymae  Libri  Sex  ;  sive  Institutio  Christiani. 

1.  De  Pueritia. 

2.  De  Creatione  Mundi. 

3.  De  Juventute. 

4.  De  Peccato. 

5.  De  ViriH  Aetate. 

6.  De  Redemptione  Hominis. 

Cujus  opus,  studio  cur  tantum  quaeris  inani  ? 
Qui  legis,  et  frueris,  feceris  esse  tuum. 

Londini :  Typis  Johannis  Legati,  et  venundantur 
per  Thomam  Underbill  sub  signo  Biblii  in  vice 
Anghce  dicto  Woodstreet.    mdcxlix." 

Here  we  have  the  very  useful  addition  that  it  was  published 
by  Thomas  Underbill,  of  Wood  Street. 

(preface  pp.  vii-viii).  ".  .  .  That  such  a  wide-reaching,  learned, 
and  varied  work  should  have  been  allowed  to  remain  unappre- 
ciated and  utterly  ignored  for  more  than  two  hundred  and  fifty 
years  is  certainly  a  very  surprising  literary  fact.  .  .  . 

"  The  critics  seem  to  have  been  both  blind  and  deaf.  They 
gave  no  encouraging  praise,  and  no  disheartening  condemnation. 
They  simply  took  no  notice.  And  so  this  great  work  of  seven- 
teenth-century art  vanished  from  the  sight  of  men.  A  few 
copies  were  put  away  in  college  libraries,  where  they  rested  for 
years  undisturbed  and  dust-covered  in  their  original  positions, 
and  have  so  continued  to  rest  for  two  centuries  and  a  half,  lost 
to  the  world." 

II.— N 


178  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

(p.  i8).  "  There  is  a  spirit  of  pure,  lofty,  and  unselfish  morality 
evident  throughout  all  the  various  scenes  of  this  interesting  and 
unaffected  book.  It  shows  us  the  brightest,  strongest  elements 
of  God-fearing  Puritanism;  .  .  .**  "Here  are  the  lyric  songs  from 
*  the  law  and  prophets/  Abraham's  meditation  on  the  Mount 
Moriah,  Cain's  lamentations  for  Abel,  David's  lament  for  Saul 
and  Jonathan,  and  many  a  noble  ode  from  the  Psalms  and  short 
epics  from  Job.  .  .  ,"  "  Here  Truth  and  Justice  and  the  Fear 
of  God  are  all  placed  on  the  high  pedestals  they  so  well  deserve  ; 
and  there  is  withal  a  kindly  insistence  everywhere  on  those  great 
teachings  which  tend  to  make  life  more  abounding  in  hope,  more 
perfect  in  self-restraint  and  more  lifted-up  in  spirit." 

All  these  ideas  are  Hebrew,  and  characteristically  Biblical 
But  the  most  curious  fact,  from  our  point  of  view,  is  that  this 
work  contains  a  description  of  the  Ideal  State  on  Mount  Zion. 
Of  course,  the  tendency  is  thoroughly  Christian,  but  it  is  that  kind 
of  Christianity  which  is  inspired  by  the  Old  Testament  and  by  a 
sentiment  of  love  for  the  old  Jewish  nation  and  the  Holy  Land. 
This  book  is  the  poetical  expression  of  the  Restoration  ideas  of 
the  seventeenth  century.  It  begins  with  a  description  of  the 
springtime  in  New  Jerusalem,  "  the  city  with  twelve  gates  " 
(Ezekiel  xlviii.  31),  and  "  a  virgin  who  held  in  her  right  hand  a 
golden  rod,  and  in  her  left  the  two  tables  of  the  Law."  The 
tourist-visitors,  **  two  Englishmen  and  the  third  a  Sicilian," 
are  told  that  "it  is  the  anniversary  of  the  founding  of  the  city 
and  the  virgin  you  saw  represented  Zion,  or,  as  they  say,  the 
Daughter  of  Zion."    "  They  "  evidently  refers  to  the  Jews. 

Strangers  are  received  with  remarkable  hospitality  (as  in 
Herzl's  AUneuland), 

(^.86).  "  But  Jacob,  for  that  was  the  old  man's  name,  urged 
him  all  the  more,  *  Come,  come,*  said  he,  *it  is  a  national 
duty  with  us  to  treat  strangers  with  kindness,  not  unmindful 
that  we  too,  long  ago,  were  strangers  in  Egypt,  and  since  then 
for  a  long  time  strangers  and  wanderers  among  all  the  nations  of 
the  earth.     But  now  we  call  none  aliens  from  Israel.  ..." 

(p.  88).  "  We  are  now  very  close  on  the  fiftieth  year  since  our 
long  and  widely-scattered  nation  was  restored  to  its  present 
wonderful  prosperity."  The  old  Jew  then  explains  the  system  of 
education  adopted  in  the  new  country,  a  system  of  physical 
development  and  moral  integrity. 

Joseph,  who  is  one  of  the  tourists  and  the  hero  of  the  romance, 
indulges  in  songs  of  Zion. 

{pp.  175-6).  "  O  sacred  top  of  Solyma, 
How  lovely  is  thy  place 
Where  stands  the  city  of  our  King 
Where  faithful  saints  rejoice  and  sing 
O  mercy,  love  and  grace  I 


APPENDICES  179 

'*  For  there  our  greater  Temple  stands 
With  greater  glory  blest 
And  there  redeemed  from  alien  lands, 
Brought  back  at  last  by  God's  own  hands, 
His  Israel  finds  her  rest." 


Here  the  translator  remarks  : 

{p.  177)  note  i :  "  How  many  sighs  and  prayers  have  gone  up 
from  the  dispersed  children  of  Zion  in  Russian  Poland,  in  Galicia, 
in  Roumania  and  by  the  old  broken  wall  of  Jerusalem  in  these 
latter  days  !  What  longing  for  this  *  antepast  of  Heaven '  that 
Joseph  here  speaks  of  !  What  passionate  desire  for  that  time, 
when  the  children  of  Zion  should  no  longer  have  to  sing  *  the 
Lord's  song  in  a  strange  land ' !  Is  this  century  to  see  the 
Zionists  in  possession  again  of  their  Holy  City — their  longed-for 
Salem,  the  *  Vision,'  the  '  Foundation,'  the  *  Inheritance '  of 
Peace,  as  expositors  have  variously  entitled  it  ?  Who  can  say  ? 
From  a  practical  point  of  view  the  prospect  somehow  fails  to 
charm ;  but  when  I  view  it  in  theory,  it  seems  as  if  the  justice  of 
the  world  as  well  as  the  justice  of  the  Eternal  One  would  be  nobly 
consummated  by  such  a  termination  to  an  earthly  pilgrimage  of 
nigh  two  thousand  years." 

The  anonymous  author  proceeds  to  describe  the  old-new  home, 
and  the  people,  new-born  in  benevolence,  piety  and  purity, 
with  their  national  distinctiveness,  and  the  two  tables  of  the 
Law.  Thus,  with  all  his  honest  and  deep  Christian  convictions 
and  belief  in  the  final  triumph  of  his  religious  ideas,  he  recognizes 
the  right  of  the  Jewish  nation  to  have  their  country  and  to  remain 
faithful  to  their  traditions.  This  strange  romance,  after  all  sorts 
of  philosophical  reflections  and  sketches  of  various  adventures  in 
Sicily  and  elsewhere,  comes  back  to  Zion  to  sing  the  songs  of  the 
Old  Testament  in  Latin  verse  in  a  way  which  shows  that  the 
author  had  the  rhythm  and  atmosphere  of  Biblical  poetry  to 
perfection,  and  also  that  his  views  were  much  more  in  harmony 
with  the  notions  of  that  time  than  with  modern  conceptions. 
The  whole  work  is  inspired  by  great  enthusiasm  for  Israel's  glory, 
and  abounds  with  sympathy  and  admiration  for  the  Jewish 
nation. 

Begley,  who  was  a  man  of  profound  knowledge  and  an  authority 
on  matters  of  composition  and  style,  ascribes  this  work  to  Milton. 
If  this  view  be  accepted,  then  to  this  poet's  glory  must  1  e  added 
a  further  claim  to  immortality,  because  he  was  the  first  poet  who 
expounded — from  a  Christian  point  of  view — the  idea  of  Israel's 
Restoration  in  the  form  of  a  poetical  romance.  But  from  our 
point  of  view  it^does  not  matter  whether  Milton  was  the  author, 
or  another  poet ;  the  fact  remains  that  this  remarkable  work  is 
English  and  appeared  in  England  in  1648. 


i8o  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

XIV 

"  PRiEADAMiTiE— Men  Before  Adam,"  by  Isaac  de  La  Peyr^re  * 

Another  of  his  famous  works,  also  published  anonymously, 
was : — 

Praeadamitae.  |  Sive  j  Exercitatio  |  super  Versibus   duodecimo, 

decimotertio,  &  |  decimoquarto,  capitis  quinti  Epistolse  I  D.  Pauli 

ad  Romanes.  |  Qvibvs  Indvcvntvr|Primi  Homines  ante  Adamum| 

conditi.  | 

Anno  Salvtis,  |  m.dc.lv.  | 

(4/0.  22  lL-^2gy-\-Spp.  [Synagogis  Ivdseorvm  Vniversis.])    [i.  s.] 

In  the  following  year  it  was  translated  into  English  : — 

Men  before  Adam,  |  Or  |  A  Discourse  upon  the  twelfth,  |  thir- 
teenth, and  fourteenth  Verses  |   of  the  Fifth  Chapter  of  the 
Epistle  I  of  the  Apostle  Paul  to  the  |  Romans.  | 
By  which  are  provd,  \  That  the  first  Men  were  erea-  |  ted  before 
Adam.  | 

London,  |  Printed  in  the  Year,  1656.  | 

(8°.  8  //.+61  pp.+(^  Pp.-\-35  l^  [I.  s.] 

The  End  of  the  first  Part    {No  more  published) 
sig.  A.4.    "  To  all  the  Synagogues  to  the  Jews,  dispersed  over  the 

face  of  the  Earth." 
sig.  M.S.   "  Terrae  Sanctae  Delineatio  "  (A  map  of  the  Holy  Land).* 


XV 

Isaac  Vossius 


Isaac  Vossius  was  born  at  Leyden  in  Holland,  one  of  the 
sons  of  the  renowned  scholar  Gerard  John  Vossius  by  his 
second  wife  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Francis  du  Jon  (Junius) 
(1545-1602),  French  theologian  and  philologist.  All  the  sons 
were  precocious  scholars,  but  Isaac  was  undoubtedly  the  most 
eminent.  ...  He  was  invited  by  Queen  Christina  of  Sweden, 
one  of  the  most  erudite  women  of  her  time,  to  come  and 
shed  the  lustre  of  his  learning  upon  Stockholm.  He  arrived 
towards  the  end  of  1649,  was  appointed  a  Court  Chamberlain, 

*  Account  of  Peyreyra,  Author  of  "  Praeadamitae,"  "  Rappel  des  Juifs," 
&c.  Translated  from  "  Lettres  Choisies  de  M,  [Richard]  Simon,  (i 638-1 721) 
ou  Ton  trouve  un  grand  nombre  de  Faits  et  Anecdotes  de  Literature. 
Rotterdam  1702." 

(Gentleman's  Magazine,  vol.  Ixxxii.,  November,  1812,  pp.  432-434  ;  and 
vol.  Ixxxiii.,  June,  1813,  pp.  614-616.) 

*  In  another  issue  in  the  same  year  the  eight  preliminary  leaves  are  from 
another  press.  [i.  s.] 


APPENDICES  i8i 

and  taught  the  Queen  Greek.    In  1650  he  sold  her  his  father's 

library  for  twenty  thousand  florins,  with  the  stipulation  that  he 

received  five  thousand  florins  yearly  with  board  and  residence 

for  its  superintendence.    In  1652  owing  to  certain  differences  he 

left  Sweden.     In  1655  Manasseh  Ben  Israel  dedicated  to  him : — 

nip"*  pi<  I  Piedra  Gloriosa  |  O  |  De  La  |  Estatua  |  De  |  Nebuchad- 

nesar.  | 

Con  muchas  y  diver sas  authoridades  \  de  la  S.S.  y  antiguos  sabios.  \ 

Compuesto  por  el  Hacham  |  Menasseh  Ben  Israel.  |  Amsterdam 

An.  5415.  I 

(i2wo.  6//. +259;^^. +3//. +4  etchings  at  ^^.5, 87, 160, 180.)  [l.s.] 

"All  muy  noble  y  doctissimo  Senor  Isaco  Vossio,  Gentil  hombre  de 

la  camara  de  su  Magestad,  La  Reyna  de  Svedia. 

Muy  noble  y  doctissimo  Senor,  .  .  .  Intimo  amigo  y  afficionado 

servidor  de  V.  M., 

Menasseh  ben  Ysrael. 
Amsterdam  25.  de  Abril,  An.  5415." 

In  a  list  of  Manasseh's  works  at  the  end  of  the  volume,  it  is 
catalogued  "  Piedra  preciosa  ;  o  de  la  Estatua  de  Nebuchadnesar, 
donde  se  sexpone  lo  mas  essencial  del  libro  de  Daniel."  It  was  for 
this  small  volume  that  Rembrandt  designed  and  etched  four 
illustrations. ' 

Vossius  was  created  D.c.L.  at  Oxford  in  1670,  and  installed  to  a 
prebend  in  the  royal  chapel  at  Windsor  in  1673,  which  was  pre- 
sented to  him  by  Charles  II  (1630-1685),  and  died  at  Windsor 
21  Feb.,  1688.  He  had  accumulated  the  finest  private  library  in 
the  world,  including  762  manuscripts.  It  was  sold  at  Leyden  in 
1710  for  thirty-six  thousand  florins.  A  large  number  of  original 
letters  of  Vossius  are  preserved  at  the  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford. 


XVI 

"  Doomes-Day 


Doomes-Day  :  |  Or,  |  The  great  Day  of  the  Lord's  ludgement,  | 
proved  by  Scripture  ;  and  two  other  Prophecies,  |  the  one  point- 
ing at  the  yeare  1640.  the  other  at  this  |  present  yeare  1647.  to 
be  even  now  neer  at  hand.  | 

With  I  The  gathering  together  of  the  Jews  in  great  Bodies  |  under 
Josias  Catzius  (in  Illyria,  Bithinia,  and  Cappadocia)  \  for  the 
conquering  of  the  Holy  Land.  |  .  .  . 
London,  |  Printed  for  W.  Ley.  1647 
(^o.xl+6pp.)  [I.  s.] 

*  Rembrandt's  etchings  for  the  Piedra  Gloriosa,  by  [Dr.]  I[srael] 
A[brahams]  [m.a.],  with  facsimiles,  Jewish  Chronicle,  13  July,  1906, 
PP-  39-40  :  The  second  series  of  illustrations  for  the  Piedra  Gloriosa  of 
Manasseh  Ben  Israel,  by  Israel  Solomons,  itnd.,  July  27,  p.  31. 


i82  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

{p.  2)  ".  .  .  even  those  people  the  Jewes,  according  to  certaine 
and  credible  information,  are  at  this  time  [*  Under  Josias  Catzius, 
and  according  to  Letters  from  beyond  the  Seas,  they  are 
numerous,  and  shew  themselves  in  great  bodies  in  Illyria, 
Bethinia  and  Cappadocia.]  assembling  themselves  together  into 
one  body  from  out  of  all  countreys,  whereinto  they  have  been 
driven  with  a  resolution  to  regaine  the  holy  land  once  more  out 
of  the  hand  of  the  Ottaman  :  "^ 


XVII 

"  Restauration  of  all  Israel  and  Judah  " 

A  Paper,  shewing  that  the  great  Conversion  and  Restauration  of 
all  Israel  and  Judah  will  he  fulfilled  at  Christs  second  comming  ; 
and  that  the  New  Jerusalem,  called  Jehovah  Shamma,  described  by 
Ezekiel,  chap.  40.  to  the  end  of  the  Book,  is  most  probably  then  to 
be  set  up,  and  is  referred  to  the  same  time,  Sec,  May  1. 1674. 
(4to.  8 II.)  [I.  s.] 


XVIII 

"Apology  for  the  Honorable  Nation  of  the  Jews— Apologia 

POR  LA  NOBLE  NACION  DE  LOS  IVDIOS— VERANTWOORDINGE  VOOR 
DE  EDELE  VOLCKEN  DER  JOODEN,"   BY   EDWARD   NICHOLAS 

An  I  Apology  |  For    The  |  Honorable    Nation  |  Of    The  j  Jews,  | 

And  all  the  Sons  of  |  Israel. 

Written  by  Edward  Nicholas,  Gent.  I  •  •  . 

London,  Printed  by  John  Field,  1648.] 

{4to.i5pp.y  [I.S.] 

A  Spanish  translation  was  also  published  here : — 

Apologia  I  Por  \  La  noble   nacion   de  los  |  Ivdios  |  y   hijos  de  \ 

Israel.  | 

Escrita  en  Ingles  |  Por  \  Eduardo  Nicholas.  | 

E  impresa  en  casa  de  Juan  Field,  en  |Londres,| 

Aiio  do  clc  XLix.| 

(sm.  8°.  8  //.)  [I.  S.] 

1  Notes  and  Queries,  10.  s.  iv.,  pp.  10  &  77,  josias  catzius. 

2  This  tract  is  alluded  to  in  the  concluding  paragraph  of  Manasseh  Ben 
Israel's  "  Humble  Addresses,"  but  the  author  has  not  yet  been  identified. 
He  was  at  one  time  thought  to  be  Sir  Edward  Nicholas  (i  593-1 669), 
Secretary  of  State  to  Charles  I  and  II,  and  it|has  even  been  stated  that 
"  Edward  Nicholas  "  was  a  pseudonym  of  Manasseh  himself.  (See  Jewish 
Chronicle,  9  Feb.,  1906.    "  Edward  Nicholas,"  by  Israel  Solomons.) 


APPENDICES  183 

Some  years  later  a  Dutch  version  was  issued  (Published  together 
with  "  De  Hoop  Van  Israel  "  of  Manasseh  Ben  Israel). 

Verantwoordinge,  |  Voor  1  De  Edele  Volcken  der  \  Jooden,| 

En  kinderen  van  \  Israel.  | 

In  het  Engels  beschreven  |  Door  |  Eduardo  Nicolas.  | 

InH  Nederduyts  overgeschreven  \  en  gedruckt.  | 

t'Amsterdam,  |  Voor  Jozua  Rex,  Boeck-binder,  I  op  de  Cingel, 

recht  over  de  Appelen-marreckt  |  in't  Jaer  1666.  | 

(I2W0.  I  /.  +26  pp.  -f  I  /.)  [i.  s.] 


XIX 

"A  Word  for  the  Armie,"  by  Hugh  Peters 

"  A  word  for  the  |  Armie.  |  And  two  words  to  the  |  Kingdome.  | 

To  I  Cleare  the  One,  |  And  cure  the  Other.  | 

Forced  in  much  plainesse  and  bre-|vity  from  their  faithfull 

Servant,  J  Hugh  Peters.  |  .  .  .  . 

London,  |  Printed  by  M.  Simmons  for  Giles  Calvert  at  the  black  | 

Spread-Eagle  at  the  West  end  of  Pauls,  1647.  | 

(4/0.  14  pp.)  [I.  s.] 

sig.  B2.  "  iQLv.  That  Merchants  may  have  all  the  manner  of 
encouragement,  the  law  of  Merchants  set  up,  and  strangers, 
even  Jewes  admitted  to  trade,  and  live  with  us,  that  it  may 
not  be  said  we  pray  for  their  conversion,  with  whom  we  will 
not  converse,  wee  being  all  but  strangers  on  the  Earth." 


XX 

Isaac  da  Fonseca  Aboab 

IHe  was  the  son  of  David  Aboab  and  Isabel  da  Fonseca.  To 
distinguish  him  from  his  contemporary  Isaac  de  Matatiah  Aboab, 
he  is  generally  alluded  to  as  "  Fonseca  Aboab."  He  was  born  at 
Castrodagre,  Portugal,  and  brought  to  Amsterdam  as  a  child, 
where  he  became  a  pupil  of  Haham  Isaac  {ob.  1622)  de  Abraham 
Uziel.  In  1623  he  was  the  Haham  of  the  Neve  Shalom,  the  second 
synagogue  established  in  Amsterdam.  In  1642  he  emigrated  to 
Pernambuco  (Recife)  in  Brazil,  where  he  was  Haham  until  he 
returned  to  Amsterdam  in  1654.  {^^  ^^4^  Manasseh  himself  had 
intended  going  out  to  Brazil  to  join  his  brother  Ephraim  Soeiro^ 

1  Ephraim  had  evidently  discarded  his  surname  of  "  Ben-Israel"  for 
"  Soeiro,"  that  of  his  maternal  grandfather,  who  probably  left  no  male 
issue.  In  such  cases,  it  was  customary  among  Sephardi  Jews  for  the 
second  son  of  the  eldest  daughter  to  use  his  mother's  maiden  surname 
exclusively,  or  add  it  to  his  own  patronymic. 


i84  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

in  business.)  During  Aboab's  Rabbinate  there  was  war  between 
the  Dutch  and  Portuguese  for  possession  of  the  colony,  which  he 
describes  in  Hebrew  verse,  still  in  manuscript.  He  was  the  first 
Rabbi  and  the  first  Hebrew  Author  in  the  New  World.  It  has 
been  alleged,  that  in  his  declining  years  he  was  a  secret  votary  of 
Sabbat ai  Zebi.  He  was  a  great-grandson  of  the  last  Gaon  of 
Castile,  the  Isaac  Aboab  (1433-1493)  who  wrote  a  super-com- 
mentary to  Nachmanides'  commentary  on  the  Pentateuch, 
printed  in  Constantinople  in  1525.  Rabbi  Abraham  de  Samuel 
Zacuto,  the  author  of  the  Juchasin,  was  one  of  his  pupils,  and  on 
his  death  delivered  the  funeral  oration. 


XXI 

Dr.  Abraham  Zacutus  Lusitanus 

He  was  one  of  the  most  eminent  physicians  of  his  time  and  the 
author  of  many  valuable  works  in  connection  with  his  profession. 
He  was  a  native  of  Lisbon  and  of  marrano  origin.  In  the  year 
1625,  when  Philip  (1605-1665)  IV  of  Spain  (1621-1665)  and 
Portugal  (1621-1640)  banished  the  Jews  from  the  latter  kingdom, 
Zacutus  escaped  to  Amsterdam  from  the  clutches  of  the  Holy 
Office.  Here  he  was  initiated  into  the  Abrahamic  covenant  and 
lived  as  an  exemplary  Jew.  He  was  one  of  the  "  Aprovaciones  " 
of  the  first  volume  of  the  Conciliador  "  Sapientissimo  Viro, 
Domino  Menasseh  Ben  Israel,  sacrorum  librorum  eruditissimo 
interpreti,  Salvtem.  .  .  .  Amstelodami  die  ultim.  Mensis 
August.  Anno.  1632. 

Te  summ^  colit,  &  observat. 

Doctor  Zacutus  Lusitanus." 

Among  his  clientele  he  numbered  the  Elector  Palatine  Frederick  V 
(1596-1632),  King  of  Bohemia  (1619-1620),  and  his  consort 
Elizabeth  Stuart  (1596-1662),  eldest  daughter  of  James  (1566- 
1625)  I,  King  of  England  (1603-1625).  They  were  the  parents  of 
Sophia  (1630-1714),  Electress  of  Hanover,  the  mother  of  George 
(1660-1727)  I  (1714-1727). 

His  great-grandfather  was  Abraham  [Diogo  Rodriguez]  (1450  ?- 
post  15 10)  de  Samuel  de  Abraham  Zacut,  the  astronomer, 
mathematician  and  historian. 

In  1473,  while  a  professor  in  the  University  of  his  native 
town,  Salamanca,  he  wrote  his  world-famous  :  nimi>  niN^n  [B.  M.] 
(Astronomical  Tables),  and  here  he  became  acquainted  with 
Christopher  Columbus  (1446  ?-i5o6). 

His  pupil  Joseph  Vecinho  (Vizino)  [Diego  Mendes],  physician 
to  Joao  II,  the  Great  (1455-1495),  King  of  Portugal  (1481-1495), 
translated  the  work  into  Latin.    It  was  printed  by  a  Jew,  Samuel 


APPENDICES  185 

D'Ortas,  at  Leiria  in  1496,  and  entitled  "  Almanach  Perpetuum." 
Dr.  Vecinho  presented  a  copy  to  Columbus,  which  he  always 
carried  with  him  and  consulted  on  his  voyages,  deriving  in- 
valuable help  from  it. 

It  was  this  very  book  that  he  used  to  predict  the  eclipse  of  the 
moon,  which  so  terrified  the  Indians  in  Jamaica  that  they  became 
obedient  to  him,  and  furnished  his  party  food.  After  his  death 
it  was  found  in  his  library.  On  the  margins  are  calculations  in 
his  penmanship,  which  were  doubtless  made  to  verify  those  of 
Zacuth.i 

On  the  exile  from  Spain,  2  August,  1492,  the  author  went  to 
Lisbon,  where  he  was  appointed  astronomer  and  historiographer 
to  Joao  II.  He  was  of  material  assistance  to  the  great  navigator 
Vasco  da  Gama  (1460  ?-i524),  in  preparation  of  his  voyage  to 
India.  The  ships  were  provided  with  Zacuto's  newly  perfected 
iron  astrolabes,  which  hitherto  had  been  of  wood.  He  was  highly 
esteemed  by  da  Gama,  who  took  leave  of  him  on  the  8  July,  1497, 
in  the  presence  of  his  entire  crew. 

Portugal  also  expelled  the  Jews,  so  he  fled  with  his  son  Samuel 
to  Tunis,  and  here  in  1504  he  wrote  his  famous  ponv  "iSD  which 
is  a  chronological  history  of  the  Jews  from  the  Creation  up  to 
1500. 

It  was  first  printed  in  Constantinople  in  1566  [b.  m.],  and  an 
issue  edited  by  Herschell  Filipowski  (1817-1872)  was  published 
in  London  in  1857,  some  copies  of  which  were  printed  on  vellum 
[b.  m.].  Tunis  being  invaded  by  Spain  he  emigrated  to  Turkey, 
where  he  died  some  time  after  15 10. 


XXII 

Jacob  Judah  Aryeh  ve  Leon 

Haham  Jacob  Judah  Aryeh  de  Leon  [Templo]  of  marrano  origin, 
was  born  in  Hamburgh  in  1603.  Here  for  some  years  he  was 
teacher  in  Hebrew  and  Rabhinics  to  the  Kahal  Kadosh  de  Talmud 
Tor  ah.  Subsequently  he  was  appointed  Haham  of  Middelburgh 
in  Holland,  where  in  1642  he  published  tracts  in  Spanish*  and 

^  The  Authentic  Letters  of  Columbus.  By  William  Eleroy  Curtis,  .  .  . 
Chicago,  .  .  .  1895,  pp.  115-116. 

^  Retrato  Del  Templo  De  Selomo.  .  .  .  Compuesto,  pot  laacob  levda  Leon 

Hebreo,  vezino  de  Middelbuygo,  en  la  Provincia  de  Zelanda. 

En  el  Ano  de  5402  ala  creacion  del  Mundo. 

En  Middelbvrgo,  En  Casa  de  la  Biuda  y  Heredeos  de   Symon   Moulert 

Imprimidor  de  los  Estados  de  Zelanda.    m.dc.xlii. 

(4<o.  4  W.+48  pp.  [Bodleian.]) 


i86  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Dutch, ^  describing  a  model  he  had  constructed  of  Solomon's 
Temple.  Shortly  after  he  settled  in  Amsterdam  and  resumed 
his  tutorial  profession,  and  it  was  here  that  a  French  version ^  of 
the  tract  was  published,  and  seven  years  later  a  Hebrew  edition 
appeared,^  translated  by  the  Author  from  his  original  Spanish. 
Versions  in  German,*  Latin, ^  and  Ladino^  have  also  been  issued 
at  various  times.  In  anticipation  of  his  visit  to  London  to  exhibit 
his  model  before  Charles  II  (1630-1685)  and  his  Court,  he  prepared 
an  essay  in  English,  which  was  printed  and  published  in  Amster- 

^  Afbeeldinghe    Vanden   Tempel   Salomonis,  .  .  .  Door    laacob   lehvda 

Leon  Ebreo. 

Tot  Middelburgh,  By  de  Weduwe  ende  Erf sgenamen  van  Symon  Moulert, 

Ordinaris    Drucker   vande    Ed:     Mog:    Heeren    Staten    van    Zeelandt. 

Anno  1642. 

(4/0.  4//. +  49  /7^.+ folded  etching    "El  Tempio  de  Selomoh,"  etc.  etc. 

[B.  M.]) 

Reissued  at  Amsterdam  in  1644.     [I.  S.] 

A  fourth  edition  published  at  Amsterdam  in  1669  [Bodleian]. 

*  Portraict  dv  Temple  de  Salomon,  .  .  .  Compose  par  lacob  luda  Leon 
Hebreu,  habitant  de  Middelbourg  en  la  Province  de  Zelande. 

L'an  de  la  creation  du  Monde  5403. 

A  Amsterdam,  Imprim6  chez  Jean  Frederick  Stam,  t  I'Esperance, 

ob.  b.  c.  xliii.    (4/0.    6//. +88  pp.     [I.  S.]) 

ts^ipn  \\^hh  ipmyn  uy\  ly^  pe'b  nnn  .  .  .  VD>n  n^^nn  -ibd^ 
Dn-iDK^DN  ns  DQii  .  .  .  nx  mm*  ipv»  -iinDrj  .  .  .  ddhh 
(4*0  2  +  rh  II.  [i.s.])  .  .  ,  p"B^  1KD5  D^DB^n  'n  ib'Vp  bmi  'n  rm 

Two  hundred  and  ten  years  later,  it  was  reissued  at  Warsaw  with  an 
"  approbation  "  of  Samuel  Mohilewer,  the  great  Zionist,  who  at  the  time 
was  Chief  Rahhi  of  Suwalk. 

*  Traktat  des  Jak.  Jeh.  Leonis  von  dem  Tempel  Salomonis.  Aus  dem 
Hollandischen  ausgefertigt :    Hannover,  1665,  8°. 

(Bibhotheca  Judaica.  .  .  .  JuUus  Furst .  .  .  Leipzig  .  .  .  1849,  p.  232.) 

*  Jacobi  Jehvdae  Leonis  De  Tempio  Hierosolymitano,  ...  ex  EbraBo 
Latin^  recensiti  h.  Johanne  Savberto.  .  .  Helmaestadt  Impressit  Jacobvs 
Mvllervs  cb.  b.  c.  ixv. 

(4/0.  Eng.  Frontis.  [Augustus  .  .  .  Dux  Brunovicensis  et  Lunaeburgensis 
.  .  .  Conr.  Buno  /ec.]4-Eng.  Title-page +a-d  in  jouv^  [c* :  Jacobi 
Yehudae  Leonis  Hebraei.  Conr.  Buno  /ec.]+)  :  (in  fours -\- 211  pp.  [in- 
correctly numbered  203  pp.]-{-a,t  p.  35  folio  folded  sheet  with  Latin  text 
-{-folio  folded  sheet  of  Temple  plans + engraving  of  model  of  Solomon's 
Temple,  Palace  and  Fort  Antonio,  with  explanatory  details  in  Dutch -|- 
at /).  94,  engraving  of  the  "  Priestly  garments  "+at  p.  168,  engraving  of 
Holy  Vessels,  Candelabrum,  etc.  +  at  p.  179,  engraving  of  "  Ark  of 
Testimony."  [I.  S.]) 
It  was  reissued  at  Altdorph  in  1674.    [I.  S.]  ' 

\th)^  nten  ir:n«  D'nn  ^'pivt  nnx  m^N>  ^pv  inn  .  .  .  ^3*n 
yy  r\t)p  n  n^nKsoKriD^K  5636  "i  r«  )p'>:)^m  n"i»  jkd  r'tv  h)i2V 

(8°.     120  pp.     [B.  M.]) 


APPENDICES  187 

dam,^  describing  the  model  of  Solomon's  Temple,  and  also  that 
of  the  Tabernacle  of  Moses,  of  which  he  had  also  constructed  a 
model.  It  was  again  on  view  here  in  the  years  1759  and  1760.* 
In  1778  it  was  in  the  possession  of  a  Mr.  M.  P.  Decastro,  who 
claimed  to  be  a  near  relation  of  Haham  de  Leon.  He  exhibited 
the  model  here,  and  translated  and  published  the  essay  describing 
it,^  which  he  tells  us  was  "  First  printed  in  Hebrew  and 
Spanish."* 

Leon  Templo,^  as  our  Haham  is  at  times  referred  to,  is 
supposed  to  have  invented  "  The  Arms  of  y^  most  Ancient  & 
Honorable  Fraternity,  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons."  The 
original  drawing  was  seen  by  Laurence  Dermott  (1720-1791) 
when  he  saw  the  model  of  the  Temple  in  1759-1760.®  He  also 
wrote  on  the  "  Cherubim  "  and  on  the  "  Ark  of  the  Testimony." 
In  1671  he  issued  the  Psalms  in  Hebrew,  with  a  Spanish  para- 
phrase and  notes .  This  was  his  last  published  work,  in  the  preface 
of  which  he  teUs  us  that  although  he  was  then  sixty-seven  years 
of  age,  he  completed  the  work  in  seven  months,  at  times  that  he 
could  spare  from  his  tutorial  duties.  Four  works  in  manuscript 
are  still  unpublished.    After  his  death,  among  his  sketches  were 

^  A  Relation  |  Of  the  most  memorable  thinges  |  In  The  Tabernacle  j  of 

Moses,  I  And  The  |  Temple  of  Salomon,  | 

A  ccording  to  Text  of  Scripture.  \ 

By  Jacob  Jehudah  Leon,  Hebr.  | 

Author  of  the  Model  of  Salomon's  Temple.  \ 

At  Amsterdam,  |  Printed  by  Peter  Messchaert,  in  the  Stoof-steech,  1675.  | 

(4^0.    ^11.-^27  pp.)  [I.S.] 

2  Ahiman  Rezon,  Or  a  help  to  all  that  are  or  would  be  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  .  .  .  the  Second  Edition.  By  Lau  Dermott.  Secretary.  .  .  .  London, 
1764.  (8°.  Eng.  Frontis.  4-  xxxvi.  +  224  pp.  [Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge 
library])  p.  xxxiv. 

^  An  Accurate    Description    Of    the    Grand    and    Glorious    Temple    of 
Solomon.    In  which  are  briefly  Explain'd, 
i   I.  The  Form  of  that  Fabric. 
II.  The  Vessels  and  Instruments  belonging'thereto. 
III.  The  King's  Palace. 

IV.^  Fort  Antonio,  built  for  the  Defence  of  the  Temple. 
First  printed  in  Hebrew  and  Spanish  at  Middleburgh,  By  that  celebrated 
Architect,  Jacob  Juda  Lyon,  In  The  Year  mdcxlii. 

Translated  by  M.  P.  Decastro,  (Proprietor  of  the  said  Model,  and  a  near 
Relation  to  the  Author.) 

London :  Printed  for  the  above  Proprietor,  by  W.  Bailey,  Wellclose- 
Square,    m.dcc.lxxviii. 

(8°.  Eng.  Frontis.  [Jacobi  Yehudae  Leonis  Hebraei  .  .  .  Salom  Italia 
Sculpsit]  +  2  II. -\-  iii  pp.  +  i  I.  [etchings  of  "  Temple,"  "  Cherubim  "] 
+  4^PP-)  [I.S.] 

See  "  Jacob  Jehudah  Leon  (Templo),  by  Israel  Solomons,"  Jewish 
Chronicle,  30  Oct.,  1903. 

*  The  tract  was  first  printed  in  Spanish  and  Dutch  in  1642,  and  not 
until  1650  did  it  appear  in  Hebrew. 

'  Templo  was  assumed  as  a  surname  by  his  descendants. 

•  Ahiman  Rezon,  ibid. 


i88  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

found  over  two  hundred  designs  to  illustrate  and  elucidate  Biblical 
and  Rabbinical  passages.  These  his  son  Haham  Solomon  Raphael 
{ob.  1733  circa)  de  Leon  Templo  presented  to  Willem  Surenhuis, 
who  had  them  engraved  for  his  edition  of  the  Mishna^ 

Biographers  do  not  seem  to  know  when  and  where  he  died. 
David  Franco  Mendes  (1713-1792)  tells  us  that  after  his  London 
visit  he  returned  to  Amsterdam,  and  although  he  gives  a  tran- 
scription of  his  epitaph,  consisting  of  eight  lines  of  Hebrew 
laudatory  verse,  no  date  is  mentioned. ^  Dr.  M.  Kayserling 
suggests  that  he  died  after  1675,  that  is  after  his  London  visit. ^ 
There  is,  however,  good  authority  to  surmise  that  he  died  in 
London  during  his  visit. 


XXIII 

Thesouro  Dos  Dinim 

Thesovro  Dos  Dinim.  .  .  .  Composto  por.  Menasseh  Ben  Israel. 

Estampado  em  casa  de  Eliahu  Aboab.    An.  5405. 

(8°.    16  II.  (one  blank) +62^  pp.    [in  four  sections]) 

*2  Muy  Nobres,  Magnificos,  e  Prudentes  Senhores,  Parnassim  deste 

Kaal  Kados  de  Talmud  Tor  ah o  S^  David  Abarbanel  Dormido, 

Parnas  da  Sedaka,  e  Talmud  Tora.  .  .  .  Menasseh  ben  Israel. 
Amsterdam  15  de  Hiyar,  An.  5405.  [b.  m.] 


Thesovro  Dos  Dinim  ultima  parte  .  .  .  Economica  .  .  .  Por 

Menasseh  Ben  Israel. 

Amsterda,  na  of&cina  de  Joseph  ben  Israel  seufilho.^   5407- 

S^  8  //.  (one  blank) -\-210  pp. +4  IL 

A2.  .  .  .  Dedicatoria.    Aos  muy  nobres,  Magnificos  e  Prudites 

Senhores,  os  Senhores  Abrahd  e  Ishak  Israel  Pereyra.  .  .  . 

1  Mischna  sive  Totius  Hebraeorum  Juris,  Rituum,  Antiquitatum,  ac 
Legum  Oralium  Systema,  .  .  .  Guilielmus  Surenhusius.  .  .  .  Amstelaedami, 
.  .  .  [1698-1703]     (vi  vols. /o/.) 

(Franco)  ♦JJ^DH  by   Vst   ^1W>b   HTin^   npr**   'infi   DSTTH   JllibVI- 

*  Jewish  Encyclopedia,  1904,  vol.  viii.  p.  i. 

*  The  author,  in  his  Nishmath  Chayyim,  165 1,  folio  103,  bewails  the 
premature  death  of  his  son  Joseph,  the  printer  of  this  book.  He  was,  he 
tells  us,  a  keen  Talmudist,  and  had  a  perfect  knowledge  of  four  languages. 
He  had  sent  him  on  a  voyage  for  the  first  time,  and  on  returning  to  Amster- 
dam from  Dantzig  was  shipwrecked.  On  his  second  journey  the  following 
year  to  Poland,  on  nearing  Lublin,  he  died,  being  at  the  time  about  twenty 
years  of  age. 


APPENDICES  189 

A3.     Este  sen  intimo,  e  affei^oado  amigo, 
0  Hahd,  Menasseh  ben  Israel 
Amsterdam  12  de  Tamuz,  An.  5407.  [b.  m.] 


The  two  parts  of  Thesouro  dos  Dinim  were  subsequently  re- 
issued in  one  volume  : — 
Amsterdam    Anno  5470  (8°.    4+201+2//.)^  [i- s.] 


XXIV 

"Rettung  der  Juden,"  by  Manasseh  Ben-Israel 

Manasseh  Ben  Israel  Rettung  der  Juden  Aus  dem  Englischen 

libersetzt. 

Nebst  einer  Vorrede  von  Moses  Mendelssohn. 

Als  ein  Anhang  zu  des  Hrn.  Kriegsraths  Dohm  Abhandlung : 

Ueber  die  biirgerliche  Verbesserung  der  Juden.  .  .  . 

Berlin  und  Stettin  bey  Friedrich  Nicolai.    1782. 

(8°.  lii  +64  pp.)  [I.  s.] 

*  This  second  issue  is  rarer  than  the  first :    5470  is  a  misprint  for  5407. 


ApUnaix  XXV 


7?. 

U^eia^es  from  ^B^e. 

Oftwomigkic  Armies,  afwell  fox)tenicn  as  horfmentThe 

firfl  of  the  great  Sophy,  the  other  of  an  Hebrew  people,  till  this  time  not  difco* 

nercd.commingfrom  the  Mountaincs  of  Cafpij,  who  pretend  cheir  warre  is  to 

rccoocrthe  Land  of  Promifc,  Sc  expcll  the  Turks  out  of  Chrinendome.  With 

cheir  multitude  of  Souldicrs^  &  new  invention  of  weapons. 

Alfoccrlaino  prophecies  of  a  Tew  fcruingco  that  Armie,  called  ^Ari  Shiieske^ 
prognofucating  many  Orange  accidents,  which  fhall  happen 
the  following  yeer e,  1607. 

Tranflated  out  of  Italian  into  Englifh,  by  W,  W. 


Pnmedbyl.R.forHcnrv  Goffbn,  and  arc  to  be  fold  in  Pater 


From  a  rare  tract  lent  by  Mr.  Israe*  Socom0Hs.\ 


'M^ 


»•»  TO  THE  RENOWNED 

Lord,  Don  Mathias  de  Rensie, 
of  Venice. 

Fter  the  particular  thinges  alleaged 
in  my  former  writings  vnto  your 
Lordshippe,  I  thought  it  good  and 
conuenient  by  this  my  Letter,  to 
aduertise  your  Lordship,  of  certaine 
great,  horrible,  and  fearefull  things  that  hapned 
in  this  quarter. 

Purposing  to  certifie  your  Lordship  of  the  pompe 
and  great  triumph  at  the  presenting  of  the  Captaines 
of  the  Sea,  vnto  the  great  Turke :  the  miserie  and 
vnhappines  of  the  poore  prisoners  :  the  discorde  & 
contention  that  came  by  the  sonne  of  the  Vice  Roy 
of  Naples,  being  prisoner  :  the  threatnings  made  to 
the  Christians  :  the  receiuing  of  the  Ambassadors  of 
the  Soffy  :  the  pompes,  tryumphes,  and  entertainments 
made  vnto  them,  and  yet  dissembled  enough,  with 
mocking  one  the  other  at  their  departing  :  the  presents 
giuen  :    the   going   of   the   great    Turke    a    hunting 

and 

A2 


and  all  other  thinges  written  at  large,  as  your  Lord- 
ship shall  vnderstand. 

But  now  your  Lordship  shall  vnderstand  at  thys 
time,  the  greatest,  the  most  wonderfull,  and  most 
strange  thing  that  euer  was  heard  of.  The  which 
partly  hath  so  troubled  the  great  Turke,  and  all 
the  rest,  that  they  haue  left  of  all  other  affayres,  to 
prouide  for  the  perrill  and  danger  that  at  this  time 
hangeth  ouer  theyr  heads. 

Your  Lordships  to  vse, 

Signior  Valesco. 


Newes  from  Rome. 


The  newes  are  come  that  the  king  of  Hungarie  maketh 
a  great  Army,  which  shall  haue  for  his  ayde  the  gallies 
of  Buda,  and  of  many  other  Princes  of  Christendome. 
And  they  say  moreouer,  that  the  king  of  Bohemia  will 
helpe  therein,  and  that  the  most  part  of  Christian  Princes 
will  come  and  ayde  him  in  this  enterprise  against  the 
Turke,  except  the  Signorie  of  Venice,  which  medleth 
nothing  at  all  in  it.  These  reporters  of  newes  affirme, 
that  there  shal  come  aboue  a  hundred  gallies,  besides 
other  Barks,  ships,  &  Hulkes  without  number,  which 
is  occasion  that  they  hasten  the  warre  the  more.  Not- 
withstanding, men  esteeme  not  so  much  hereof,  as  of 
the  war  that  is  made  beyond  the  Mountaines,  as  you  shall 
understand  not  without  wondering  at  it.  The  Tartars 
make  friendes  upon  the  greater  Sea,  &  haue  made  a 
league  &  friendship  with  the  great  Turke,  requiring 
ayde,  for  they  are  molested  with  war  by  the  great 
Emperour  of  Muscouia,  &  prince  of  Sagodie,  of  Pogore, 
of  Smeiengie,  of  Drossy,  of  Gazam,  of  Virgoiosam,  of  Tartarie, 
of  Gil  am,  and  of  diuers  other  people  and  regions  lying 
toward  the  South :  they  say  that  this  Emperor  or  Duke 
hath  two  Armies,  and  is  called  iohn  Dwatilio,  a  young 
man,  of  the  age  of  xxiiii.  yeeres,  noble  and  valiant,  and 
a  Christian,  after  the  institution  of  the  Greekes,  and 
presumeth  that  by  reason  of  his  blood,  the  Empire  of 
Constantinople  doth  belong  to  him.  And  these  two  Armies 
are  about  two  hundred  thousand  horse. 

They 
A3 


Newes  from  Rome. 

They  were  not  wont  in  time  past  to  be  so  strong,  nor 
so  feared  of  the  Turks,  for  they  had  not  the  use  of 
artillarie  in  the  warre :  but  nowe  they  haue  meruailous 
great  preparation  in  theyr  warre.  Hee  hath  in  wages 
certaine  Dutch  Captaines,  and  about  tenne  thousand 
Maister  gunners,  and  is  meruailously  well  furnished 
with  harquebushes,  and  artillery,  and  because  men 
understand  that  hee  hath  so  vanquisht  the  Tartarians, 
and  brought  the  to  such  a  state,  that  they  cannot  much 
more  resist  him,  and  that  if  the  saide  Muscouite  should 
be  maisters  ouer  the  Tartars,  they  should  consequently 
be  Rulers  of  the  great  sea,  &  the  way  should  bee  open 
and  easie  for  them  to  come,  not  onely  to  Constantinople, 
but  also  to  driue  the  Turke  out  of  Europe :  and  because 
that  the  saide  great  Turke  is  assured  of  this  enterprise 
and  commotion  of  the  Greekes :  he  hath  cocluded  and 
determined,  to  send  to  the  said  Tartars  a  good  assistance 
of  fifteene  thousand  fighting  men,  and  also  for  this 
purpose,  hee  hath  sent  to  the  sea  ten  Gallies  to  passe 
them  ouer. 

Men  make  mention  and  doubt  of  Mondaccio  which  is 
a  great  Prince  and  Ruler,  and  able  to  make  foure  score, 
or  a  hundred  thousand  horse  :  and  yet  men  are  uncertaine 
whose  part  he  will  take,  because  hee  is  tributarie  unto  the 
great  Turke. 

There  is  newes  also  from  Africa,  that  the  king  of 
Bugierjy  the  king  Tramecej  the  king  of  TuniSy  the  children 
of  Serif.  The  Lord  of  Muroctio^  and  of  Gran,  with  the 
Arabians  and  other,  haue  taken  in  hand  to  driue  and 
expulse  the  turke  wholy  out  of  Affrioa^  &  to  endomage 
him  as  much  as  they  may.  Men  know  not  yet  in  what 
place  they  will  war,  but  we  shall  know  it  shortly.  The 
newes  also  is,  that  the  Soffie  is  in  Campe  with  a  great 

Armie, 


Newes  from  Rome. 

Armie,  and  hath  the  Medes  to  helpe  him,  which  border 
upon  the  Caspian  Sea,  and  of  one  side  neighbour  to  the 
Hi  roans,  called  at  this  day  Correxans  and  Zecatans,  with 
whom  he  hath  made  a  league  and  peace.  There  are  on 
his  side  also  the  Ibelans  and  Albians,  and  also  the  people 
of  Melibar,  which  harbor  upo  the  Indians,  and  likewise 
with  the  king  of  Bosphorus,  all  beeing  people  meruailous 
swift  and  nimble.  In  this  so  mightie  an  host  and  armie, 
is  also  Basoet  the  sonne  of  the  great  Turke,  by  meanes 
whereof,  all  in  those  parts  is  in  great  trouble,  as  well  as 
heere.  It  seemeth  that  the  lenissaries  bring  him  the  lot 
of  Turkie,  as  Baduget,  Zermonia,  Alepo,  and  all  the  Regions 
lying  neere  to  the  Soffl  is  reuolted,  all  the  which  particu- 
larities shall  be  understoode  more  at  large. 

This  newes  is  great,  and  hath  made  the  great  turke  to 
muse  enough  upon  it,  but  aboue  all  these  meruelous  and 
dreadfull  newes  which  are  hapned,  there  is  yet  chaunced 
another,  which  hath  greatly  feared  &  abashed  all  men, 
which  although  it  seemeth  to  be  incredible,  yet  upon  my 
credit  it  is  most  true,  and  that  is,  that  a  people  heretofore 
unknowne,  mighty,  swift,  and  meruelous  nimble,  hath 
taken  weapon  in  hand,  to  the  disaduantage  and  losse  of 
the  house  of  Ottoman.  They  say  that  Alexander  the 
great  did  in  time  past  driue  beyond  the  mountaine 
Gaspe  nine  tribes  and  a  halfe  of  the  Hebrewes  which 
worshipped  the  Calfe  &  Serpent  of  gold,  and  draue 
them  away,  that  neuer  since  there  was  no  newes  of 
them,  neither  knewe  any  man  if  they  were  in  the  worlde 
or  not :  because  the  Sea  of  sand,  or  the  sandie  sea,  by 
a  certaine  inconuenience  of  sand  Grauel  or  Beche, 
swelled  &  rose  so  high,  that  it  utterly  tooke  from 
them   the   way    into    this    our    Region.      But    now    by 

the 


Neives  from  Rome. 

the  meane  of  the  newe  Nauigation  that  y«  Hollanders 
haue  made,  they  are  arriued  in  their  country,  and  haue 
espied  out  all  their  dooings :  and  after  y^  the  said 
Hollanders  had  instructed  and  taught  them  in  the  science 
and  knowledge  of  artillery,  and  gun  =  pouder  for  Harque- 
bushes  and  dags,  whereunto  they  are  meruelous  apt  and 
ready,  they  are  become  in  all  thinges  perfit.  After  this 
they  egged  them  forward  to  take  weapon  in  hand,  and 
passe  the  saide  mountaine  by  Land.  And  because  the 
sandy  sea  did  hinder  their  passage,  it  appeareth  y*  some 
Duchman  or  Italian,  which  yet  men  knowe  not,  but 
notwithstanding  some  great  Astrologian  or  Cosmographer 
taught  them  the  way,  making  some  hill  plaine  with  fire, 
whereby  they  might  easilie  passe,  which  is  a  thing  of 
great  wonder. 

These  people  haue  two  mighty  great  armies,  and 
infinite  store  of  victualls,  by  reason  of  the  fruitfulnesse 
of  theyr  country,  they  are  also  well  prouided  of  all 
manner  of  preparation  for  war,  &  cunning  in  the 
practise  of  theyr  weapons.  They  say  they  will  come  & 
recouer  the  land  of  Promise,  towards  the  which  the  first 
army  is  already  very  neere,  to  the  great  terror  and  dread 
of  euery  man  which  hath  either  seene  or  heard  of  them. 
The  spyes  which  haue  been  sent  out  by  the  great  turke 
to  discry  them,  doe  affirme,  that  beside  a  hundred  and 
two  armies,  there  foUowe  an  infinite  number  of  people, 
as  well  footmen  as  horsemen,  and  theyr  first  armie  is 
already  arriued  upon  the  limmits  of  Turkie,  putting 
all  to  fire  and  sword.  Theyr  language  is  bastard 
Hebrew :  &  because  men  speake  much  of  it  heere, 
I  will  not  forget  to  speake  also  something  thereof 
woorthy  to  be  noted,  and  well  understoode :  The 
Hebrewes  of  Constantinople  say,  that  they  haue  certaine 

prophecies 


Newes  from  Rome. 

prophesies,  among  the  which  one  maketh  mention, 
that  from  the  foure  parts  of  the  world,  shall  rise  a 
people,  and  come  into  Gog  and  Magog,  and  then  shall 
appeare  (as  they  perswade  themselues)  their  Messias  in 
might  and  power,  and  then  they  shall  haue  dominion 
and  rule  in  the  world,  whereof  they  secretly  reioyce,  & 
are  wonderous  glad.  They  say  moreouer,  that  there  is 
a  prophecie  grauen  in  a  piller  set  at  Podromo  which  saith 
thus :  A  mightie  Prince  shall  rise,  whose  beginning  shall 
be  of  small  reputation,  who  by  his  Issue  shal  war  of 
such  force  and  strength  (with  the  helpe  of  God)  that  he 
shall  bring  to  nothing,  the  empire  and  rule  of  Ottoman, 
and  shal  be  the  right  possessour  and  inheritor  of  the 
Empire  of  Constantinople,  &  they  beleeue  all  that  it  shall 
be  this  Emperor  and  duke  of  Muscouia,  which  is  alreadie 
in  great  estimation  among  the  Greeks. 

The  Turks  haue  a  prophecie,  which  they  sing  often, 
and  weepe  bitterlie  the  while,  for  it  betokeneth  and 
denounceth  unto  them,  their  utter  ruine  and  destruction. 
And  although  it  seeme  strange,  to  say  that  the  Turkes 
haue  prophecies,  it  is  no  meruaile :  for  Balam  was  a  false 
Prophet :  the  Sybilles  also  prophecied  and  were  Pagans. 
For  all  these  causes  the  great  Turke  hath  forbidden  wine 
&  will  that  all  men  goe  fiue  times  in  a  day  to  the  Moscheay 
and  pray  to  God  for  theyr  health  and  saftie.  And  so  hee 
prepareth  three  great  armies,  one  against  the  Muscouites, 
another  against  the  Soffie,  and  the  third  for  to  goe  against 
the  Hebrewes  of  the  Mountaines  of  Caspij,  Within  these 
fewe  dayes  you  shall  haue  other  newes,  wherefore  thus 
making  an  end,  I  commend  me  unto  your  good  Lordship : 
from  Rome,  the  first  day  of  June,  1606.  Your  faithfull 
and  trustie  seruant,  Signlor  Valesco. 

The 
B 


Newes  from  Rome. 


The  description  of  the  first  Armie,  condufited 

by  Zoroam  a  lew,  Captaine  generall 

of  the  Armies. 

First  of  all  a  Jew,  of  verie  great  stature,  of  a  fleshlie 
colour,  more  red  then  otherwise,  with  broad  eyes,  called 
Zoroam t  is  Captaine  generall  of  all  the  Armies,  hee  leadeth 
under  his  Ensigne  twelue  thousand  horse,  and  twenty 
thousand  footmen.  The  horsemen  are  armed  after  a 
light  sort,  but  very  good  Harnes,  almost  after  our 
fashion :  they  carrie  Launces  of  long  Reedes,  very  hard 
and  light,  yet  so  sharpe  pointed,  that  they  passe  thorowe 
a  thing  with  incredible  lightnesse  :  they  carrie  also 
shields  or  targets  of  bone,  and  in  steede  of  swords,  they 
use  certaine  Courtilaxes. 

They  are  apparrelled  with  the  colour  of  their  Ensigne, 
and  all  clothed  with  silke :  the  foote-men  carrie  Pikes  of 
the  same  sort,  with  Helmet  and  Habergin :  their  Ensigne 
is  of  iblacke  silke  and  blew,  with  a  dog  following  a  Hart, 
or  Bucke,  and  a  saying  written  in  it,  which  is  in  our 
language  thus :  Either  quick  or  dead. 

2.    Of  the  Armie  of  Don  Phares. 

There  is  one  called  Phares,  which  is  an  Earle,  yong 
and  valiant,  not  regarding  this  present  life :  this  man 
hath  under  his  commaund  fifteene  hundred  horsemen 
armed  lightly,  onely  on  the  fore-part  and  head-peece: 
yet  this  Armour  is  so  well  tempered  and  wrought,  that 
it  keepeth  out  a  Launce  and  Harquebush  shot. 

This 


Newes  from  Rome. 

This  manner  of  arming  themselues,  is  to  the  intent 
they  may  neuer  turne  their  backe  to  runne  awaie :  they 
have  also  fierce  and  light  horses :  there  are  eighteene 
thousand  footemen,  apparrelled  with  a  kinde  of  sodden 
leather,  made  of  the  skinne  of  a  certaine  beast,  so  that 
no  pike  nor  harquebush  can  pearse  it.  These  men  are 
beastlie  people,  &  will  neuer  flie  for  any  thing,  they  are 
very  obedient  and  subiect  unto  their  Prince,  and  their 
ordinarie  apparell  is  silke.  The  Ensigne  that  they  beare, 
is  a  falcon  pecking  or  billing  with  another  bird,  with  a 
sentence  that  saith,  Either  thine  or  mine  shall  breake. 

3.    Of  the  Marquesse  of  Galair. 

There  is  a  Marquesse  of  Galair  called  Goes,  this  man 
leadeth  fifteen  hudred  men  of  armes,  which  be  all  ex- 
ceeding well  armed  &  stout,  strong,  and  rebust  men : 
their  horses  are  moriskes,  the  greatest,  the  strongest, 
the  fairest,  and  the  best  that  bee  in  the  world  :  there  are 
also  seuenteene  thousand  souldiers,  very  wel  appointed 
with  Launce  and  harquebush :  theyr  Ensigne  or  armes 
is  a  redde  field,  with  a  maid  clothed  in  greene,  holding 
a  Lion  in  her  hand,  with  these  words  /  hope  to  subdue  a 
greater  thing. 

4.    Of  the  Duke  of  Falach. 

There  is  a  Duke  of  Falach,  called  Obeth^  who  hath  under 

his  conduct  xx.  thousand  footemen,  armed  with  a  certaine 

mettall  like  yron,  but  it  is  light  and  hard,  they  have  many 

good  swords,    launces,  and  other  force,   harquebushes, 

and  wiflers :  their  Ensigne  or  armes,  is  a  mermaid  in  a 

blacke  field,  and  the  deuise  thus,  My  singing  shall  not 

cease  until  I  the  end. 

The 

B2 


Newes  from  Rome. 

The  description  of  tiie  Armie  conducted  by 
Oaptaine  Nauison. 

There  is  a  captaine  called  Nauison,  which  hath  under  him 
XX.  thousand  men,  appointed  and  armed  with  the  skin 
of  a  serpent,  most  hard  &  stiffe,  they  haue  Axes,  pollaxes, 
pikes,  harquebushes,  and  other  kind  of  weapons :  their 
Ensigne  or  armes,  is  a  white  snaile  in  a  blacke  fielde, 
with  a  deuise  about  it,  By  tittle  and  little,  men  goe  very  fane. 
Of  the  tribe  of  Simeon  there  is  a  Prince  of  Arsay,  whose 
name  is  not  yet  knowne,  but  they  say  he  is  a  deuill,  great, 
grosse,  &  thicke  beyond  measure,  with  a  flat  nose,  and 
both  he  and  his  men  are  of  the  stature  of  Giants :  he 
leadeth  with  him  xx.  thousand  footemen,  almost  all 
Alfiers,  which  are  also  so  swift  &  nimble  that  they  will 
take  horses  running  :  they  make  a  meruailous  noise, 
such  as  no  people  use:  their  Ensigne  is  an  Lute  in  a 
blacke  field,  and  haue  for  their  posy,  Suctt  is  my  gouern- 
ment, 

6.  Of  the  Duhe  of  Barsalda. 
There  is  a  duke  of  Barsalda,  and  he  is  the  conducter 
of  xiii,  thousand  footmen,  which  are  all  Harquebushers, 
&  carry  no  fire  matches,  but  strike  it  with  a  stone  : 
they  are  apparrelled  &  armed  with  such  a  hard  kind  of 
leather,  and  so  enchaunted,  that  no  yron  weapon  in  the 
world  is  able  to  perse  it  thorow.  They  bee  also  very  swift 
and  light :  their  Ensigne  or  armes,  is  a  dry  tree  in  a  blew 
field,  and  their  deuise  thus,  /  hope  to  spread,  and  be  greene 
againe. 

7.    Of  the  Armie  of  the  Duke  Passill. 

There  is  a  duke  of  Passill  called  Abia,  he  hath  under 
his  conduct  a  thousand  footmen,  very  cruell,  hauing 
all    kind    of    weapons    to    push     or     pricke     far    off, 

and 


Newes  from  Rome. 

and  to  strike  nigh,  but  farre  different  from  ours,  they 
are  very  expert  in  artificial!  fire,  and  make  the  greatest 
and  most  dreadfull  thinges  withall  y^  a  man  can  imagin : 
they  do  it  either  by  arte  or  enchauntment,  so  that  it 
seemeth  that  it  raigneth  fire  upon  their  enemies,  and 
yet  notwithstanding  Jiurteth  not  themselves  at  all,  by 
reason  they  are  apparalled  with  a  certaine  Serpents 
skin  which  preserueth  them.  Their  Ensigne  is  a  Cat 
holding  a  Rat  in  her  paw  in  a  blacke  fielde,  and  theyr 
posie  thus,  Euen  so  hapneth  it  to  him  t/iat  is  not  gouerned. 

8.    Of  the  Army  conducted  by  the  Earle 
of  Albary, 

There  is  an  Erie  of  Aibary  called  Orut,  which  hath  under 
his  gouernaunce  a  thousand  horse-men  with  Crosse- 
bowes,  some  of  them  weare  certaine  light  armour  of  a 
kind  of  hard  mettall,  with  Rapyers  and  daggers  after 
theyr  manner,  they  fight  alwayes  running  and  their  horses 
are  so  swift  that  it  is  wonderfull.  This  man  also  hath 
XX.  thousand  horses  barbed  with  very  fine  leather. 
Some  carry  pikes  &  Partisans,  &  such  like  weapons. 
Their  Ensigne  or  armes  is  a  man  in  chaines,  in  a  field 
parted  halfe  with  greene  and  purple,  and  this  deuise 
withall,  %  chaines  shall  bind  another  man, 

9.    Of  the  l^arquesse  of  l/orio. 

There   is   a    Marques    of    l/orio    called    Manasses,    who 

hath     under     his     conduct     xvii    thousand    footemen, 

armed  with  a  very  hard  &  strong  leather,  which  men 

beleeue  to  be  enchaunted,  because  that  no  weapon  nor 

harquebush  is   able   to   perse  it  thorowe,  yet  it  is   as 

light 
B3 


Neives  from  Rome. 

light  as  Linnen  cloth,  and  a  thing  very  fayre  to  see  to. 
These  now  haue  all  sorts  of  weapons  that  an  Armie 
may  haue :  and  they  are  deuided  and  set  in  a  very  faire, 
comely,  and  decent  order:  their  Ensigne  is  an  old  man 
in  a  chariot,  in  a  blacke  field,  saying  thus,  After  a  long 
iourney,  I  shall  be  happy, 

Caleb  Shilock  his  prophesie,  for  the 
yeere,  1607, 

Be  it  knowne  unto  all  men,  that  in  the  yeere  1607,  when 
as  the  Moone  is  in  the  watrie  signe,  the  world  is  like  to 
bee  in  great  danger :  for  a  learned  Jew,  named  Caleb 
Shilock,  doth  write,  that  in  the  foresaid  yeere,  the  Sun 
shall  be  couered  with  the  Dragon  in  the  morning,  from 
fiue  of  the  clocke  untill  ^nine,  and  will  appeare  like 
fire  :  therefore  it  is  not  good  that  any  man  doe 
behold  the  same,  for  by  beholding  thereof  he  may  lose 
his  sight. 

Secondly,  there  shall  come  in  the  same  yeere  a  mer- 
uailous  great  flood  of  water,  to  the  great  terror  and 
amasement  of  many  people. 

Thirdly,  there  shall  arise  a  meruailous  great  wind,  and 
for  feare  thereof  many  people  shall  be  consumed,  or 
distraughted  of  their  wits. 

Fourthlie  the  same  yeere,  about  the  month  of  May, 
will  arise  another  wonderfull  great  flood,  and  so  great  as 
no  man  hath  seene  since  Noyea  flood,  which  wil  continue 
three  dales  and  three  nights,  whereby  many  Citties  and 
Townes  which  standeth  uppon  sandie  ground  will  be  in 
great  danger. 

Piftly, 


Newes  from  Rome. 

Fiftly,  Infidels  and  Hereticks,  through  great  feare  and 
dread,  will  flie,  and  gather  together,  and  asmuch  as  in 
them  lies,  make  war  against  Christian  princes. 

Sixtlie,  in  the  same  yeere  after  the  great  waters  be 
past,  about  the  end  of  the  yeere  will  be  very  great  and 
fearefull  Sicknesses  :  so  that  many  people  are  like  to  die 
by  the  infection  of  strange  diseases. 

Seauenthly,  there  will  be  throughout  the  Worlde  great 
trouble  and  contention  about  matters  of  Religion,  and 
wonderfull  strange  newes  unto  all  people,  as  concerning 
the  same. 

Eightly,  the  Turke  with  his  God  Mahomet  shall  be  in 
danger  to  lose  his  Septer,  through  the  great  change  and 
alteration  in  his  Regiment,  by  reason  of  famine  and  warres, 
so  that  the  most  part  of  his  people  will  rather  seeke 
reliefe  from  the  Christian,  then  from  him. 

Ninthlie,  there  will  also  arise  great  Earth  =  quakes, 
whereby  diuers  goodly  buildings  &  high  houses,  are  like 
to  be  ouerthrowne  and  ruinated. 

Lastlie,  there  will  be  great  remoouings  of  the  earth 
in  diuers  places,  so  that  for  feare  thereof,  many  people 
will  be  in  a  strange  amazement  and  terror. 

These  punishments  are  prognosticated  by  this  learned 
Jew,  to  fall  uppon  the  whole  world  by  reason  of  sinne, 
wherefore  it  behooueth  all  Christian  to  amend  their  euill 
Hues,  and  to  pray  earnestly  unto  God  to  with  =  hold  these 
calamities  from  us,  and  to  conuart  our  harts  wholy  to 
him,  whereby  we  may  find  fauour  in  our  time  of  neede, 
through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.    Amen. 


FINIS. 


COLLATION 

A-B  in  fours ;  Black  letter,  with  the  exception  of  title-page  and 
introductory  leaf;  Lowndes,  p.  2749  notes  "Valesco,  S.  Jewes 
Prophecy,  &c.  Halliwell,  May,  1856,  imprint  cut  into  ;^  10-5-0: 
No  other  copy  known."  This  is  now  in  the  British  Museum,  the 
fore  edge  of  which  is  badly  cropped,  the  name  "  Shilocke "  on  the 
title-page  being  cut  down  to  "  Shilo^  As  in  this  copy,  the  imprint 
is  cut  off  after  "  Pater,"  but  there  is  just  visible  the  top  edge  of 
the  next  line,  which  may  be  "noster  rowe  at  the  signe  of  the 
Sunne,"  but  no  indication  of  a  date.  These  are  the  only  two  copies 
known  of  this  remarkable  tract.  To  students  of  Shakespeare,  it 
is  of  considerable  interest.  James  Orchard  Halliwell-Phillips, 
formerly  Halliwell  (i 820-1 889),  the  great  Shakespearean  scholar, 
in  his  introduction  to  the  Merchant  of  Venice  (Halliwell's  Shake- 
speare, vol.  v.,  p.  277  :  London,  1853)  maintains  that  the  name  of 
the  predominant  character  of  the  play  suggested  itself  to  the  author, 
from  this  tract.    [Notes  and  Queries,  los.  ix.  269.    April  4,  1908.] 


206 


APPENDICES  207 

XXVI 

"The  World's  Great  Restauration,"  by  Sir  Henry  Finch 

The  I  Worlds  |  Great  ReStavration.  |  Or  |  The  Calling  Of  |  The 

levves,  and  (with  them)  |  of  all  the  Nations  and  King-  \  domes  of 

the  earth,  to  the  faith  |  of  Christ.  | 

Published  by  William  Gouge,  B.  of  D.  and  |  Preacher  of  Gods  Word 

in  Black-fryers,  London.  \ 

London  |  Printed  by  Edward  Griffin  for  |  William  Bladen,  and  are 

to  be  sold  at  his  Shop  |  neare  the  great  North  dore  of  Pauls,  at  the 

signe  I  of  the  Bible.    1621.  | 

(4to.  7  //.+234  Z'^.  +  i  1-)  [I.  s.] 

This  work  has  a  second  title  page  : — 
'*  The  Calling  of  the  levves.  |  A  |  Present  |  To  Ivdah  And  |  The 
Children  Of  |  Israel  that  ioyned  with  him,  |  and  to  loseph  (the 
valiant  tribe  |  of  Ephraim)  and  all  the  \  house  of  Israel  that  | 
ioyned  with  him.  | 

The  Lord  giue  them  grace,  that  they  |  may  returne  and  seeke 
lehovah  |  their  God,  and  David  their  \  King,  in  these  latter  dayes.| 
There  is  prefixed  an  Epistle  vnto  them,  |  written  for  their  sake  in 
the  Hebrue  tongue,  ^  |  and  translated  into  English.  | 
Published  by  William  Gouge,  B.  of  D.  and  |  Preacher  of  Gods  word 
in  Blackefryers.  London.  \ 

London  I  Printed  by  Edward  Griffin  for  |  William  Bladen,  and  are 
to  be  sold  at  his  Shop  |  neare  the  great  North  dore  of  Pauls, 
at  the  signe  |  of  the  Bible.    162 1."  | 

1  The  Hebrew  epistle  referred  to  is  a  translation  by  the  author  of  a 
section  of  this  title  page.  It  is  printed  by  itself  on  one  of  the  preliminary 
leaves  in  somewhat  archaic  characters,  and  reads  as  follows  : — 

nDV'?i  innn  Snt^*  onSi  min^S 
riNi  Dn^ni>x  nin'*  n^<  wpi\ 

Min>  ^J^^?  -rn  DiDr 
Nn^''  ^  ^»  inn 

a  Jeremiah  xxxi.  10.  h  Genesis  xxxii.  19.  c  Ezekiel  xxxvii.  16. 
d  Proverbs  iii.  4.    e  Hosea  iii.  5.    /  Amos  iii.  8. 

The  British  Museum,  and  the  Mocatta  Library,  in  University  College, 
have  copies,  without  the  first  title  page  (The  Worlds  Great  Restauration) 
and  Gouge's  preliminary  leaf  "  To  the  Reader."  Probably  issued  in  this 
state  after  the  incarceration  of  Finch  and  Gouge. 


2o8  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

XXVII 

"  The  World's  Great  Restauration  "  {continued). 

Contemporary  reference  to  the  book  is  to  be  found  in  letters 
from  the  Rev.  Joseph  Mead  (Mede)  (1586-1638),  the  eminent 
bibHcal  scholar,  to  Sir  Martin  Stuteville. 
(B.  M.  Add.  4176  :  121,  123-6.) 

Christ's  College  Cambr.  March  31. 
Sr.  1621. 

".  .  .  S^  Henry  Finch  was  last  week  examined  before  the  High 
Commission  about  the  book  I  wrote  of,  but  wonderful  privately. 
He  gave  up  his  answer  in  writing,  ^  was  sent  to  the  King,  & 
expected  from  him  what  should  be  his  censure.  ..." 

Christ's  College,  Apr.  7  [1621] 
Sr 

...  7  have  seen  S''  Henry  Finch's  The  World's  Great  restaura- 
tion, or  Calling  of  the  Jews,  &  with  them  of  all  the  Nations  of  the 
Earth,  to  the  Faith  of  X^-  I  cannot  see  but  for  the  main  of  the 
discourse  I  might  assent  unto  him.  God  forgive  me,  if  it  be  a  sin  ; 
but  I  have  thought  so  many  a  day.  But  the  thing,  which  troubles 
His  Majesty,  is  this  point,  which  I  will  write  out  for  you  verbatim  ; 
"  The  Jews  &  all  Israel  shall  return  to  their  land  &  antient  Seats, 
conquer  their  foes,  have  their  Soil  more  fruitfull  than  ever.  They 
shall  erect  a  glorious  Church  in  the  Land  of  Judah  it  self  &  bear 
rule  far  and  near."  . . .  We  need  not  be  afraid  to  aver  and  maintain, 
that  one  day  they  shall  come  to  Jerusalem  again  ;  be  Kings  & 
chief  Monarchs  of  the  Earth  ;  sway  &  govern  all,  for  ihe  glory  of 
X*  ;  that  shall  shine  amongst  them.  And  that  is  it  Lactantius 
saith  Lib.  7.  Cap.  15.  The  Romans  name  I  will  speak  it,  because 
it  must  one  day  be  shall  be  taken  from  the  Earth,  &  the  Empire 
shall  return  to  Asia.  And  again  shall  the  East  bear  dominion 
&  the  West  be  in  subjection."  In  another  place  Ashur  &  Egypt, 
all  these  large  &  vast  Countries,  the  whole  tract  of  the  East  & 
South,  shall  be  converted  to  Christ  ;  the  chief  Sway  &  sovreignty 
remaining  with  the  Jews.    All  nations  shall  honour  them. 

Some  say,  the  King  says,  he  shall  be  a  pure  King,  &  he  is  so 
auld  that  he  cannot  tell  how  to  do  his  homage  at  Jerusalem. 
This  with  my  best  respect. 

Yours  ever, 

Joseph  Mead.^ 

^  This  letter  has  been  transcribed,  somewhat  inaccurately  in  "  The 
Court  and  Times  of  James  the  First ;  .  .  .  [Robert  Folkestone  Williams.] 
.  .  .  London  :  .  .  .  1848.  Vol.  ii.,  pp.  250-251.  It  is  also  to  be  found  in 
(Notes  &  Queries,  2nd  S.  xi.  127.,  Feb.  16,  1861)  "  Modern  Apocr5^hal 
Apocalypse,"  by  Moses  Margoliouth,  ll.p.,  ph.d. 


APPENDICES  209 

Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Domestic  Series,  James  1. 1619-1623. 

.  ,  .  Edited  by  Mary  Anne  Everett  Green.  .  .  .  London  .  .  . 

1851. 

p.  247    April  18  ?  (1621) 

96.  Petition  of  Sir  Hen.  Finch  to  the  King.  Disclaims  the 
opinion  which  His  Majesty  thinks  is  asserted  in  his  book  ; 
is  sorry  for  having  written  so  unadvisedly;  begs  liberty 
and  restoration  to  favour. 

p.  248    April  18,  162 1  London  : 

Chamberlain  [to  Carleton.] 

97.  ...  Serjeant  Finch  is  committed  for  his  book  on  the  con- 
version of  the  Jews. 


xxvni 

Philip  Ferdinandus 

The  Jew  referred  to  was  Philip  Ferdinandus  (1555  ?-i598),  a 
native  of  Poland.  He  was  converted  to  Roman  Catholicism,  but 
afterwards  became  a  Protestant.  He  taught  Hebrew  at  Oxford, 
and  subsequently  at  Cambridge  (d.n.b.). 

His  only  publication  is  entitled : — 
Hcec  sunt  verba  Dei,  etc.  \ 

Praecepta  In  Monte  Sinai  |  data  ludaeis  sunt  613,  quorum  365 
negativa,  &  248  af- 1  firmativa,  collecta  per  Pharisaeum  Magistrum 
Abraha-  |  mum  filium  Kattani,  &  impressa  in  Bibliis  Bomber- 1 
giensibus,  anno  a  mundo  creato  5288  Vene- 1  tiis,  ab  Authore  vox 
DEI  appellata :  | 

translata  in  linguam  Latinam  per  Phi-  \  lippum  Ferdinandum 
Polonum.  I 

His  accesserunt  nonnulla  qucB  sequens  pa-  \  gina  indicahit.  \ 
Lex  Dei  integra  est,  Psal.  19.  | 
Aperi  oculos  meos,  vt  videam  mirabilia  legis  iuce.\ 
Vocem  audivistis,  et  similtudinem  non  vidistis,  \  prcefer  vocem, 
Deut.  4.  12. 1 

Vox  Dei  semel  data  est  per  Mosem  in  monte  Sinai.  | 
Sed  similitudinem  videre.  i.  arcana,  singulis  diebus  da- 1  tur.   Ex 
Hazoar.  \ 

Cum   licentia  omnium  primariorum  virorum  in  in- 1  clyta  & 
celeberrima  Cantabrigiensi  Academia. 
Cantabrigiae,  |  Ex  ofhcina  lohannis  Legat.    1597.I 
(4/0.  3  //.  +  A-H.  in  fours.)  [b.  m.] 


II.— p 


210  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 


XXIX 

Petition  of  the  Jewes 
Johanna  &  Ebenezer  Cart  [en]  [w]  right 

The  I  Petition  |  Of  The  |  Jewes  |  For  the  Repeahng  of  the  Act  of  | 
ParUament  for  their  banishment  |  out  of  England.] 
Presented  to  his  Excellency  and  the  |  general!  Councell  of  Officers 
on  I  Fry  day   Jan.    5.    1648.  |  With   their  favourable    acceptance 
thereof.  \ 

Also  a  Petition  of  divers  Comman- 1  manders,  (sic)  prisoners  in 
the  Kings  I  Bench,  for  the  releasing  of  all  pri-  |  soners  for  Debt, 
according  to  |  the  Custome  of  other  |  Countries.  | 
London,  Printed  for  George  Roberts,  1649.  | 

{4to.1L +6  pp.)  [I.S.] 

sig.  A. 2.  "  To  the  Right  Honourable,  Thomas  Lord  Fairfax, 
(His  Excellency)  Englanes  (sic)  Generall,  And  The  Honour- 
able Councel  of  Warre,  Conveaned  for  Gods  Glory,  Izraells 
Freedom,  Peace,  and  Safety,  The  humble  Petition  of  Johanna 
Cartenright,  Widdow,  and  Ebenezer  Cartwright  her  Son, 
freeborn  of  England,  and  now  Inhabitants  of  the  City  of 
Amsterdam." 
sig.  A. 3.  "  This  Petition  was  presented  to  the  generall  Councell  of 
the  Officers  of  the  Army,  under  the  Command  of  his  Excellency, 
Thomas  Lord  Fairfax,  at  Whitehall  on  Ian.  5.  And  favour- 
ably received  with  a  promise  to  take  it  into  speedy  consideration, 
when  the  present  more  publike  affaires  are  dispatched.*''^ 


XXX 

"The  Messiah  Already  Come,"  by  John  Harrison 

The  I  Messiah  |  Already  Come.  |  .  .  . 

Written  in  Barbaric,  in  the  yeare  1610,  and  for  that  cause 
directed  |  to  the  dispersed  lewes  of  that  Countrie,  and  in  them 
to  all  others  now  groaning  under  the  heauy  |  yoake  of  this  their 
long  and  intoUerable  captivitie,  which  yet  one  day  shall  have  an 
end  :  .  .  . 

Amsterdam,  |  Imprinted  by  Giles  Thorp.  Anno  M.DC,xix.  | 
(4^.5//. +68 /)/>.)  [B.  M.] 

sig.  A3. — To  The  High  And  Mighty  Prince  Frederick  King  of 
Bohemia,   &c.  .  .  .  This   Treatise  was  published  seven  yeares 

^  American  Elements  in  the  Re-settlement.  By  Lucien  Wolf.  (Trans- 
actions of  the  Jewish  Historical  Society  of  England,  vol.  iii.  i8g6-8.  .  .  . 
London,  .  .  .  1899.  .  .  .  p.  87.) 


APPENDICES  211 

agoe    and    Printed  in   the   Low    Countries.  .  .  .  Your    Ma**®^ 
most  humble  devoted  seruant  lohn  Harrison.^ 


XXXI 

"  Discourse  of  Mr.  John  Dury  to  Mr.  Thorowgood— Jewes  in 
America,"  by  Tho.  Thorowgood— "Americans  no  Jews,"  by 
Hamon  l'Estrange 

An  Epistolicall  Discourse  Of  Mr.  lohn  Dury,  To  Mr.  Thorowgood. 
Concerning  his  conjecture  that  the  Americans  are  descended  from 
the  IsraeHtes.  With  the  History  of  a  Portugall  lew,  Antonie 
Monterinos,  {sic)  attested  by  Manasseh  Ben  Israel,  to  the  same 
effect.  .  .  .  Your  faithfull  friend  and  fellow-labourer  in  the  Gospel 
of  Christ.    J.  Dury,  St.  lames,  this  27  Ian.  1649. 

(sig.  D-E,  in  fours.)  50. 

This  will  be  found  in  the  preliminary  leaves  of  : — 
levves  in  America,  |  Or,  |  Probabilities  |  That  the  Americans  are 
of  I  that  Race.  1 2 

"  The  Epistle  to  the  Reader  "  is  dated  Mar.  30.  1651. 
With  the  removall  of  some  |  contrary  reasonings,  and  earnest 
de- 1  sires  for  effectuall  endeavours  to  |  make  them  Christian.  | 
Proposed  by  Tho  :  Thorowgood,  B.D.  one  of  the  |  Assembly  of 
Divines.  |  .  .  . 

London,  Printed  by  W.  H.  for  Tho.  Slater,  and  are  to  be  sold  |  at 
his  shop  at  the  signe  of  the  Angel  in  Duck  lane,  1650.  | 
{4to.    22  II.  +139  PP-)  [I.  s.] 

The  Imprimatur  signed  lohn  Downame  is  dated  Septem.  4.  1649. 
pp.  i29-(i39)  contain  "  The  Relation  of  Master  Antonie  Mon- 
terinos,   {sic)   translated  out  of  the  French  Copie  sent  by 
Manasseh  Ben  Israel.  ...  J.  Dvry  Received  this  at  London, 
27  of  Novem.  1649." 

This  was  the  affidavit  of  Montezinos,  superscribed  by  Manasseh 
Ben  Israel,  sent  to  John  Dury  at  his  particular  request. 

1  It  appeared  again  under  the  following  title  : — 
A  Vindication  Of  The  Holy  Scriptures.  .  .  . 

By  that  Learned,  and  late  Eminent  Divine  John  Harrison. 

London  .  .  .   1656. 

(i2mo.   11  II. -\- 1 50  pp. -{- 1  I.)  [i.  s.] 

2  A  reply  was  made  to  this  tract  : — 

Americans  no  lewes,   ]  Or  |  Improbabilities  that  the  |  Americans  are  of 

that  race  |  •  .  . 

By  Hamon  l'Estrange,  K*.  | 

London,  |  Printed  by  W.  W.  for  Henry  Seile  over  against  |  St.  Dunstans 

Church  in  Fleetstreet.   1652.  | 

(4/0.     2ll.^%opp.)  [I.  s.] 


212  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 


XXXII 

"Whether  it  be  Lawful  to  Admit  Jews  into  a  Christian 
Commonwealth,"  by  John  Dury 

A  I  Case  |  Of  |  Conscience,  |  Whether  it  be  lawful  to  admit  Jews  \ 
into  a  Christian  Common-wealth  ?  | 

Resolved  By  |  M'  John  Dury :  |  Written   To  |  Samuel   Hartlih, 
Esquire.  | 

London,  |  Printed  for  Richard  Wodenothe,  in  Leaden-Hall  street,  | 
next  to  the  Golden  Heart,  1656.  | 

(4to.     il.+gpp.)  [I.  s.] 

p.  9 :   ".  .  .  Sir  !    Your  most  affectionate  and  faithful  servant 

.  .  .  John  Dury.    Cassell,  in  haste,  Januarie  8  1656."^ 


XXXIII 

"Life  and  Death  of  Henry  Jessey" 

The  I  Life  and  Death  |  of  |  Mr.  Henry  Jessey,  |  Late  Preacher  of 
the  Gospel  of  |  Christ  in  London  ;  |  Who,  having  finished  his 
Testimony,  was  |  Translated  the  ^th  day  of  September,  1663.  | 
Written  for  the  benefit  of  all,  especially  such  as  |  were  acquainted 
with  his  godly  conversation,  |  and  Pertakers  of  his  unwearied 
Labours  in  |  the  Lord.| 

With  an  Elegy  upon  the  Death  of  Mr.  |  William  Bridg.  |  .  .  . 
Anno  Domini  1671.  | 

(8°.  ^ll.-\-'LoSpp.)  [b.  M.] 

The  author  is  unknown,  but  page  97  bears  the  initials  **  E.  W." 

p.  ^7  :     "  Towards  the  Jews  his  Charity  was  famous  beyond 

President  and  many  ways  exprest,  .  .  ." 
p.  69  :  **  3.  His  Charity  was  most  eminently  shewn  to  them  in  the 
great  Collections,  which  through  his  importunity  was  made 
for  the  poor  Jews  at  Jerusalem,  who  were  reduced  to  extream 
poverty  and  misery  ;  having  lost,  by  reason  of  the  Swedish 
Navies  Wars,  15000000  of  Rix  Dollers ;  which  their 
brethren  of  Hungary,  Poland,  Lithuania,  and  Prussia,  were 
wont  to  send  them  yearly,  for  the  maintenance  of  learned 
Rabbies  and  Students,  and  for  the  relief  of  antient  Widows 
and  decripid  men,  and  other  necessitous  people,  with  which 
the  Holy-Land  doth  abound  ;  who  (as  we  said)  by  cutting 
off  their  subsist ance  were  brought   (in  1657)   into  great 

*  John  Dury  and  the  English  Jewry.  By  the  Rev.  S.  Levy,  m.a. 
(Transactions  of  the  Jewish  liistorical  Society  of  England,  vol.  iv.  1899- 
190X.  .  .  .  London.  .  .  .  1903.  .  .  .  pp.  76-82.) 


APPENDICES  213 

extremity,  not  only  of  Famine  and  nakednesse  (that  of 
700  Widows,  400  were  famished  out-right)  but  also  by  the 
imprisonment  and  scourgings  of  their  Elders  and  Rabbyes, 
by  their  cruell  Creditors,  being  the  principal  men  of  the  Land 
to  whom  the  Jews  were  indebted  20000  Rialls  of  Eight, 
which  if  the  Ryall  be  4  s.  8^.  a  piece,  it  is  4666/.  13s.  4^.  for 
the  liberty  of  dwelling  there,  etc.  which  they  extorted  with 
great  rigor  and  exaction,  resolving  to  sell  them  all  for  slaves, 
in  case  payment  was  not  speedily  made." 

p.  70:  "This  befel  the  onely  then  Germane  Jews  at 
Jerusalem,  for  the  Congregation  of  Portugal  Jews  were 
relieved  by  the  Alms  of  their  Rich  Brethren  in  Portugal." 

p.  70:  "4.  The  only  Anchor  the  miserable  Wretched  and 
distressed  Persons  had,  was  to  Implore  succour  from  their 
Brethren  in  other  parts,  to  which  end  they  sent  Letters  to 
Venice,  Amsterdam,  and  by  Rahbie  Nathan  Levita,  an  Elder, 
and  Cabalist :  But  all  they  got  from  them  served  only  for 
payment  of  Interest  of  Debts :  so  that  they  had  still  perished, 
if  the  bowels  of  Christians  in  Holland,  had  not  compassion- 
ated their  State,  who  sent  them  500.  Rix  Dollars,  and  by 
Letters  did  earnestly  press  Mr.  H.  J.  to  further  a  Collection 
in  England. 

"  To  which  he  made  some  demurs  till  he  obtained  full 
satisfaction  of  the  truth  of  the  Relation,  and  certainty  of 
safe  conveyance  of  the  money  that  Charity  might  not  be 
abused  ;  for  the  first,  the  Messengers  from  Jerusalem  brought 
Commissions  signed  by  their  Elders,  which  Commissions 
were  sent  to  the  Synagogues  in  Germany,  and  in  the  Nether- 
lands to  be  examined ;  who  assured  that  they  knew  the 
hands,  and  that  those  men  would  not  subscribe  to  an  un- 
truth, and  that  they  themselves  had  contributed  upon  the 
same  Information. 

"  And  as  for  Conveyance,  two  Noted  Merchants  of 
Francford,  would  return  the  mony,  and  give  Bond  for  so 
much ;  till  they  procure  a  Receipt  from  the  Elders  of 
Jerusalem,  as  they  had  done  for  the  above  named  summe  of 
500.  Rix  Dollars ;  and  had  a  Letter  returned  from  Jerusalem 
to  the  Charitable  Christians  of  Amsterdam,  both  in  way  of 
Receipt  and  Gratitude  with  Original  Hebrew  Letter  with  the 
Messengers,  Commissioners,  and  other  necessar}?'  Instructions 
being  sent  to  Mr.  Jessey,  removed  all  scruples,  so  that  im- 
mediatly  informed  divers  London  Ministers,  by  whose 
assistance,  together  with  his  own  private  Friends  and 
Interest,  the  some  of  300/.  Sterling  was  in  short  time 
gathered  and  sent,  and  a  Bill  of  Receipt,  with  thankfulness 
returned  :  some  of  it  being  also  sent  to  distressed  lews  at 
Vilna  and  other  places  in  Po/awt^. " 


214  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

p,  6y :  "  When  their  hberty  of  returning  and  trading  in 
England  (as  they  did  in  Germany,  Poland,  Russia,  Portugal, 
Netherlands  etc.)  was  moved,  disputed  and  debated  for  and 
against ;  He  laboured  that  it  might  be  granted,  with  such 
Umitations,  (as  our  Merchants  yielded  unto,  viz)  that  they 
should  be  seated  in  some  decayed  Port  Towns,  and  pay 
Custome  for  Goods,  thence  transported  into  other  parts  of 
the  Nation,  besides  what  they  should  pay  there  for  exporting 
English,  and  importing  forreign  Commodities  :  such  a  toller- 
ating  of  their  trade  might  not  onely  be  beneficial  several  ways 
to  our  selves,  but  be  some  satisfaction  for  the  unhandsome 
dealings  of  our  Nation  against  that  people  in  the  days  of 
King  Rich.  I.  King  John  and  Edward  the  first,  for  the  space 
of  100  years  till  their  final  Banishment,  An.  Dom.  1290.  with 
those  circumstances  of  cruelty,  that  our  own  Histories  do 
not  seem  to  approve  of  ;  .  .  ." 


XXXIV 

"The  Glory  of  Jehudah  and  Israel— De  Heerlichkeydt  .  . 

VAN  JEHUDA  EN   ISRAEL,"   BY   HENRY  JESSE. 

The  Glory  of  Jehudah  and  Israel  is  referred  to  in  the  concluding 
paragraph  of  "  The  Humble  Addresses/' 

Manasseh  Ben  Israel  writes  : — 

"...  Now,  having  prooved  the  two  former  Points,  I  could 
adde  a  third,  viz.  of  the  Nobility  of  the  lewes :  but  because  that 
Point  is  enough  known  amongst  all  Christians,  as  lately  yet  it 
hath  bene  most  worthily  and  excellently  shewed  and  described 
in  a  certain  Booke,  called.  The  Glory  of  lehudah  and  Israel, 
dedicated  to  our  Nation  by  that  worthy  Christian  Minister  Mr. 
Henry  lessey,  (1653.  in  Dutch)  where  this  matter  is  set  out  at 
large :  .  .  ." 

"The  Life  and  Death  Of  M""  Henry  Jessey,"  page  79: 
"...  Mr.  H.  J.  seconded  his  Almes  with  divers  Consolatory 
Letters  to  the  dispersed  seed  of  Jacob,  having  before  in  1650. 
wrote  a  compleat  Treatise  yet  extant,  and  called  (the  glory  & 
Salvation  of  Jehudah,  and  Israel)  tending  towards  the  reconcilia- 
tion of  Jews  and  Christians,  .  .  ." 

J.  C.  Wolf,  in  his  Bihliothecce  Hehrceae,  1733,  vol.  iv.,  p.  901, 
in  his  biography  of  Manasseh  Ben  Israel,  incidentally  refers  to 
"  De  HeerUckheid  en  heyl  van  Jehuda  en  Israel  "  written  in 
Flemish  (Belgice)  by  Henr.  Jesse. 

It  is  apparently  very  rare,  the  only  copy  that  has  been  traced 
is  mentioned  in  "  Catalogue  De  La  BibUotheque  de  literature 


APPENDICES  215 

hebraique  et  orient  ale  et  d'Auteurs  hebreux  De  Feu  M^  Leon  V. 
Saraval  Trieste  .  .  .  1853. "^  [i.  s.] 

N°.  619  "  Jesse  Henry  de  Heerlichkeydt  en  Heyl  van  Jehuda 

en  Israel  (en  langue  flamande,  traduit  de  Tanglais.)    Amst. 

1653  in  8°  .  .  .  tres-rare.  ..." 


XXXV 

Of  the  Late  Proceeds  at  White-Hall,  concerning 
THE  Jews  [Henry  Jesse] 

A  I  Narrative  |  Of  the  late  Proceeds  at  |  White-Hall,  |  Concerning 
The  I  Jews :  |  Who  had  desired  by  R.  Manasses  \  an  agent  for  them, 
that  they  might  return  to  |  England,  and  Worship  the  God  of 
their  Fa- 1  thers  here  in  their  Synagogues,  etc.  | 
Published  for  satisfaction  to  many  in  several  parts  of  Eng-  \  land, 
that  are  desirous,  and  inquisitive  to  hear  the  |  Truth  thereof. 
London  :  |  Printed  for  L:  Chapman,  at  the  Crown  in  Popes- 
head- Alley.    1656. 1 
(4to.  I  I +14 pp.)^  [I.  s.] 

p,  II  :  "Here  followeth  part  of  a  Letter  written  at  Ligorn,  1652. 

and  sent  by  the  Preacher  in  the  Phoenix  Frigot,  to  a  friend  in 

London. 
Ligorn,  aboard  the  Phoenix,  19  of  the  1,  1652. 
Dear  Brethren  :  .  .  ." 
p.  12'.  k  Postscript,  To  fill  up  the  following  Pages,  that  else 

had  been  vacant  :  Containing, 

1  The  Proposals  of  R.  Manasses  ben  Israel,  more  fully. 

2  Part  of  his  Letter  written  Anno  1647. 

3  The  late  progress  of   the   Gospel    amongst  the  Indians  in 
New-England. 

A  translation  appeared  in : — 
Neue  Schwarmgeister=Brut  Oder  Historische  Erzehlung  .  .  . 
IV.  Die  Wieder^^Einnehmung  der  Juden  in  Engeland 
v  Die  Bekehrung  der  Indianer  in  New=  Engeland  .  .  . 
Gedrukkt  im  Jahr  1661.  pp.  189-223. 
(8°.    24II.  +223  pp. +1 1.)  [I.  s.] 

^  In  1853  the  Saraval  library  was  purchased  for  the  Breslau  seminary. 

2  A  translation  appeared  in  : — 
Neue  Schwarmgeister  =Brut  Oder  Historische  Erzehlung.  .  .  . 

IV.  Die  Wicder  =Einnehmung  der  Juden  in  Engeland 

V.  Die  Bekehrung  der  Indianer  in  New  =  Engeland  .  .  . 
Gedrukkt  im  Jahr  1661.  pp.  189-223. 

(8°.  2^ll.+223Pp.-\-il.)  [I.  s.] 


21b  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

XXXVI 

Bishop  Thomas  Newton  and  the  Restoration  of  Israel 

"  The  preservation  of  the  Jews  is  really  one  of  the  most  signal 
and  illustrious  acts  of  divine  Providence.  They  are  dispersed 
among  all  nations,  and  yet  they  are  not  confounded  with  any. 
The  drops  of  rain  which  fall,  nay  the  great  rivers  which  flow  into 
the  ocean,  are  soon  mingled  and  lost  in  that  immense  body  of 
waters  :  and  the  same  in  all  human  probability  would  have  been 
the  fate  of  the  Jews,  they  would  have  been  mingled  and  lost  in 
the  common  mass  of  mankind  ;  but,  on  the  contrary  they  flow 
into  all  parts  of  the  world,  mix  with  all  nations,  and  yet  keep 
separate  from  all.  They  still  live  as  a  distinct  people,  and  yet 
they  no  where  live  according  to  their  own  laws,  no  where  elect 
their  own  magistrates,  no  where  enjoy  the  full  exercise  of  their 
religion.  ...  No  people  have  continued  unmixed  so  long  as  they 
have  done,  not  only  of  those  who  have  sent  forth  colonies  into 
foreign  countries,  but  even  of  those  who  have  abided  in  their  own 
country.  The  northern  nations  have  come  in  swarms  into  the 
more  southern  parts  of  Europe  ;  but  where  are  they  now  to  be 
discerned  and  distinguished  ?  The  Gauls  went  forth  in  great 
bodies  to  seek  their  fortune  in  foreign  parts  ;  but  what  traces  or 
footsteps  of  them  are  now  remaining  any  where  ?  In  France 
who  can  separate  the  race  of  the  ancient  Gauls  from  the  various 
other  people,  who  from  time  to  time  have  settled  there  ?  In 
Spain  who  can  distinguish  exactly  between  the  first  possessors 
the  Spaniards,  and  the  Goths,  and  the  Moors,  who  conquered  and 
kept  possession  of  the  country  for  some  ages  ?  In  England  who 
can  pretend  to  say  with  certainty  which  families  are  derived  from 
the  ancient  Britons,  and  which  from  the  Romans,  or  Saxons,  or 
Danes,  or  Normans  ?  The  most  ancient  and  honorable  pedigrees 
can  be  traced  up  only  to  a  certain  period,  and  beyond  that  there 
is  nothing  but  conjecture  and  uncertainty,  obscurity  and  ignor- 
ance :  but  the  Jews  can  go  up  higher  than  any  other  nation, 
they  can  even  deduce  their  pedigree  from  the  beginning  of  the 
world.  They  may  not  know  from  what  particular  tribe  or  family 
they  are  descended,  but  they  know  certainly  that  they  all  sprung 
from  the  stock  of  Abraham.  And  yet  the  contempt  with  which 
they  have  been  treated,  and  the  hardships  which  they  have  under- 
gone in  almost  all  countries,  should  one  would  think,  have  made 
them  desirous  to  forget  or  renounce  their  original ;  but  they 
profess  it,  Ihey  glory  in  it  :  and  after  so  many  wars,  massacres, 
and  persecutions,  they  still  subsist,  they  still  are  very  numerous  : 
and  what  but  a  sujxjrnatural  power  could  have  preserved  them 
in  such  a  manner  as  none  other  nation  upon  earth  hath  been 
preserved  ? 

"  Nor  is  the  providence  of  God  less  remarkable  in  the  destruc- 


APPENDICES  217 

tion  of  their  enemies,  than  in  their  preservation.  For  from  the 
beginning  who  have  been  the  great  enemies  and  oppressors  of  the 
Jewish  Nation,  removed  them  from  their  own  land,  and  com- 
pelled them  into  captivity  and  slavery  ?  The  Egyptians  afflicted 
them  much,  and  detained  them  in  bondage  several  years.  The 
Assyrians  carried  away  captive  the  ten  tribes  of  Israel,  and  the 
Babylonians  afterwards  the  two  remaining  tribes  of  Judah  and 
Benjamin.  The  Syro-Macedonians,  especially  Antiochus  Epi- 
phanes,  cruelly  persecuted  them  :  and  the  Romans  utterly  dis- 
solved the  Jewish  state,  and  dispersed  the  people  so  as  they  have 
never  been  able  to  recover  their  city  and  country  again.  And 
where  are  now  these  great  and  famous  monarchies,  which  in  their 
turns  subdued  and  oppressed  the  people  of  God  ?  Are  they  not 
vanished  as  a  dream,  and  not  only  their  power,  but  their  very 
names,  lost  in  the  earth  ?  The  Egyptians,  Assyrians,  and 
Babylonians,  were  overthrown,  and  entirety  subjugated  by  the 
Persians  ;  and  the  Persians  (it  is  remarkable)  were  the  restorers 
of  the  Jews,  as  well  as  the  destroyers  of  their  enemies.  The  Syro- 
Macedonians  were  swallowed  up  by  the  Romans  :  and  the 
Roman  empire,  great  and  powerful  as  it  was,  was  broken  in 
pieces  by  the  incursions  of  the  northern  nations  ;  while  the  Jews 
are  subsisting  as  a  distinct  people  to  this  day."^ 


XXXVII 

"A  Call  to  the  Christians  and  the  Hebrews" 

"  You  are  at  length  to  be  restored  to  the  land  of  your  fore- 
fathers, where,  after  ages  of  dispersion  and  suffering,  you  will  find 
rest  and  enjoyment  ;  and  will  restore,  surpass  and  enjoy,  for  ever, 
aU  that  you  have  ever  known,  or  conceived  of  happiness  and 
glory.  ...  Ye  have  sown  in  tears,  ye  shall  reap  in  joy."  (Psalm 
cxxvi,  5.) 

"  They  who  deny  that  you  will  be  restored  and  re-established 
in  your  ancient  inheritance,  may  better  deny  that  you  are  dis- 
persed ;  for  as  certainly  as  the  prophecies  of  your  dispersion  and 
preservation  have  been  verified,  so  shall  the  numerous  prophecies 
of  your  restoration  be  realized  and  fulfilled." 

"  Will  the  British  who  preside  over  the  Atlantic,  Mediterranean 
and  Indian  Seas  assume  the  glorious  enterprise,  and  conduct 
the  Hebrews  from  Tarshish  and  the  various  coasts  of  their 
dispersion  ? 

"  This  island  has  given  birth  to  the  Bible  Society,  through 
whose  labours  the  glorious  work  has  been  undertaken  and 
sustained  of  circulating  the  sacred  scriptures,  among  the  various 
nations  of  the  earth  in  the  respective  languages. 

^  Dissertations  on  the  Prophecies  .  .  .  By  Thomas  Newton,  D.D.,  .  .  .  vol.  i., 
London  .  .  .  mdccliv.     pp.  216-219. 


2i8  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  From  this  isle  of  ancient  fame,  the  Hindoos  and  the  lone 
isles  of  the  Pacific  and  Atlantic  Seas,  again  receive  their  Vedas 
and  sacred  scrolls. 

"  The  uplifted  shell  sounded  from  this  Arctic  isle,  will  gain  the 
ear  of  the  wakeful  Spirits  of  peace  within  it,  and  upon  either 
Continent  ;  of  those  watchers  of  the  world,  who  listen  to  gather 
and  transmit  to  all  kindred  and  nations,  the  grateful  sounds 
fraught  with  good  tidings,  which  ascend  ever  and  anon,  as  the 
all-presiding  God  calls  them  forth  from  some  one  of  his  train  on 
Earth.'i  

XXXVIII 

The  Centenary  of  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society 

Those  who  wish  to  read  the  full  record  of  the  Society's  work 
can  do  so  in  the  two  delightful  volumes  of  Mr.  WilHam 
Canton.  In  his  History  of  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible 
Society  (London,  Murray,  1904)  he  tells,  in  fine  style,  the 
story  of  the  first  half-century  of  the  Society's  career.  When 
the  Society  began  its  work,  that  is  to  say  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  nineteenth  century,  "  all  the  Bibles  in  the  world 
in  all  languages  and  in  every  land,  printed  or  in  MSS.,  did 
not  greatly  exceed  4,000,000  copies,  and  of  the  forty  or  fifty 
languages  into  which  the  Scriptures  have  been  translated, 
several,  like  the  Anglo-Saxon  of  Bede  and  the  Mseso-Gothic  of 
Ulfilas,  were  extinct  tongues."  But  now  how  stands  the  matter  ? 
"  Under  its  auspices  and  mainly  at  its  charges,  scholars  have 
been  employed  in  translating  the  Scriptures  into  over  300 
languages,  including  all  the  great  vernaculars  of  the  world. 
Neither  expense  nor  labour  has  been  spared  in  making  these 
versions  as  perfect  as  possible  ;  and  when  completed  they  have 
been  printed,  and  thus  placed  within  the  reach  of  the  poorest 
of  those  for  whom  they  were  intended.  In  100  years  over 
180,000,000  copies  of  the  scriptures,  complete  or  in  part,  have 
been  issued  by  the  Society  ;  and  at  the  present  time  more  than 
6,000,000  copies  per  annum  are  being  put  into  circulation." 

The  well-known  scholar,  Dr.  Israel  Abrahams,  after  quoting 
this  passage  in  the  Jewish  Chronicle,  March  4th,  1904,  rightly 
remarks  :  ".  .  .  the  Society  is  doing  a  noble  work,  with  much  of 
which  Jews  must  completely  sympathise.  With  some  of  its 
work  we  do  not  sympathise ;  but  this  reservation  does  not 
prevent  us  from  offering  cordial  congratulations  to  the  Society 
on  its  centenary,  ..."  This  is  our  point  of  view  with  regard  to 
non- Jewish  activities  on  behalf  of  Zionism,  as  well  as  on  behalf  of 
the  Bible. 

*  A  Call  to  the  Christians  and  the  Hebrews.  By  Theaetetus.  .  .  .  London 
MDCCcxix.     8°.  1 1.  +  35  pp.  [B.  M.]  pp.  16-17,  33-34- 


APPENDICES  219 

XXXIX 

Lord  Kitchener  and  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund 

Dr.  Samuel  Daiches  read  a  paper  on  the  7th  February,  1915, 
to  the  Jews'  College  Union  Society  about  Lord  Kitchener's 
work  in  Palestine.  Sir  Edward  Pears,  who  is  a  member  of  the 
Council  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  presided.  Dr. 
Daiches  pointed  out  that  there  was  an  early  period  in  Lord 
Kitchener's  life  which  provided  him  with  work  in  which  he 
developed  his  great  capacities — the  period  of  his  work  in 
Palestine — nearly  forty  years  ago,  when  he  was  engaged  for  four 
years  (from  1874  to  1878)  in  exploration  work  in  the  Holy  Land. 
He  first  took  up  the  work  (at  the  age  of  twenty-four)  as  second- 
in-command  under  Lieutenant  Conder,  and  later,  owing  to  the 
ill-health  of  Conder,  took  command  of  the  survey  party  of  the 
Palestine  Exploration  Fund.  The  lecturer  made  it  clear  that  the 
real  underljdng  motive  which  induced  Lord  Kitchener  to  take  up 
this  work  was  a  love  for  the  Bible  and  the  land  of  the  Bible. 
Kitchener  left  for  Palestine  in  command  of  the  Survey  in  January, 
1877.  By  "the  beginning  of  July  the  survey  of  Galilee  was  com- 
pleted, 1000  square  miles  having  been  added  to  the  map.  Four 
weeks  later  he  went  with  a  reduced  party  to  the  south  country 
and  surveyed  340  square  miles  in  the  desert  around  Beer  Sheba. 
The  survey  of  the  whole  of  Western  Palestine  was  thus  completed. 
Then  the  revision  work  was  done.  In  January,  1878,  Kitchener 
was  back  in  England,  and  after  a  short  leave  he  joined  Conder  at 
the  South  Kensington  Museum,  and  arranged  and  wrote  the 
Memoirs  for  the  sheets  of  the  map  executed  by  himself.  In 
September  he  formally  handed  over  to  the  Committee  the  whole 
of  the  Maps  and  Memoirs  complete.  As  a  result  of  the  work  of 
Conder  and  Kitchener  we  now  have  the  large  map  of  Western 
Palestine  in  twenty-six  sheets,  three  volumes  of  Memoirs  on  the 
topography,  orthography,  hydrography  and  archaeology,  and  the 
volume  of  Arabic  and  English  name  lists.  A  volume  of  Special 
Papers  (vol.  v.  of  the  series)  contains  contributions  from  Conder 
and  Kitchener.  Kitchener's  contributions  concerning  the 
ancient  Synagogues  in  Galilee  are  very  valuable,  and  his  reports 
show  a  sympathetic  understanding  of  Jewish  traditions  in 
Palestine.  1 

^  Lord  Kitchener  and  his  work  in  Palestine.     By  Dr.  Samuel  Daiches. 
London  .  ,  .  1915.     (8°.  88  p^.) 


220  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

XL 

Bonaparte's  Call  to  the  Jews  (1799) 

Gazette  Nationale  ou  Le  Moniteur  Universel. 

No.  243.    Tridi,  3  prairial  an  7  de  la  repuhlique  frangaise  une  et 
indivisible. 

[Page]  987.  Politique.    Turquie.    Constantinople,  le  28  germinal. 

"  Bonaparte  a  fait  publier  une  proclamation,  dans  laquelle 
il  invite  tons  les  juifs  de  I'Asie  et  de  TAfrique  a  venir  se  ranger 
sous  ses  drapeaux  pour  retablir  I'ancienne  Jerusalem.  II  en  a 
deja  arme  un  grand  nombre,  et  leurs  bataillons  menacent  Alep." 
No.  279.    Nonidi,  9  messidor  etc. 

[Pages]  1136-1137.     De  la  conquete  probable  de-V empire  ottoman 
par  Bonaparte. 

"...  Attendons  la  confirmation  de  ces  heureuses  nouvelles.  Si 
elles  sont  prematurees,  nous  aimons  a  croire  qu'elles  se  realiser- 
ont  un  jour.  Ce  n'est  pas  seulement  pour  rendre  aux  juifs  leur 
Jerusalem  que  Bonaparte  a  conquis  la  Syrie ;    .  .  ."     (David.) 


XLI 

[A  Zionist]  Letter,  addressed  by  a  [French]  Jew  to  his 

CO-RELIGIONISTS   IN    1798 

"  Brothers, 

"  You  who  have  groaned  for  so  many  ages  under  the 
weight  of  the  cruelest  persecutions,  do  you  not  wish  to  burst 
from  the  state  of  degrading  humiliation  in  which  intolerant  and 
barbarous  religions  have  placed  you  ?  Contempt  accompanies 
us  everywhere.  Our  sufferings  are  unpitied  and  despised.  The 
unshaken  constancy  with  which  we  have  preserved  the  faith  of 
our  ancestors,  far  from  procuring  for  us  the  admiration  due  to 
such  a  conduct,  has  only  increased  the  unjust  hatred  which  all 
nations  bear  towards  us.  It  is  only  by  affecting  the  exterior  of 
baseness  and  misery,  that  we  are  enabled  to  secure  our  property 
and  preserve  our  unhappy  existence.  It  is  at  least  time  to 
shake  off  this  insupportable  yoke — it  is  time  to  resume  our  rank 
among  the  other  nations  of  the  universe.  Vile  robbers  possess 
that  sacred  land  which  our  ancestors  were  compelled  to  yield  to 
the  Romans.  They  profane  the  holy  City  which  we  defended 
with  so  much  courage.  Posterity  has  preserved  a  dreadful 
remembrance  of  the  struggle — we,  surely,  have  not  forgotten  it. 
That  courage  has  only  slumbered:    the  hour  to  awaken  it  is 


APPENDICES  221 

arrived.  O  my  brethren !  let  us  rebuild  the  temple  of 
Jerusalem  ! 

"  An  invincible  nation,  which  now  fills  the  world  with  her 
glory,  has  shewn  us  what  the  love  of  country  can  perform.  Let 
us  implore  her  generosity — request  her  assistance  ;  and  we  may 
be  assured  that  the  philosophy  which  guides  the  chiefs  of  that 
nation,  will  induce  them  to  give  our  demand  a  favourable 
reception. 

"  We  are  more  than  six  millions  of  people  scattered  over  the 
face  of  the  earth  ;  we  possess  immense  riches  :  let  us  employ  the 
means  that  are  in  our  power  to  restore  us  to  our  country.  The 
moment  is  propitious,  and  to  profit  by  it,  is  our  duty.  The  follow- 
ing are  the  means  best  suited  for  carrying  this  holy  enterprize 
into  execution : — There  shall  be  estabhshed  a  Council,  the 
members  of  which  shall  be  elected  by  the  Jews,  who  are  spread 
over  Europe,  Asia,  and  Africa. 

[Here  the  writer  divides  the  Jews  into  the  15  following 
tribes,  viz.  The  Italian,  Helvetic,  Hungarian,  PoUsh,  Russian, 
Northern,  British,  Spanish,  Gallic,  Dutch,  Prussian,  German, 
Turkish,  Asiatic,  and  African.  These  the  author  proposes  shall 
each  form  a  body  of  electors  in  the  capitals  of  the  respective 
districts  ;  and  then  he  proceeds.] 

"  The  fifteen  deputies  of  these  tribes  shall  form  the  Council, 
which  shall  hold  its  sittings  at  Paris.  When  they  shall  have 
assembled  to  the  number  of  nine,  they  may  begin  to  deliberate 
on  the  object  of  their  mission.  Their  decisions  will  have  with 
all  the  Jews  the  force  of  laws  ;  they  shall  be  obliged  to  submit 
to  them.  The  Council  shall  appoint  an  agent,  to  communicate 
to  the  Executive  Directory  of  France  the  propositions  which  it 
may  think  proper  to  make  to  the  French  government." 

"  The  country  we  propose  to  occupy  shall  include  (liable  to 
such  arrangements  as  shall  be  agreeable  to  France)  Lower  Egypt, 
with  the  addition  of  a  district  of  country,  which  shall  have  for  its 
limits  a  line  running  from  Ptomelais  or  Saint  John  D'Acre,  to  the 
Asphaltic  Lake,  or  Dead  Sea,  and  from  the  South  point  of  that 
Lake  to  the  Red  Sea.  This  position,  which  is  the  most  advan- 
tageous in  the  world,  will  render  us,  by  the  navigation  of  the  Red 
Sea,  masters  of  the  commerce  of  India,  Arabia  and  the  South 
and  East  of  Africa  ;  Abyssinia,  and  Ethiopia,  those  rich  countries 
which  furnished  Solomon  with  so  much  gold  and  ivory  and  so 
many  precious  stones,  will  trade  the  more  willingly  with  us,  that 
the  greater  part  of  their  inhabitants  still  practise  the  law  of 
Moses.  The  neighbourhood  of  Aleppo  and  Damascus  will  facili- 
tate our  commerce  with  Persia ;  and  by  the  Mediterranean  we 
may  communicate  with  Spain,  France,  Italy,  and  the  rest  of 
Europe.  Placed  in  the  centre  of  the  world,  our  country  will 
become  the  entrepot  of  all  the  rich  and  precious  productions  of  the 
earth. 


222  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  The  Council  shall  offer  to  the  French  government,  if  it  will 
give  us  the  assistance  necessary  to  enable  us  to  return  to  our 
country,  and  to  maintain  ourselves  in  the  possession  of  it, 

"  I.  Every  pecuniary  indemnification. 
2.  To  share  the  commerce  of  India,  &c.  with  the'merchants 
of  France  only. 

**  The  other  arrangements,  and  the  propositions  to  be  made  to 
the  Ottoman  Porte,  cannot  yet  be  rendered  public  :  we  must,  in 
these  matters,  repose  on  the  wisdom  of  the  Council,  and  the  good 
faith  of  the  French  nation.  Let  us  choose  upright  and  enlight- 
ened deputies,  and  we  may  have  confidence  in  the  success  of  this 
undertaking. 

"01  my  brethren  I  what  sacrifices  ought  we  not  to  make  to 
obtain  this  object  ?  We  shall  return  to  our  country — we  shall 
live  under  our  own  laws — ^we  shall  behold  those  sacred  places 
which  our  ancestors  illustrated  with  their  courage  and  their 
virtues.  I  already  see  you  all  animated  with  a  holy  zeal. 
Israelites  !  the  term  of  your  misfortunes  is  at  hand.  The  oppor- 
tunity is  favourable — take  care  you  do  not  allow  it  to  escape."^ 

This  appeal — a  prototype  of  Pinsker's  Autoemancipation  and 
of  Herzl's  Judenstaat — produced  a  deep  impression,  but  since  the 
whole  expedition  proved  a  failure,  Jewish  opinion — not  on  the 
principle,  but  on  the  opportunity  and  the  means — was  divided. 


XLII 

"  Transactions  of  the  Parisian  Sanhedrim," 
BY  DiOGENE  Tama 

Transactions  Of  The  Parisian  Sanhedrim, 

Or  Acts  Of  The  Assembly  Of  Israelitish  Deputies  of  France  and 

Italy,  Convoked  At  Paris  By  An  Imperial  And  Royal  Decree, 

Dated  May  30,  1806. 

Translated  From  The  Original  Published  By  M.  Diogene  Tama, 

With  A  Preface  And  Illustrative  Notes  By  F.  D.  Kirwan,  Esq. 

London;  .  .  .  Published  by  Charles  Taylor,  Hatton  Street.  1807. 

(8°.    xvi+334^^)  [i-s.] 

1  The  Restoration  of  the  Jews  the  Crisis  of  all  Nations ; . . .  Second  Edition. 
By  J.  Bicheno,  m.a. 

London  :  .  .  .  1807 (8°.  2  //.-}- 235  PP-  [I-  S.])    pp.  60-62. 

See  Appendices  XLIII-XLVI. 


APPENDICES  223 


XLIII 

Signs  of  the  Times"— "A  Word  in  Season" — "Commotions 
Since  French  Revolution"— "History  of  Christianity"— 
"The  German  Empire" — "Fulfilment  of  Prophecy,"  by 
Rev.  James  Bicheno 

The  Signs  of  the  Times  :  .  .  .  By  J.  Bicheno  .  .  . 

London :  Printed  For  The  Author ;  And  Sold  by  Parsons,  Pater- 

noster-Row ;  Wayland,  Holborn,  London ;  and  James  and  Cottle, 

Bristol. 

Price  IS.  6d.  [1793] 

Of  whom  may  be  had  the  Author's  P>iendly  Address  to  the  Jews, 

and  a  Letter  to  Mr.  D.  Levi.    Price  is.  6d. 

(8°.   4lL^6ypp.)  [B.  M.] 

A  Word  in  Season  :  ...  To  Stand  Prepared  For  The  Con- 
sequences Of  The  Present  War  .  .  . 
By  J.  Bicheno,  .  .  .  London  .  .  .  1795. 
(8°.  2  It. +53  pp.)  [B.M.] 

The  Probable  Progress  And  Issue  Of  The  Commotions  Which 
Have  Agitated  Europe  Since  The  French  Revolution,  .  .  . 
By  J.  Bicheno  .  .  .  London  .  .  .  mdccxcvii. 
{S°.  2  11. +g4  pp.)  [B.M.] 

A  Glance  At  The  History  of  Christianity,  .  .  . 

By  James  Bicheno,  m.a.,  Newbury  .  .  .  mdccxcviii.  .  .  . 

(8°.  28  pp.)  [B.  M.] 

The  Destiny  Of  The  German  Empire  ;  .  .  . 

By  J.  Bicheno,  M.A.  .  .  .  London  :  .  .  .  1801  .... 

{S°.  2  II. +g6  pp.)  [B.  M.] 

The  Fulfilment  of  Prophecy  Farther  Illustrated  By  The  Signs  Of 

The  Times  ;  .  .  . 

By  J.  Bicheno,  m.a.  London  .  .  .  1817. 

(8°.  xvii-f  254  pp.)  [B.  M.] 


XLIV 

"  Restoration  of  the  Jews  " — "  Friendly  Address  to  the  Jews," 
by  Rev.  James  Bicheno—"  Letter  to  Mr.  Bicheno,"  by  David 
Levi 

The  Restoration  of  the  Jews,  The  Crisis  Of  All  Nations  ; 

Or,  An  Arrangement  Of  The  Scripture  Prophecies,  Which  Relate 

To  The  Restoration  Of  The  Jews,  And  To  Some  Of  The  Most 


224  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Interesting  Circumstances  Which  Are  To  Accompany  And  Dis- 
tinguish That  Important  Event ; 

With  Illustrations  And  Remarks  Drawn  From  The  Present 
Situation  And  Apparent  Tendencies  Of  Things,  Both  In  Christian 
And  Mahomedan  Countries. 

By  J.  Bicheno,  m.a.  .  .  .  London  . . .  1800.     [Price  Two  ShiUings 
And  Sixpence.] 
(S°.2ll.+iispp.)  [B.  M.] 

The  Restoration  Of  The  Jews  The  Crisis  Of  All  Nations  ; 
To  Which  Is  Now  Prefixed,  A  Brief  History  Of  The  Jews,  From 
Their  First  Dispersion,  To  The  CaUing  Of  Their  Grand  San- 
hedrim At  Paris,  October  6th,  1806. 

And  An  Address  On  The  Present  State  Of  Affairs,  In  Europe  In 
General,  And  In  This  Country  In  Particular. 
Second  Edition. 
By  J.  Bicheno,  m.a. 
London :  .  .  .  1807.     (Price  5s. — Entered  at  Stationer* s-H all.) 

(S\  2  II. +235  PP-)  [i-s.] 

He  also  wrote  : — 
A  Friendly  Address  To  The  Jews.  .  .  . 

To  Which  Is  Added,  A  Letter  To  Mr.  D.  Levi ;  Containing 
Remarks  On  His  Answer  To  Dr.  Priestley's  Letter  To  The  Jews ; 
Shewing,  That  however  his  Arguments  may  affect  the  Opinions 
of  Dr.  Priestley,  they  form  no  Objection  against  the  Christian 
Religion. 

By  J.  Bicheno,  Newbury.  London  :  .  .  . 
(8°.  vi.  pp.  +  1I.  +88  pp.)  [I.  s.] 

Which  occasioned  the  following  reply  : — 
A  Letter  To  Mr.  Bicheno,  Occasioned  By  His  Friendly  Address 
to  the  Jews,  And  A  Letter  To  Mr.  David  Levi,  Containing  Re- 
marks On  Mr.  Levi's  Answer  To  Dr.  Priestley's  First  Letters  To 
The  Jews. 

By  David  Levi,  Author  Of  Lingua  Sacra,  The  Ceremonies  Of 
The  Jews,  etc.  .  .  . 

See  pp.  127-134  in  "  Letters  To  Dr.  Priestley,  In  Answer  To  His 
Letters  To  The  Jews,  Part  II.  Occasioned  By  Mr.  David  Levi's 
Reply  to  the  Former  Part.  Also  Letters  i.  To  Dr.  Cooper,  .  .  . 
2.  To  Mr.  Bicheno,  3.  To  Dr.  Krauter,  4.  To  Mr.  Swain,  And 
5.  To  Anti-Socinus,  alias  Anselm  Bayly.  Occasioned  By  Their 
Remarks  On  Mr.  David  Levi's  Answer  To  Dr.  Priestley's  First 
Letters   To   The   Jews.      By    David    Levi,  .  .  .  London :  ... 

M,DCC,LXXXIX. 

(8^  2  II. +  159  pp.)  [I.S.] 


APPENDICES  225 


XLV 

"Attempt  to  Remove  Prejudices  Concerning  the 
Jewish  Nation,"  by  Thomas  Witherby 

An  Attempt  To  Remove  Prejudices  Concerning  The  Jewish 

Nation.    By  Way  Of  Dialogue. 

By  Thomas  Witherby.  ' 

Part  I.i 

London  :     Printed  For  The  Author,  .  .  .  1804.     {Entered  at 

Stationers-Hall.) 

(8\  XX  +511  pp.)  [I.  s.] 

XLVI 

"Observations  on  Mr.  Bicheno's  Book,"  by  Thomas  Witherby 

Dedicated  to  the  Jews. 

Observations  on  Mr.  Bicheno's  Book,  Entitled  The  Restoration 
Of  The  Jews  The  Crisis  Of  All  Nations  : 

Wherein  the  revolutionary  Tendency  of  that  Publication  is 
shewn  to  be  most  inimical  to  the  real  Interest  of  the  Jews,  who 
are  not  to  expect  the  Restoration  to  their  own  Land  until  they 
are,  by  the  free  Grace  of  the  God  of  their  Fathers,  enabled  to 
acknowledge  his  Justice,  Righteousness,  and  Mercy,  in  their  long- 
continued  Dispersion,  and  in  the  Preservation  of  their  Nation 
amidst  those  awful  Sufferings  which  they  have  endured  under 
his  righteous  Judgments. 

Together  With  An  Inquiry  Concerning  Things  To  Come ;   .  .  . 
London  :  Printed  For  The  Author  .  .  . 

(8°.  XX -1-323  ^^)  [I.S.] 

Page  iii :  (Dedicated)  "  To  The  Jews.  Distinguished  Nation. 
.  .  .  Thomas  Witherby.    Enfield,  Middlesex,  Aug.  22,  1800."' 


XLVII 

"Letters  to  the  Jews,"  by  Joseph  Priestley 

Letters  To  The  Jews  ;  Inviting  Them  To  An  Amicable  Discussion 

Of  The  Evidences  Of  Christianity. 

By  Joseph  Priestley,  ll.d.,  f.r.s.  .  .  . 

Birmingham,  .  .  .  mdcclxxxvii.    [Price  One  Shilling.] 

(8°.  2  II.  +Si  pp.  -f-i  /.    (Catalogue.)  "'  [i.  s.] 

^  The  pagination  is  consecutive,  but  Part  II  is  dated  1803. 
*  Gentleman's  Magazine,  1801,  vol.  Ixxi.,  pp.  830-836. 
II.-Q 


226  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Letters  To  The  Jews.    Part  II.    Occasioned  By  Mr.  David  Levi's 
Reply  To  The  Former  Letters. 

By     Joseph     Priestley,    ll.d.     f.r.s.  .  .  .  Birmingham,  .  .  . 
MDCCLXXXvii.      [Price  One  Shilling.] 

(8°.iv+56^/>.)  [I.S.] 

Page  56  :  "  Your  brother  in  the  sole  worship  Of  the  one  only  true 
God,  Joseph  Priestley.    Birmingham,  July  i,  1787." 


XLVIII 

"An  Address  to  the  Jews  on  the  Present  State  of  the 
World,"  by  Joseph  Priestley 

A  Comparison  Of  The  Institutions  of  Moses  With  Those  Of  The 

Hindoos  And  Other  Ancient  Nations  ; 

With  Remarks  on  Mr.  Dupuis's  Origin  of  all  Religions, 

The  Laws  and  Institutions  of  Moses  Methodized, 

And  An  Address  to  the  Jews  on  the  present  state  of  the  World 

and  the  Prophecies  relating  to  it. 

By  Joseph  Priestley,  l.l.d.  f.r.s.  &c.  .  .  . 

Northumberland  :i.  .  .  mdccxcix. 

(8°.  xxvii  +428  pp.  +2  //.  (catalogue).)  [b.  m.] 

pp.  393-428  :   "An  Address  To  The  Jews/' 


XLIX 

"Letters  to  Dr.  Priestley,"  by  David  Levi 

Letters  To  Dr.  Priestly,  In  Answer  To  Those  He  Addressed  To 

The  Jews  ;   Inviting  Them  To  An  Amicable  Discussion  Of  The 

Evidences  Of  Christianity. 

By  David  Levi,  .  .  .  London,  .  .  .  mdcclxxxvii. 

(8°.  2  II. +99  pp.)  [I.S.] 

Second  Edition  mdcclxxxvii.     (103  pp.)  [i.  s.] 

Third  Edition,  m,dcc,xciii.     (2  //.  +99  pp.)  [i.  s.] 

*  Pennsylvania,  U.S.A. 


APPENDICES  227 


"A  Famous  Passover  Melody,"  by  the  Rev.  F.  L.  Cohen 

"...  Isaac  Nathan,  a  fashionable  singing  master  of  London 
.  .  .  conceived  the  idea  of  imitating  the  '  Irish  Melodies ' 
of  Thomas  Moore  (batches  of  which  had  been  published  since 
1807,  with  the  greatest  success).  .  .  .  Less  fortunate  than 
Moore,  Byron's  verses  were  not  wedded  to  melodies  of  the 
national  type  they  professed,  because  even  before  Nathan  had 
thus  exhausted  his  choice,  he  had  made  a  most  superficial  search 
through  the  repertory  of  the  Anglo- Jewish  synagogues  of  his 
day,  which,  by  the  way,  had  not  yet  experienced  the  inspiringly 
melodious  influence  of  '  Polish '  Chazanuth.  .  .  .  The  opening 
poem,  '  She  walks  in  beauty,'  for  example,  he  set  to  a  tawdry 
Lecha  Dodi  .  .  .  But  among  the  six  actually  *  Hebrew '  melodies, 
there  were  one  or  two  exceptions  to  the  general  inferiority  of  the 
music  ;  and  prominent  among  these  was  the  tender  and  expres- 
sive air  to  which,  by  a  happy  inspiration,  Nathan  set  the 
verses : — 

'  O  weep  for  tl  ose  that  wept  by  Babel's  stream.' 

Here,  at  least, 

'  Music  and  sweet  poetry  agreed. 
As  well  they  should,  the  sister  and  the  brother  * ; 

and  the  result  became  world  famous  as  a  type  of  what  Hebrew 
melody  might  be.  It  has  often  been  republished;  and  has  also 
appeared  in  other  settings,  as  by  the  Rev.  M.  Hast  to  Ibn 
Gabirol's  hymn  : — 

*  At  morn  I  beseech  Thee,' 

or  by  Ernst  Pauer  in  his  Traditional  Hebrew  Melodies.  But  what 
is  more  especially  known  to  and  prized  by  musicians,  it  forms  the 
only  pianoforte  composition  of  Robert  Franz,  the  great  song- 
writer, under  the  title 

*  Beweinet,  die  geweint  an  Babel's  Strand,' 

and  as  such,  it  has  become  famous.  .  .  .  The  origin  of  the  melody 
is  .  .  .  simply  the  old  chant  of  the  Cohanim  on  the  Festivals,  as  it 
used  to  be  sung  in  London  synagogues  on  the  Passover  a  hundred 
years  ago,  with  a  joyous  touch  of  Pesach  tune.  .  .  ."  ^ 

^  Jewish  Chronicle,  ist  April,  1904,  page  21. 


228  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 


LI 

"Reminiscences  of  Lord  Byron  .  .  .  Poetry,  etc.,  of  Lady 
Caroline  Lamb,"  by  Isaac  Nathan 

Fugitive  Pieces  And  Reminiscences  Of  Lord  Byron  : 
Containing  An  Entire  New  Edition  Of  The  Hebrew  Melodies, 
With  The  Addition  Of  Several  Never  Before  Pubhshed  ; 
The   Whole   Illustrated   With   Critical,   Historical,    Theatrical, 
Political,  And  Theological  Remarks,  Notes,  Anecdotes,  Interest- 
ing Conversations,  And  Observations,  Made  By  That  Illustrious 
Poet :  Together  With  His  Lordship's  Autograph. 
Also  Some  Original  Poetry,  Letters  And  Recollections  Of  Lady 
Caroline  Lamb. 

By  I.  Nathan,  Author  Of  An  Essay  On  The  History  And  Theory 
Of  Music,  The  Hebrew  Melodies,  &c.  &c.  .  .  . 
London  :  .  .  .  1829. 
(8°.    xxxvi+igG+ii:^^.)  [i.  s.] 


LII 

"Selection  of  Hebrew  Melodies,"  by  John  Braham  and 
Isaac  Nathan 

A  Selection  of  Hebrew  Melodies  Ancient  and  Modern  with  ap- 
propriate Symphonies  &  accompaniments. 
By  1.  Braham  &  I.  Nathan. 

The  Poetry  written  expressly  for  the  work  By  the  Right  hon  Lord 
Byron  .  .  . 

Published  &  Sold  by  I:  Nathan  N°  7  Poland  Street  Oxford  Str*. 
and  to  be  had  at  the  principal  Music  and  Booksellers.  [Price  One 
Guinea.    (1815.)] 

(4/0.    ^ll+liZZPP-)  [I.  s.] 

A  second  edition  was  published  in  1861. 
(4^0.     2  II.  +21^  pp.)  [b.  M.] 


APPENDICES  229 


LIII 

Earl  of  Shaftesbury's  Zionist  Memorandum 
Scheme  for  the  Colonisation  of  Palestine 

Lord  Ashley'^  to  Viscount  Palmer ston. 

"  St.  Giles  House, 

"  September  z^th,  1840. 

"  My  Lord, 

"The  Powers  of  Europe  having  determined  that  they 
will  take  into  their  own  hands  the  adjustment  of  the  Syrian 
Question,  I  venture  to  suggest  a  measure,  which  being  adopted 
will  promote  the  development  of  the  immense  fertility  of  all 
those  countries  that  lie  between  the  Euphrates  and  the  Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 

"The  consideration  of  the  person  or  the  authority  to  whom 
these  territories  may  be  assigned  by  the  award  of  the  con- 
tracting Powers  is  of  no  importance.  The  plan  presupposes 
simply  the  existence  of  a  recognised  and  competent  Dominion ; 
the  establishment  and  execution  of  Laws;  and  a  Government 
both  willing  and  able  to  maintain  internal  peace. 

"These  vast  regions  are  now  nearly  desolate;  every  year  the 
produce  of  them  becomes  less,  because  the  hands  that  should  till 
them  become  fewer.  As  a  source  of  revenue  they  are  almost 
worthless,  compared,  at  least,  with  the  riches  that  industry 
might  force  from  them.    They  require  both  labour  and  capital. 

"  Capital,  however,  is  of  too  sensitive  a  nature  to  flow  with 
readiness  into  any  country  where  neither  property  nor  life  can 
be  regarded  as  secure ;  but  if  this  indispensable  assurance  be 
first  given,  the  avarice  of  man  will  be  a  sufficient  motive,  and  it 
will  betake  itself  with  alacrity  to  any  spot  where  a  speedy  or  an 
ample  return  may  be  promised  to  the  speculator. 

"  An  inducement  such  as  this  is  sufficient  to  stimulate  the 
mercantile  zeal  of  every  money-maker  under  Heaven,  and  it 
would  be  advisable  that  the  Power,  whoever  he  may  be,  to  whom 
these  provinces  may  fall,  should  issue  and  perform  a  solemn 
engagement  to  establish,  in  his  laws  affecting  property,  the 
principles  and  practices  of  European  civilisation :  but,  in 
respect  of  these  regions  now  under  dispute,  there  are,  so  far  as  a 
numerous,  though  scattered,  people  is  concerned,  other  induce- 
ments and  other  hopes,  over  and  above  those  which  influence  the 
general  mass  of  mankind. 

"  Without  entering  into  the  grounds  of  the  desire  and  expecta- 
tions entertained  by  the  Hebrew  Race  of  their  return  ultimately 
to  the  land  of  their  fathers,  it  may  be  safely  asserted  that  they 

*  Succeeded  his  father  in  1851  as  the  seventh  Earl  of  Shaftesbury. 


230  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

contemplate  a  restoration  to  the  soil  of  Palestine.  They  believe, 
moreover,  that  the  time  is  near  at  hand.  Every  recollection  of  the 
past,  and  every  prospect  of  the  future,  animates  their  hope  ;  and 
fear  alone  for  their  persons  and  their  estates  represses  their 
exertions.  If  the  Governing  Power  of  the  Syrian  provinces 
would  promulgate  equal  laws  and  equal  protection  to  Jew  and 
Gentile,  and  confirm  his  decrees  by  accepting  the  four  Powers  as 
guarantees  of  his  engagement,  to  be  set  forth  and  ratified  in  an 
article  of  the  Treaty,  the  way  would  at  once  be  opened,  con- 
fidence would  be  revived,  and,  prevailing  throughout  these 
regions,  would  bring  with  it  some  of  the  wealth  and  enterprise  of 
the  world  at  large,  and,  by  allaying  their  suspicions,  call  forth 
to  the  full  the  hidden  wealth  and  industry  of  the  Jewish  people. 

"  There  are  many  reasons  why  more  is  to  be  anticipated  from 
them  than  from  any  others  who  might  settle  there.  They  have 
ancient  reminiscences  and  deep  affection  for  the  land ; — it  is 
connected  in  their  hearts  with  all  that  is  bright  in  times  past,  and 
with  all  that  is  bright  in  those  which  are  to  come  ;  their  industry 
and  perseverance  are  prodigious ;  they  subsist,  and  cheerfully, 
on  the  smallest  pittance ;  they  are,  almost  everywhere,  ac- 
customed to  arbitrary  rule,  and  being  totally  indifferent  to 
political  objects,  confine  their  hopes  to  the  enjoyment  of  what 
they  can  accumulate.  Long  ages  of  suffering  have  trained  their 
people  to  habits  of  endurance  and  self-denial ;  they  would 
joyfully  exhibit  them  in  the  settlement  and  service  of  their 
ancient  country. 

"  If  we  consider  their  return  in  the  light  of  a  new  establish- 
ment or  colonisation  of  Palestine,  we  shall  find  it  to  be  the 
cheapest  and  safest  mode  of  supplying  the  wants  of  those 
depopulated  regions.  They  will  return  at  their  own  expense,  and 
with  no  hazard  but  to  themselves ;  they  will  submit  to  the 
existing  form  of  Government,  having  no  preconceived  theories  to 
gratify,  and  having  been  almost  eveiywhere  trained  in  implicit 
obedience  to  autocratic  rule  ;  they  will  acknowledge  the  present 
appropriation  of  the  soil  in  the  hands  of  its  actual  possessors, 
being  content  to  obtain  an  interest  in  its  produce  by  the  legiti- 
mate methods  of  rent  or  purchase.  Disconnected,  as  they  are, 
from  all  the  peoples  of  the  earth,  they  would  appeal  to  no 
national  or  political  sympathies  for  assistance  in  the  path  of 
wrong ;  and  the  guarantee  which  I  propose,  for  insertion  in  the 
Treaty  to  be  carried  out  by  the  personal  protection  of  the 
respective  Consuls  and  Vice-Consuls  of  the  several  nations, 
would  be  sufficient  to  protect  them  in  the  exercise  of  their 
right. 

"  The  plan  here  proposed  may  be  recommended  by  the  con- 
sideration that  large  results  are  promised  to  the  application  of 
very  small  means  ;  that  no  pecuniary  outlay  is  demanded  of  the 
engaging  parties ;    that  while  disappointment  would  bring  no 


APPENDICES  231 

ill-effects  except  to  those  who  declined  the  offer,  the  benefit  to 
be  derived  from  it  would  belong  impartially  to  the  whole 
civilised  world.  .  .  . 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  my  Lord, 
"  Your  Lordship's  most  obedient,  humble  servant, 

"Ashley. 

"The  Viscount  Palmerston,  m.p. 

Her  Majesty's  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs."  ^ 


LIV 

Restoration  of  the  Jews 

[The  annexed  documents  have  just  appeared  in  a  periodical 
entitled  Memorials  concerning  God's  Ancient  People  of  Israel,  and 
are  probably  as  yet  but  little  known  to  the  world  at  large  : — ] 

Memorandum. 

To  the  Protestant  Powers  of  the  North  of  Europe  and 
America — Victoria,  by  the  grace  of  God,  Queen  of  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland  ;  Frederick  (WilHam)  III.  King  of  Prussia  ;  WilHam 
(Frederick),  King  of  Netherlands  ;  Charles  (John)  XIV.,  King 
of  Sweden  and  Norway ;  Frederick  VI.,  King  of  Denmark  ; 
Ernest  Augustus,  King  of  Hanover  ;  William,  King  of  Wurtem- 
berg  ;  The  Sovereign  Princes  and  Electors  of  Germany  ;  The 
Cantons  of  the  Swiss  Confederation  professing  the  Reformed 
Religion  ;  and  the  States  of  North  America,  zealous  for  the  Glory 
of  God  ;  grace,  mercy  and  peace  from  God  the  Father,  and  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  ! 

"  High  and  Mighty  Ones, 

**  The  Most  High  God,  who  ruleth  in  the  kingdoms  of  men 
(Dan.  iv.  32),  by  whom  kings  reign  and  princes  decree  justice 
(Prov.  viii.  15),  having  in  these  days  granted  a  season  of  repose 
to  his  witnessing  church  (Acts  ix.  31  ;  Rev.  xii.  16),  planted  in 
the  lands  whereof  ye  are  kings  and  governors  (Isaiah  xHx.  23)  ; 
the  vine  of  His  planting  among  the  Gentiles  (Acts  xxviii.  28) 
hath  extended  her  boughs  unto  the  seas  and  her  branches  unto 
the  rivers  (Isa.  xlix.  6),  that  now  in  nearly  all  the  world  the 
gospel  of  the  kingdom  is  being  lifted  as  a  witness  unto  all  nations 
(Matt.  xxiv.  14),  and  in  the  isles  afar  off.  The  days  are  drawing 
near  (Rev.  xxii.  20)  when  the  dominion,  and  the  glory,  and  the 
kingdom,  with  all  people,  nations  and  languages,  shall  serve  Him, 

*  The  Life  and  Work  of  the  Seventh  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  k.g.,  by 
Edwin  Hodder,  1866,  vol.  i.,  pp.  313-315. 


232  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

who  Cometh  in  the  clouds  of  heaven  (Dan.  vii.  14,  Rev.  i.  7), 
whose  dominion  is  an  everlasting  dominion,  and  his  kingdom 
that  shall  not  be  destroyed  (Psalm  xlv.  6).  Blessed  be  He  !  He 
hath  given  his  waiting  people  to  hear  the  sound  of  His  approach- 
ing footsteps,  and  to  mark  the  signs  of  His  drawing  near  (i  Thess. 
v.  4) .  The  fig-tree  putteth  forth  her  leaves  again  (Matt .  xxiv.  32) . 
Israel's  sons  are  asking  the  way  to  Zion,  by  which  we  know  that 
summer  is  at  hand.  Blessed  are  all  they  that  wait  (2  Thess.  iii.  5), 
and  hold  fast  (Rev.  iii.  11),  for  quickly  He  cometh.  Amen. 

"  In  the  prospect  of  the  Cliristian  Church,  of  the  speedy 
appearing  of  her  glorified  head,  the  zeal  of  the  Lord's  servants 
hath  been  stirred  up  (Rev.  iii.  2)  to  a  multiplied  diligence  in 
those  labours  of  faith  and  love  which  were  devolved  upon  her 
(Matt,  xxviii.  19),  when  the  Son  of  God,  as  a  man  taking  a 
journey  into  a  far  country,  bade  his  servants  occupy,  until  he 
returned  again  (Luke  xix.  13).  With  other  responsibilities,  the 
circumstances  of  one  peculiar  people,  whom  the  Most  High  hath 
separated  (Gen.  xii.  i)  and  taken  into  covenant  with  him 
(Gen.  xvii.  7  ;  Exod.  xxxiv.  7),  and  which  covenant  no  act  of 
theirs,  however  iniquitous  or  rebellious,  can  repeal  or  destroy 
(Mai.  iii.  6),  whom  he  hath  scattered  in  all  lands  as  witnesses 
of  his  unity  and  power  (Isa.  xliii.  9),  connected  with  whom  the 
welfare  of  mankind  is  bound  up,  and  in  the  lifting  up  of  whose 
head  the  most  stupendous  consequences  are  made  to  depend 
(Rom.  xi.  15),  are  presented  at  this  eleventh  hour  for  the  repent- 
ance and  faith  of  Christendom,  that  the  blood  of  our  brethren  of 
circumcision  which  has  been  unjustly  shed  may  be  atoned  for  in 
the  blood  of  the  Lamb  (Isa.  i.  18),  and  the  fruits  of  forgiveness  be 
manifested  (Matt.  iii.  8)  in  presenting  the  children  of  this  people 
continually  at  the  throne  of  grace  (i  Pet.  ii.  5  ;  Ps.  cxxii.  6)  for 
the  atoning  sacrifice  of  Christ  to  cover  them  (Joel  ii.  17)  ;  and 
as  the  Almighty,  in  his  providential  appointments,  shall  make 
the  way  plain  to  present  the  children  of  Israel  who  may  be  willing 
to  go  up  (Ps.  ex.  3)  as  an  offering  to  the  Lord  of  Hosts  in  Mount 
Zion  (Isa.  xxviii.  7). 

"  For  300  years  the  testimony  of  the  churches,  planted 
in  the  lands  over  which  Almighty  God  hath  made  you  rulers, 
hath  been  lifted  up  against  that  apostacy  which  hath  usurped 
the  authority  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  in  the  earth  (Rev.  xxii.  5, 
and  xxiii.  5)  daring  presumptuously  to  assert  power  over 
nations  (Rev.  xviii.  7),  and  over  kingdoms,  to  root  up  and  to  pull 
down,  to  build,  to  plant,  and  to  destroy  (Dan.  vii.  20,  Rev.  xiii. 
2,  7).  The  millstone  which  shall  sink  the  Great  Babylon  in  the 
abyss  of  an  unfathomable  perdition  (Rev.  xviii.  21)  when  her 
hour  arrives  (and  it  is  very  near  !)  with  the  judgment  under  which 
she  hath  long  lain,  for  bemg  drunken  with  the  blood  of  the  saints 
and  of  the  martyrs  of  Jesus  (Rev.  xvii.  6),  shall  include  the 
avenging  of  the  wrongs  of  God's  ancient  people  (Isa.  Ii.  22,  23), 


APPENDICES  233 

and  a  terrible  account  it  is  ;  and  the  issue  shall  be  joy  and  glad- 
ness to  the  whole  earth,  for  it  is  written,  '  Rejoice,  O  ye  nations, 
with  His  people  ;  for  He  avengeth  the  blood  of  His  servants,  and 
shall  render  vengeance  unto  his  adversaries,  and  will  be  merciful 
to  His  land  and  to  His  people  '  (Deut.  xxxii.  43).  '  Happy  art 
thou,  O  Israel ;  who  is  like  unto  thee,  O  people  saved  by  the 
Lord,  the  shield  of  thy  help  and  the  sword  of  thy  excellency  ? 
and  thine  enemies  shall  be  found  Hars  unto  thee,  and  thou  shalt 
tread  on  their  high  places  '  (Deut.  xxxiii.  29). 

"In  the  events,  on  which  the  eyes  of  nations  are  fixed, 
taking  place  around,  whilst  the  continuance  and  stability  of 
your  thrones  and  sway,  O  kings,  is  the  earnest  prayer  of  the 
Christian  church  (i  Tim.  ii.  2),  she  cannot  but  uphold  the 
witness  that  the  days  draw  nigh,  when,  under  the  hallowed 
sway  of  Messiah  the  Prince,  the  now  despised  nation  of  the 
Jews  shall  possess  the  kingdom  (Dan.  vii.  27),  and  she  directs, 
with  reverential  awe,  your  eye  to  that  mighty  empire  in 
the  east  which  is  crumbling  to  dust,  and  drying  in  all  her 
streams  (Rev.  xvi.  12)  to  make  way  for  the  event.  Palestine  hath 
been  a  burdensome  stone  (Zech.  xii.  2)  unto  the  followers  of  the 
false  Prophet  (Rev.  xvi.  13),  as  it  was  to  the  ancestors  of  many 
of  you,  O  Princes,  when,  under  the  banner  of  the  Popish  Antichrist, 
their  mistaken  zeal  sought  to  recover  the  Holy  City  from 
the  Saracen's  grasp.  But  the  fulness  of  the  Gentiles  is  at  hand 
(Romans  xi.  21)  and  unto  Israel  the  dominion  shall  return 
(Micah.  iv.  8). 

**  The  apostate  Julian  sought  to  plant  the  children  of  this 
people  in  the  seats  of  their  fathers,  in  despite  of  the  holy  faith, 
one  of  the  external  evidences  of  whose  trust  was,  that  their 
house  was  left  unto  them  desolate,  until  they  should  say 
*  Blessed  is  he  that  cometh  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  '  (Matt,  xxiii. 
38,  9).  But  is  it  anywhere  declared  in  the  word  of  our  God, 
that  the  children  of  Israel,  scattered  and  peeled,  humbled 
and  dispirited,  impoverished  and  broken  down,  should  not  be 
presented  as  an  offering  in  faith  to  Jehovah  of  Hosts  in  Mount 
Zion  ?  that  there  they  may  be  pleaded  with  face  to  face  by  the 
God  of  their  fathers  (Ezekiel  xx.  13),  that  there  the  veil  may  be 
rent  (Isaiah  xxv.  7)  which  is  over  their  hearts  (2  Cor.  iii.  15),  that 
there  they  may  look  on  him  whom  they  have  pierced  (Zech. 
xii.  10).  Your  attention,  high  and  mighty  ones,  is  directed  to 
the  recorded  fact  that  such  an  offering  is  expected.  And  before 
that  full  and  final  gathering  which  follows  the  judgments  poured 
out  on  all  the  earth  (Isaiah  Ixiii.  15,  16,  20),  a  power,  and  that 
power  a  northern  one  (Jer.  iii.  12,  xxxi.  6,  9,  xxxiii.  7,  8 — Isaiah 
xliii.  6,  xlix.  12),  shall  be  employed  to  lead  a  people  wonderful 
from  their  beginning  hitherto — a  nation  expecting  and  trampled 
underfoot — ^whose  land  rivers  have  spoiled,  unto  the  name  of  the 
Lord  of  Hosts  in  Mount  Zion  (Isaiah  xviii.).    These  designs  and 


234  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

purposes  of  the  Lord  God  of  Israel,  King  of  Kings  and  Lord  of 
Lords,  are  declared  unto  you,  high  and  mighty  ones,  his  servants 
(Dan.  V.  23),  that  you  may  ponder  them,  and  know  His  will, 
from  the  voice,  with  which  He  is  about  to  speak  unto  nations  and 
unto  men  (Haggai  ii.  6 — Isaiah  i.  10),  for  the  time  is  at  hand 
(Rev.  i.  3). 

"  Your  wisdom  hath  been  exercised  to  mark  the  boundaries  of 
kingdoms,  and  to  define  the  limits  of  empires  ;  and  has  not  the 
aggressor  overleaped  all  barriers,  and  the  strength  of  treaties 
snapped  asunder  as  tow  ?  And  why  ?  Because  when  the 
Almighty  awarded  to  the  nations  their  inheritance,  when  he 
separated  the  sons  of  Adam,  he  set  the  bounds  of  the  people 
according  to  the  number  of  the  children  of  Israel  (Deuteron.  xxxii. 
7,  8).  By  an  unrepealed  covenant,  the  Lord  God  declared  unto 
Abram,  concerning  the  land  of  Palestine,  '  Unto  thy  seed  have  I 
given  this  land,  from  the  river  of  Egypt  to  the  great  river,  the 
river  Euphrates  '  (Genesis  xv.  18) .  This  gift  was  ratified  unto  him 
for  an  everlasting  possession,  and  to  his  seed  after  him,  when 
the  Almighty  gave  him  the  covenant,  and  changed  his  name  to 
Abraham  (Genesis  xvii.  4,  8).  For  the  purposes  of  infinite  wisdom 
fast  hastening  to  maturity,  the  Lord  God  hath  scattered  his 
inheritance  to  the  four  winds  of  heaven.  But  hear  the  word  of 
the  Lord,  O  ye  nations,  and  declare  it  in  the  isles  afar  off. 
He  that  scattered  Israel  will  gather  him,  and  keep  him  as  a 
shepherd  doth  his  flock. 

"  As  the  spirit  of  Cyrus,  King  of  Persia  was  stirred  up  to 
build  the  Lord's  Temple,  which  was  in  Jerusalem  (ii  Chron. 
xxxvi.  22,  23),  who  is  there  among  you,  high  and  mighty  ones  of 
all  the  nations,  to  fulfil  the  good  pleasure  of  the  holy  will  of 
the  Lord  of  Heaven,  saying  to  Jerusalem,  '  Thou  shalt  be 
built '  and  to  the  Temple,  '  Thy  foundation  shall  be  laid '  ? 
(Isaiah  xliv.  28).  The  Lord  God  of  Israel  will  be  with  such. 
Great  grace,  mercy,  and  peace  shall  descend  upon  the  people  who 
offer  themselves  willingly ;  and  the  fire  offerings  of  their  hearts 
and  hands  shall  be  those  of  a  sweet-smelling  savour  unto  Him 
who  hath  said,  '  I  will  bless  them  that  bless  thee  (Genesis  xii.  3), 
and  contend  with  him  who  contendeth  with  thee  '  (Isaiah 
xlix.  25). 

"  The  grace  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  the  love  of  God, 
and  the  communion  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  be  with  you  all.  Amen. 
Signed  and  sealed  in  London,  8th  of  January,  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord,  1839,  in  the  name  of  the  God  of  Abraham,  of  Isaac,  and  of 
Jacob,  on  behalf  of  many  who  wait  for  the  redemption  of 
Israel/' 


APPENDICES  235 

(Copy  I.) 

"  London,  January  22nd,  1839. 

"  May  it  please  your  Majesty, — I  have  the  high  honour  of 
laying  at  your  Majesty's  feet  the  accompanying  memorandum 
relating  to  the  present  condition  and  future  prospects  of  God's 
ancient  people,  the  Jews.  Your  Majesty's  pious  feelings,  I 
doubt  not,  will  be  excited  to  give  the  Scriptural  hopes  and 
expectations  therein  set  forth  your  earnest  attention,  consider- 
ing the  high  station  it  hath  pleased  Almighty  God  to  call  this 
Protestant  land  to,  as  the  great  seat  of  the  church. 

"  According  to  the  petitions  of  this  peculiar  people  at  a  throne 
of  grace,  that  in  your  Majesty's  reign  '  Judah  may  be  saved 
and  Israel  dwell  safely,'  is  the  prayer  of  your  Majesty's  dutiful 
subject  and  servant. 

"  Her  most  Gracious  Majesty  Victoria,  Queen  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland." 

(Copy  2.) 

"  January  19th,  1839. 

"  My  Lord, — I  have  tL  honour  of  transmitting  through  your 
Lordship  a  document  which  it  is  the  desire  of  some  of  her 
Majesty's  subjects  should  be  laid  at  her  Majesty's  feet,  relating 
to  the  Scriptural  expectations  of  the  church,  connected  with  the 
restoration  of  the  Jews  to  Palestine,  the  land  of  their  fathers. 

"  I  am  induced  to  solicit  your  Lordship's  good  offices  in  being 
the  medium  of  communicating  this  document  to  her  Majesty, 
as  the  substance  of  it  relates  to  the  present  rights  of  an  ally  of 
this  country — namely,  the  Sublime  Porte. 

"  But  I  would  respectfully  press  upon  your  Lordship's  atten- 
tion, that,  in  holding  forth  the  Scriptural  hopes  of  God's  ancient 
people,  those  who  emanate  the  accompanying  document  never 
for  one  moment  dream  of  political  force  to  accomplish  the  end 
desired.  When  the  hour  comes  of  Israel's  planting  in,  doubtless 
Almighty  God  will  not  fail  to  raise  up  chosen  instruments,  who, 
with  willing  hands  and  hearts,  shall  accomplish  the  good  pleasure 
of  His  will. 

"If  we  are  wrong  in  the  course  we  have  taken  to  bring  the 
memorandum  before  Her  Majesty,  we  will  be  happy  to  be  set 
right.  Should  your  Lordship  undertake  the  duty,  desiring  the 
glory  of  God  in  this  matter  to  be  furthered,  the  Lord  God  of  Israel 
will  not  be  slack  to  reward  the  labour  of  faith  and  love  proceeding 
from  a  desire  to  honour  His  name. 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c., 

"The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Viscount  Palmerston/' 


236  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Lord  Palmerston's  Answer. 

(Copy  3.) 

"  Foreign  Office,  March  14,  1839. 

"I  have  to  acknowledge  your  letter  of  the  19th  January, 
enclosing  a  letter  and  a  memorandum  from  some  of  Her 
Majesty's  subjects,  who  feel  deeply  interested  in  the  welfare  and 
future  prospects  of  the  Jews ;  and  I  have  to  acquaint  you  that 
I  have  laid  those  documents  before  the  Queen,  and  that  Her 
Majesty  has  been  pleased  graciously  to  receive  the  same. 

"  I  am,  &c., 

"Palmerston."* 


LV 

Another  Zionist  Memorandum— Restoration  of  the  Jews 

*'  To  the  Editor  of  The  Times. 

"  Sir,— The  extraordinary  crisis  of  Oriental  politics  has 
stimulated  an  almost  universal  interest  and  investigation,  and 
the  fate  of  the  Jews  seems  to  be  deeply  involved  with  the  settle- 
ment of  the  Syrian  dilemma  now  agitating  several  Courts  of 
Christendom. 

"...  The  peace  of  Europe  and  the  just  balance  of  its  powers 
being  therefore  assumed  as  the  grand  desideratum,  as  the  con- 
summation devoutly  to  be  wished,  I  peruse  with  particular 
interest  a  brief  article  in  your  journal  of  this  day  relative  to  the 
restoration  of  the  Jews  to  Jerusalem,  because  I  imagine  that  this 
event  has  become  practicable  through  an  unprecedented  con- 
catenation of  circumstances,  and  that  moreover  it  has  become 
especially  desirable,  as  the  exact  expedient  to  which  it  is  to  the 
interest  of  all  belligerent  parties  to  consent . 

"  The  actual  feasibility  of  the  return  of  the  Jews  is  no  longer  a 
paradox  ;  the  time  gives  it  proof.  That  theory  of  the  restoration 
of  a  Jewish  Kingdom,  which  a  few  years  ago  was  laughed  at  as 
the  fantasy  of  insane  enthusiasm,  is  now  calculated  on  as  a  most 
practical  achievement  of  diplomacy. 

"  It  is  granted  that  the  Jews  were  the  ancient  proprietors  of 
Syria  ;  that  Syria  was  the  proper  heart  and  centre  of  their 
kingdom.  It  is  granted  that  they  have  a  strong  conviction  that 
Providence  will  restore  them  to  this  Syrian  supremacy.  It  is 
granted  that  they  have  entertained  for  ages  a  hearty  desire  to 
return  thither,  and  are  willing  to  make  great  sacrifices  of  a 
pecuniary  kind  to  the  different  parties  interested,  provided  they 
can  be  put  in  peaceful  and  secure  possession. 

^  The  Times,  Wednesday,  August  26,  1840,  pp.  5-6. 


APPENDICES  237 

"  It  is  likewise  notorious,  that  since  the  Jews  have  been  thrust 
out  of  Syria  that  land  has  been  a  mere  arena  of  strife  to  neighbour- 
ing Powers,  all  conscious  that  they  had  no  legitimate  right  there, 
and  all  jealous  of  each  other's  intrusion. 

"  Such  having  been  the  case,  why,  it  may  be  asked,  have  not 
the  Jews  long  ago  endeavoured  to  regain  possession  of  Syria  by 
commercial  arrangements  ?  In  reply  it  may  be  said,  that  though 
they  have  evidently  wished  to  do  so,  and  have  made  overtures  of 
the  kind,  hitherto  circumstances  have  opposed  their  desires.  .  .  . 

"  Now,  however,  these  obstacles  and  hindrances  are  in  a  great 
measure  removed  ;  all  the  strongest  Powers  in  Europe  have 
come  forward  as  arbitrators  and  umpires  to  arrange  the  settle- 
ment of  Syria. 

"  Under  such  potent  arbitrators,  pledged  to  the  performance  of 
any  conditions  finally  agreed  on,  I  have  reason  to  believe  that 
the  Jews  would  readily  enter  into  such  financial  arrangements  as 
would  secure  them  the  absolute  possession  of  Jerusalem  and 
Syria. 

"  I  know  no  reason,  under  such  powerful  empires,  why  the 
Hebrews  should  not  restore  an  independent  monarchy  in  Syria, 
as  well  as  the  Egyptians  in  Egypt,  or  the  Grecians  in  Greece. 

"  As  a  practical  expedient  of  politics,  I  believe  that  it  will  be 
easier  to  secure  the  peace  of  Europe  and  Asia  by  this  effort  to 
restore  the  Jews,  than  by  any  allotment  of  Syrian  territories  to 
the  Turks  or  Egyptians,  which  will  be  sure  to  occasion  fresh 
jealousies  and  discords.  .  .  . 

"  I  believe  that  the  cause  of  the  restoration  of  the  Jews  is  one 
essentially  generous  and  noble,  and  that  all  individuals  and 
nations  that  assist  this  world-renounced  people  to  recover  the 
empire  of  their  ancestors  will  be  rewarded  by  Heaven's  blessing. 
Everything  that  is  patriotic  and  philanthropic  should  urge 
Great  Britain  forward  as  the  agent  of  prophetic  revelations  so 
full  of  auspicious  consequence.  .  .  . 

"  Your  very  obedient  servant, 

"Aug.  17."  "F.  B.i 

LVI 

Extracts  from  Autograph  and  other  Letters   between 
Sir  Moses  Montefiore  and  Dr.  N.  M.  Adler 

My  hearty  thanks  are  due  to  my  friend  Mr.  Elkan  N. 
Adler  for  giving  me  access  to  his  father's  letters.  It  may  be 
mentioned  that,  although  Dr.  N.  M.  Adler  was  never  able  to  visit 
Palestine,  all  his  three  sons  went  there.  Palestinian  activity  has 
practically  been  a  tradition  of  the  Adler  family.  Mr.  Envan  Adler 
originally  visited  Palestine  in  1888,  1895,  1898  and  1901,  in 

^  Th$  Times t  26  Aug.,  1840,  p.  6. 


238  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

connection  with  the  Montefiore  work.  His  first  visit  was  a 
professional  one,  undertaken  on  the  instructions  of  the  Council 
of  the  Holy  Land  Relief  Fund.  Its  object  was  to  clear  up  certain 
legal  difficulties  which  had  arisen  on  the  land  at  Jerusalem  and 
Jaffa  purchased  in  1855  by  his  father  and  Sir  Moses  Montefiore 
out  of  the  funds  of  the  Holy  Land  Appeal  Fund  and  the  Judah 
Touro  Bequest.  At  that  time  their  only  buildings  in  Jerusalem 
were  the  Judah  Touro  Alms-houses  and  the  Windmill.  The 
vacant  land  adjoining  had  been  jumped  after  the  death  of 
Sir  Moses  Montefiore  by  about  three  hundred  poor  and  desperate 
Jews,  who  claimed  that  it  had  been  originally  intended  for  the 
poor,  and  they  were  poor. 

The  journey  was  successful.  The  squatters  were  removed, 
and  their  place  was  taken  by  industrious  settlers,  who,  through 
the  agency  of  the  building  societies,  financed  by  the  Sir  Moses 
Montefiore  Testimonial  Committee,  erected  hundreds  of  pleasant 
little  dwellings  in  the  place  of  the  rude,  uninhabited  shanties 
which  stood  there  in  1888. 

In  1894  Mr.  Elkan  Adler  became  a  member  of  the  "  Water  for 
Jerusalem  Committee,"  of  which  Sir  Charles  W.  Wilson,  k.c.m.g., 
was  Chairman  and  Sir  Edmund  A.  H.  L.  Lechmere,  Bart.,  m.p., 
and  Sir  (then  Mr.)  Isidore  Spielmann,  c.m.g..  Honorary  Secre- 
taries. The  Turkish  Government  and  the  Jerusalem  Munici- 
pality had  sanctioned  the  scheme,  but  bureaucratic  dilatoriness 
prevented  its  ever  maturing.  Its  object  was  to  secure,  under  a 
concession,  for  purely  philanthropic  purposes,  a  modern  water 
supply  for  Jerusalem  from  King  Solomon's  Pools. 

Mr.  Adler  was  also  one  of  the  founders  of  the  London  Choveve 
Zion,  and  as  Honorary  Solicitor  drafted  its  Constitution,  which 
was  settled  by  the  Right  Hon.  Arthur  Cohen,  K.c. 


"  Grosvenor  Gate,  Park  Lane, 

'*  London,  28th  Hesvan,  5602. 

"  12  November, 
**  My  dear  and  much  esteemed  Sir, 

"  .  .  .7  am  most  highly  gratified,  my  dear  Sir,  by  the  very 
kind  manner  in  which  you  have  been  pleased  to  notice  my  feeble 
exertions  in  favour  of  our  unfortunate  and  persecuted  Brethren 
in  the  East.  .  .  . 

"  Believe  me  to  be, 

"  With  sincere  Respect  and  Esteem, 
"  My  dear  Sir, 

"  Your  obedient  Servant, 
"  Moses  Montefiore. 
"  The  Reverend 

Doctor  N.  Adler,  Chief  Rabbi,  &c.  &c.  &c." 


APPENDICES  239 

"  Alliance  Office, 

"  Bartholomew  Lane, 

"  31  May,  5614. 
*'  My  dear  and  respected  Sir, 

"  .  .  .  /  hope  to  find  the  amount  of  Contributions  much 
increased  from  your  admirable  Letter  having  at  last  found  its  way 
in  the  hands  of  the  several  Seat-holders  of  each  Synagogue,  and  I 
am  sure  if  they  respond  to  it  with  the  same  liberality  as  our  Christian 
fellow-subjects  have  evinced  for  our  suffering  Brethren  in  the  Holy 
Land  I  am  confident  you  will  rejoice  at  the  success  which  has 
attended  your  benevolent  exertions.  .  .  . 

"  /  am  with  great  respect  and  esteem, 

"  Your  faithful  Servant, 

"  Moses  Montefiore. 
"  The  Revd.  Dr.  Adler, 
Chief  Rabbi,  &c.  &c." 

—  / 

**  East  Cliff  Lodge, 

"  Ramsgate, 

"  lyth  August,  5614. 

1854. 

*'  My  dear  and  respected  Sir, 

"...  7  am  obliged  to  you  for  the  information  which  Mr. 
Albert  Cohn's  letter  has  afforded  me  and  believe  me  I  am  most  truly 
thankful  to  the  God  of  Israel  that  my  days  should  have  been  pro- 
longed to  see  the  welfare  of  our  unfortunate  Brethren  in  Jerusalem 
cared  for  by  so  wealthy  and  powerful  a  family  as  the  Barons  de 
Rothschild.  May  the  institutions  which  they  propose  diffuse  all 
the  advantages  we  hope  for.  I  will  endeavour  to  write  this  evening 
to  Lord  Clarendon  and  will  take  the  earliest  opportunity  to  com- 
municate the  result  after  I  shall  have  had  an  interview  with  his 
Lordship.  I  have  requested  Mr.  Green  to  forward  all  the  letters  to 
you  that  have  arrived  from  the  Holy  Land.  I  shall  take  no  step 
regarding  the  Hospital  but  with  your  concurrence.  You  may  rely 
that  there  will  be  no  opposition  in  any  way  on  my  part,  and  I  am 
only  too  happy  to  see  that  Jerusalem  is  not  forsaken.  .  .  . 
"  Believe  me, 
"  With  the  greatest  esteem  and  respect, 

"  Your  faithful  Servant, 

"  Moses  Montefiore. 
"  To  the  Reverend 

Doctor  Adler, 

Chief  Rabbi.'' 


240  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  Alliance  Office, 

"  Bartholomew  Lane, 
"  Wednesday  Morn, 

"  23  Augt.,  '614. 
"  My  dear  and  respected  Sir, 

"...  7  now  beg  to  trouble  you  with  the  enclosed  letters  which 
Dr.  Lowe  has  written  to  the  Holy  Land  with  a  remittance  of  £1200 
divided  in  the  following  manner.  ...  7  have  not  thought  it  proper  to 
send  anything  to  the  Portuguese  at  Jerusalem  as  they  have  not  yet 
complied  with  your  request  in  the  mode  of  distribution  or  forwarded 
any  particulars  whatever.  I  therefore  hope  you  will  be  satisfied 
with  the  arrangement  that  this  will  bring  the  Portuguese  to  a  sense 
of  the  necessity  they  are  under  to  conform  to  your  instructions, 
or  they  will  receive  no  more  money  from  England.  .  .  . 

**  To  the  Revd. 

Dr.  Adler, 

Chief  Rabbi." 


"  Buxton,  i^th  Septr.,  5614. 

"  My  dear  and  respected  Sir, 

"...  7  have  felt  much  vexed  at  M.  Albert  Cohn's  having 
taken  the  liberty  of  using  your  name  as  well  as  mine  as  having 
deputed  him  to  carry  out  his  schemes  in  the  East.  .  .  . 
"  Believe  me  to  be, 

"  With  great  regard  and  respect, 

"  Your  faithful  Servant, 

"  Moses  Montefiore. 
"  The  Revd.  Dr.  Adler, 

Chief  Rabbi,  &c.  &c." 


'*  Alliance  Assurance  Office, 

*'  Bartholomew  Lane, 

"  Monday  Evening, 

"  26  Jany,,  5617. 
"  My  dear  and  respected  Sir, 

"  Having  this  moment  heard  from  Lady  Montefiore  that  you 
expressed  a  desire  to  Visit  the  Holy  Land,  and  well  knowing  the 
lively  interest  you  have  ever  evinced  in  promoting  the  prosperity  of 
Jerusalem,  I  beg  to  assure  you  that  nothing  could  be  more  gratifying 
to  my  feelings,  than  to  be  honored  with  your  Company  during  our 
intended  Tour.    We  had  fixed  in  our  minds  the  10th  day  of  February 


APPENDICES  241 

for  our  departure,  hut  to  enjoy  the  honor  of  your  Society,  we  would 
postpone  it  to  meet  your  Convenience  to  any  day  that  would  enahU 
us  to  reach  Jerusalem  for  Passover. 

"  Hoping  to  have  the  gratification  of  a  favorable  reply  from  you, 
**  Believe  me  to  he, 

"  Your  faithful  Servant, 

"  Moses  Montefiore. 
"  To  the  Reverend 
Dr.  Adler, 

Chief  Rabbi." 


"  East  Cliff  Lodge, 

"  Ramsgate, 

*'  i^th  September,  5619. 
"  My  dear  and  respected  Sir, 

"...  With  respect  to  the  Jaffa  farm  I  hope  in  a  few  days  to 
have  an  opportunity  of  speaking  with  you.    I  think  it  was  your  wish 
that  our  co-religionists  should  be  employed  on  it.  ..." 
"  Believe  me  with  great  esteem, 

"  Your  faithful  Servant, 

"  Moses  Montefiore. 
"  To  the  Reverend  Dr.  Adler, 
Chief  Rabbi." 


"  To  the  Rev.  Dr.  Adler,  Chief  Rabbi,  etc.  etc. 

"  East  Cliff  Lodge,  Ramsgate,  May  15/A,  5614-1854. 

"  Reverend  and  Respected  Sir, 

"  For  the  sake  of  Zion  I  cannot  remain  silent,  and  for 
the  sake  of  Jerusalem  I  cannot  rest,  until  the  whole  house  of 
Israel  have  been  made  acquainted  with  the  lamentable  condition 
of  those  of  our  brethren  who  devotedly  cling  to  the  soil,  sacred 
to  the  memory  of  our  patriarchs,  prophets  and  kings. 

"  Thrice  having  visited  the  Holy  Land,  it  was  my  earnest 
desire  to  fully  inform  myself  as  to  the  condition  of  our  brethren 
there.  .  .  , 

"  Aware,  however,  reverend  Sir,  of  your  great  anxiety  for 
the  physical  amehoration  of  our  suffering  brethren,  and  how 
watchfully  you  note  their  spiritual  welfare,  I  am  induced  to  put 
you  in  possession  of  the  documents  and  appeals  which  I  have 
received  from  the  Holy  Land,  with  the  assurance  that  your 
powerful  co-operation,  in  the  shape  of  a  pastoral  letter  addressed 
to  the  Jews  of  Great  Britain  and  America — or  the  exercise  of  the 
same  in  any  other  mode  your  wisdom  may  dictate — will,  with 

II.— R 


242  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

God's  blessing,  not  only  tend  to  remove  the  present  appalling 
misery  of  our  starving  brethren  in  Zion,  but  spare  us  the  humili 
ation  of  its  recurrence. 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  reverend  and  respected  Sir, 
"  Your  faithful  servant, 

''  Moses  Montefiore." 


"  To  Sir  Moses  Montefiore,  Bart.,  etc.  etc. 

"  Office  of  the  Chief  Rabbi,  London,  i8th  May,  5614. 
"  My  dear  and  esteemed  Sir, 

'*....  Although  I  should  have  much  preferred  that  the 
duty  of  addressing  our  co-religionists  on  behalf  of  the  afflicted 
had  been  assumed  by  yourself,  as  you  would  have  made  a  far 
deeper  impression  than  I  can  hope  to  do,  from  the  well-known 
fact  that  you  have  devoted  a  great  portion  of  your  life  to  the 
amelioration  of  the  condition  of  our  brethren  in  Palestine,  and 
this,  too,  at  the  risk  of  much  personal  suffering  and  danger,  yet, 
to  avoid  all  delay  in  the  present  emergency,  I  have  to-day  written 
a  letter  to  the  congregations  under  my  charge,  a  copy  of  which 
I  beg  to  enclose  ;  and  I  fervently  pray  that  the  Lord  may 
strengthen  my  feeble  words,  and  incline  the  hearts  of  our  brethren 
to  this  good  work  of  charity. 

**  I  am,  my  dear  Sir  Moses, 

*'  Yours  very  faithfully, 

"  N.  Adler,  Dr." 


"PASTORAL  LETTER 

"To  the  Wardens,  Members,  and  Seat -holders  of  the  United 
Congregations  of  Great  Britain. 

"  Office  of  the  Chief  Rabbi,  London,  May  18th,  5614. 

"  Beloved  Brethren, 

"...  the  present  condition  of  our  poor  brethren 
scattered  through  the  four  cities  of  Jerusalem,  Zaphed,  Hebron 
and  Tiberias,  is  absolutely  heart-rending.  This  is  no  exaggera- 
tion but  a  stern  and  dreadful  reality.  The  almost  total  failure 
of  the  last  harvest,  which  raised  the  price  of  all  the  necessaries 
of  life  to  an  unparalleled  height ;  the  present  war  and  general 
political  disturbances  ;  the  diminution  of  the  usual  resources  for 
the  poor,  especially  those  derived  from  Russia,  which  has 
hitherto  contributed  the  most,  have  brought  about  an  awful 
famine.  .  .  .  While  all  surrounding  nations  make  that  spot 
the  object  of  their  deepest  concern,  expending  vast  sums 
thereon,  should  we  be  unmindful  of  that  land  with  which 
our  past  glory  and  future  hope  are  inseparably  connected  ? 
...  It  may  be  thought  by  some  that  the  unfortunate  state 
of  the  Jewish  residents  of  Palestine  might  have  been  brought 


APPENDICES  243 

about  ...  by  their  reliance  on  fixed  pensions  and  casual  alms 
without  the  exercise  of  industry,  either  in  agriculture,  com- 
merce or  other  employments ;  .  .  .  Why,  therefore,  continue  a 
life  of  pauperism,  which  will  endure  until  the  springs  of  poverty 
are  stopped — and  what  will  be  the  use  of  a  collection,  which 
can  but  mitigate  the  evil  for  a  moment  ? 

"  My  dear  brethren, — Before  you  accuse  the  sufferers  of  indo- 
lence, and  their  leaders  of  neglect,  let  us  assure  you  that  the 
people  are  most  anxious  to  free  themselves  from  the  thraldom 
of  dependence ;  that  the  Rabbis  and  the  heads  of  the  Congrega- 
tions have  proved  to  Sir  Moses  Montefiore,  who  has  been  at  all 
times  the  strenuous  advocate  of  industrial  pursuits,  the  willing- 
ness of  the  people  to  till  the  soil,  if  only  it  could  be  done  with 
security.  But  hitherto  the  great  impediment  to  agriculture  has 
been  not  alone  the  want  of  pecuniary  means,  but  the  want  of 
protection  on  the  part  of  the  Government,  it  being  absolutely 
impracticable  to  labour  outside  the  walls  of  the  cities,  owing  to 
the  depredations  of  the  roving  and  lawless  Bedouins,  for  what- 
ever the  inhabitants  sow  is  speedily  seized  by  others. 

"  Without,  however,  alluding  to  the  happy  restitution  that 
we  anxiously  look  for,  which  lies  in  the  hand  of  the  Lord  who 
commandeth  us  *  not  to  stir,  neither  to  awake  His  love,  until 
He  please  ' — the  present  war  may,  by  the  Divine  blessing,  bring 
about  a  great  and  beneficial  change  in  the  Holy  Land.  It  is 
more  than  probable  that  the  Government  of  the  Porte  will 
concede  to  our  brethren  in  Palestine  the  right  of  holding  land  ; 
and  that  this  right  will  be  placed  under  secure  protection.  It 
will  then  become  the  duty  of  our  leading  men  to  organise  a 
proper  plan  of  operations,  put  themselves  into  communication 
with  the  different  Committees  abroad,  to  raise  the  necessary 
means,  to  send  men  of  ability,  properly  authorised,  to  Jerusalem, 
to  bring  about  a  unity  of  action  among  the  different  congrega- 
tions there,  to  purchase  land,  to  establish  farms  and  factories, 
and  to  devote  a  portion  of  the  money  annually  collected,  as 
wages  to  those  who  will  labour  therein  under  the  charge  of  the 
persons  superintending  those  undertakings.  The  time  for  the 
realisation  of  such  a  scheme  may  not  be  remote,  as  the  munificent 
legacy  of  the  philanthropist  Judah  Touro,  New  Orleans,  was 
bequeathed  for  this  very  purpose,  which  bequest  will  have  an 
important  bearing  on  the  improvement  of  the  Holy  Land. 

".  .  .  I  remain,  yours  very  faithfully, 

"N.  Abler,  Dr.,  Chief  Rabbi.''^ 

*  An  Appeal  on  behalf  of  the  famishing  Jews  in  the  Holy  Land.  Dona- 
tions will  he  thankjully  received  by  The  Rev.  The  Chief  Rabbi,  4,  Crosby 
Square,  and  Sir  Moses  Montefiore,  Bart.,  Alliance  Assurance  Office, 
Bartholomew  Lane.  Rev.  Aaron  Levy  Green,  Hon.  Sec. 
London  :  Printed  by  Wertheimer  and  Co.,  Circus  Place,  Finsbury  Circus. 
1854  (8°.    16  pp.  in  printed  wrapper),  pp.  3-7. 


244  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

In  February,  1855,  Dr.  Adler  and  Sir  Moses  published  their 
first  Report  enumerating  the  appropriations  of  money  they  had 
made  and  the  sums  set  apart  for  the  estabhshment  of  institutions 
designed  to  reheve  distress,  and  to  encourage  and  promote 
industry. 

In  May,  1856,  Sir  Moses  and  Lady  Montefiore  set  out  on  a 
mission  to  the  Holy  Land  to  organize  means  for  the  appropria- 
tion of  the  funds  "  with  a  view  to  the  utmost  benefit  of  the 
supplicants." 

The  Trustees  resolved  to  attempt  the  organization  of  some 
industrial  scheme,  and,  says  their  Second  Report,  dated  1856 : 
"  In  a  land  naturally  so  fertile  as  Palestine,  offering  so  prolific 
a  return  for  industry,  but  altogether  wanting  in  commercial 
resources,  agriculture  must  of  necessity  be  the  first  object  of 
attention,  as  likely  to  prove  the  most  powerful  auxiliary  in 
bringing  about  a  healthful  reaction,  by  alleviating  distress,  by 
promoting  industry,  and  by  exciting  a  feeling  of  self-reliance." 
The  Trustees  were  confirmed  in  their  views  by  the  opinion  of 
experienced  agriculturists  in  the  Holy  Land,  and  by  the  valuable 
suggestions  of  munificent  donors. 

"  On  the  17th  June  Sir  Moses  had  an  audience  with  the  Sultan, 
and  on  the  27th  July  the  first  meeting  was  held  with  the  repre- 
sentatives of  Zapphed. 

"  The  desirabihty  of  cultivating  land  was  discussed  at  this  sit- 
ting, and  the  great  probabilities  of  success  in  the  undertaking 
were  shown  by  the  mention  of  numerous  well-authenticated 
facts.  The  views  entertained  by  the  Trustees  having  been  con- 
firmed by  the  best  evidence,  a  Committee  of  practical  agri- 
culturists— men  distinguished  by  their  probity,  and  of  acknow- 
ledged skill — was,  without  further  delay,  appointed  to  aid  in  the 
selection  of  land,  and  to  advise  as  to  the  fitness  of  the  parties  to 
be  employed  in  its  cultivation.  Assisted  by  this  Committee,  Sir 
Moses  selected  thirty-five  families  from  the  Holy  City  of  Zapphed, 
provided  them  with  means  to  commence  agricultural  pursuits, 
and  also  secured  for  them  local  governors.  Some  orphan  lads 
were  also  provided  for,  by  being  placed  under  the  care  of  the 
Committee,  to  be  trained  as  agriculturists.  A  district  in  the 
vicinity  of  Zapphed,  called  the  Bokea,  having  been  pointed  out 
as  a  most  desirable  spot  for  agricultural  purposes,  sufiicient 
means  were  granted  to  give  employment  to  fifteen  families,  to  be 
engaged  in  the  cultivation  of  that  fruitful  district ;  the  whole 
being  placed  under  the  supervision  of  the  Agricultural  Committee 
at  Zapphed.  The  claims  of  Taharia  were  next  considered  .  .  . 
and  means  afforded  to  thirty  families  to  enable  them  to  engage  in 
agricultural  pursuits.  At  Jaffa  some  land,  with  a  house,  and  well 
affording  an  abundant  supply  of  excellent  water,  was  purchased, 
and  a  number  of  our  poor  co-religionists  are  already  engaged  upon 
such  land."    An  establishment  for  weaving  was  instituted. 


APPENDICES        ,  245 

**  Sir  Moses  eventually  succeeded  in  purchasing  a  tract  of  land 
to  the  west  of  the  Holy  City,  in  a  most  beautiful  and  salubrious 
locality,  within  a  few  minutes'  walk  from  the  Jaffa  and  Zion 
Gates.  Here  a  considerable  number  of  our  co-religionists  and 
others  at  once  found  employment  on  the  land  and  in  the  building 
of  the  boundary  wall."  A  windmill  was  erected  on  this  site  to 
supersede  the  expensive  method  used  at  Jerusalem  for  grinding 
corn. 


LVII 
The  Final  Exodus 


*'  And  what  now  is  the  aspect  of  Palestine  ?  Still,  truly,  it  is  a 
land  rich  in  the  grandeur  and  beauties  of  nature's  handiwork — 
still,  in  some  parts, '  . .  .  hills,  plains,  and  valleys,  fields  of  wheat 
and  barley,  vineyards  and  olive-yards,  are  spread  out  before  you 
as  on  a  map  ' — still  does  the  benign  influence  of  the  sun's  warmth 
engender  in  the  bosom  of  the  earth  the  germs  of  fruits  and  flowers, 
that  languish  for  want  of  culture,  and  never  arrive  at  perfection — 
still  do  the  hills  uplift  their  heads  amid  the  clouds,  which  drop 
down,  as  though  with  tears  of  sorrow,  upon  their  barren  and 
exposed  sides,  once  covered  with  artificial  soil  and  by  the  hands 
of  a  favoured  race  rendered  fruitful  as  the  vale  beneath.  The 
mountains  remain  unshaken,  but  where  are  the  countless  flocks  ? 
the  stones  of  the  water-course  are  there,  but  where  is  the  limpid 
stream  ?  Alas  !  the  promised  blessing  has  been  withdrawn  from 
the  land  ;  the  flocks  no  longer  multiply  as  heretofore,  neither  as 
in  former  days  do  springs  and  fountains  burst  forth  everywhere 
out  of  the  valleys  and  the  hills  ;  and  her  cities  are  desolate  and 
forsaken,  and  of  many  even  the  site  is  not  accurately  known  ; 
literal,  indeed,  has  been  the  fulfilment  of  the  prophetic  declara- 
tion '  the  land  shall  be  desolate.'  Solitude  now  reigns  where 
once  the  busy  hum  of  voices  enlivened  many  a  glad  city,  ay,  even 
in  the  wilderness — ruins  now  mark  the  spot  where  once  rose  the 
sound  of  harp  and  tabret,  and  where  heart  joined  with  hand  in 
mocking  with  merriment  the  threatened  desolation  ..." 

"...  But  more  than  this — Britain  !  rejoice  !  it  is  for  you  to 
lead  back  to  their  beautiful  land  the  long-dispersed  members  of 
Judah's  neglected  race,  and  by  planting  in  their  native  country 
a  colony  of  whose  attachment  to  its  protectors  there  could  be  no 
doubt,  .  .  ." 

"...  Jerusalem  shall,  indeed,  become  again  the  glorious  city 
among  the  nations  :  no  longer  shall  her  name  be  Jerusalem,  but 
*  the  City  of  the  Lord,  the  Zion  of  the  Holy  One  of  Israel,'  for 
there  shall  be  hoUness,' and  in  the  midst  of  her  'the  King  of 
Israel,  even  the  Lord ; '  .  .  .  Her  walls  shall  be  called  *  Salvation.' 


246  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

and  her  gates  *  Praise  * ;  and  her  children  shall  enjoy  the 
former  and  the  latter  rain  ;  '  the  floors  shall  be  full  of  wheat, 
and  the  vats  shall  overflow  with  wine  and  oil ;  and  they  shall 
plant  vineyards,  and  drink  the  wine  thereof  ;  they  shall  also 
make  gardens,  and  eat  the  fruit  of  them.  .  .  / 

**  Among  these  there  are  many  whose  wealth —  .  .  .  has  caused 
the  name  of  the  Jew  too  often  to  be  coupled  with  the  idea  of 
sordid  gain  .  .  . :  but  it  will  be  well  for  the  few,  who  by  .  .  . 
prosperity,  .  .  .  occupy  now  an  elevated  postion,  .  .  .  prepare  to 
head  with  energy  every  warrantable  occasion  for  furthering  the 
restoration  of  their  unhappy  people  to  Palestine.  Providential 
is  it  for  them,  that  among  them  are  men  possessing  influence  and 
wealth  sufiicient  to  become  their  leaders.  .  .  ." 

"  Once  again — Britain,  beware  !  and  hasten  to  exert  the 
means  which,  lying  at  your  disposal,  may  be  made  use  of  as  a 
defence  for  your  valuable  possessions  in  the  East,  and  for  the 
advancement  of  God's  glory,  by  the  return  of  His  people  to  the 
land  whither  He  has  said  He  would  bring  them  again  *  that  they 
might  be  called  trees  of  righteousness,  the  planting  of  the  Lord, 
that  He  might  be  glorified.'  "^ 


LVIII 

Disraeli  and  the  Purchase  of  the  Suez  Canal  Shares 

The  story  of  the  purchase  of  the  Suez  Canal  shares  by  Lord 
Beaconsfield  has  been  told  many  times,  but  Mr.  [afterwards  Sir] 
Henry  Lucy,  in  "  Sixty  Years  in  the  Wilderness,"  throws  fresh 
light  on  the  subject. 

**  On  a  certain  Sunday  night  in  the  spring  of  1875  he 2  chanced 
to  be  dining  in  Bruton  Street  with  Henry  Oppenheim,  one  of  the 
original  proprietors  of  the  Daily  News.  During  a  residence  in 
Paris  and  Egypt  that  gentleman,  just  settling  down  in  London, 
was  brought  into  close  connection  with  Egyptian  financial  affairs. 
On  the  previous  day  he  heard  of  the  intention  of  the  impecunious 
Khedive  to  sell  en  bloc  his  holding  in  the  capital  of  the  Suez  Canal. 
Greenwood  instantly  saw  the  opportunity  for  a  great  stroke  of 
State.  On  leaving  Bruton  Street  he  went  direct  to  the  private 
residence  of  the  Foreign  Secretary  (Lord  Derby)  and  told  him  of 
the  rare  chance.  Lord  Derby  informed  the  Prime  Minister, 
whose  Oriental  mind  glowed  at  the  prospect  of  so  stupendous  a 

*  The  Final  Exodus  ;  or,  the  Restoration  to  Palestine  of  the  lost  Tribes, 
the  result  of  the  present  crisis  ;  with  a  description  of  the  battle  of  Arma- 
geddon, and  the  downfall  of  Russia,  as  deduced  wholly  from  prophecy. 
London  .  .  .  1854. 

[8°.  30  pp.]     pp.  4-5,  13-14.  27.  30. 

*  Frederick  Greenwood,  one  of  the  ablest  journalists  of  his  day. 


APPENDICES  247 

deal.  Inquiry  secretly  made  at  Cairo  disclosed  the  fact  that  the 
Khedive  would  '  part  '  for  a  sum  of  four  millions  sterling.  But  it 
must  be  money  down. 

"  It  was,  Greenwood  told  me,  on  Lord  Beaconsfield's  personal 
suggestion  that  the  difficulty,  at  the  moment  apparently  insuper- 
able, was  overcome.  The  consent  of  Parliament  was  necessary 
to  confirmation  of  the  deal.  That  involved  both  delay  and 
publicity,  either  fatal  to  success.  Late  on  the  Thursday  night 
following  the  Bruton  Street  dinner,  the  Premier  sent  his  private 
secretary,  Monty  Corry,^  to  call  upon  Baron  Rothschild,  the 
Sidonia  of  '  Coningsby,'  at  the  time  head  of  the  great  financial 
house.  Even  a  Rothschild  did  not  happen  to  have  about  him  at 
the  moment  a  trifle  of  four  million  sterling.  Nor  was  it  possible, 
in  accordance  with  the  traditions  of  the  house,  that  such  a  trans- 
action should  be  entered  upon  without  having  been  considered 
in  family  council.  Corry  accordingly  returned  to  the  Premier 
without  definite  reply.  It  came  promptly  on  the  following 
morning,  the  terms  being  that  the  money  would  be  advanced  on 
a  commission  of  2 J  per  cent. 

"These  terms  were  pretty  stiff,  involving  a  payment  of  £100,000. 
The  City  heard  of  them  with  envy,  and  they  were  discussed  with 
much  severity  when  the  matter  came  before  the  House  of 
Commons.  The  Rothschilds  and  their  friends  defended  them  on 
the  ground  that  the  colossal  transaction  involved  a  certain 
measure  of  risk.  There  was  absolutely  no  security  beyond  the 
influence  of  the  Premier,  still  master  of  a  majority  in  the  House 
of  Commons,  and  pledged  to  invoke  its  aid  in  order  to  obtain 
Parliamentary  sanction.  The  whole  thing  happened  between 
two  Sundays.  On  the  first  Greenwood  dined  at  Bruton  Street  ; 
on  the  second,  calling  on  Lord  Derby,  he  learned  that  the  trans- 
action had  been  successfully  carried  through,  and  was  invited  to 
say  what  form  his  personal  recompense  should  take.  He  declined 
to  specify  a  request,  protesting  he  had  done  nothing  but  his  duty, 
and  was  content  that  its  accomplishment  should  be  his 
reward.  .  .  ."^ 


LIX 

Cyprus  and  Palestine 

The  Anglo-Turkish  Convention  had  given  a  new  and  unexpected 
addition  to  the  already  extensive  list  of  British  territorial 
responsibilities.  It  is  true  that  a  "  conditional  "  element  .  .  . 
enters  into  the  connexion  formed  with  the  Turkish  Government  ; 
and  the  claims  to  interpose  between  the  Sultan  and  his  subjects, 

^  Afterwards  Lord  Rowton. 

*  Cornhill,  January,  191 2,  pp.  64-65. 


248  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

as  well  as  the  circumstances  which  would  render  interference 
necessary,  are  not  very  clearly  defined.  But  the  British  Govern- 
ment, not  only  by  entering  into  the  Convention,  but  by  the 
prominence  with  which  important  events  invested  that  treaty, 
as  also  by  its  positive  acquisition  of  the  island  of  Cyprus,  stand 
pledged  before  Europe  and  the  world  to  secure  to  the  populations 
of  Asiatic  Turkey  a  deliverance  from  the  corrupt  rule  which  has 
hitherto  burdened  them.  .  .  /' 

"  In  the  minds  of  all  thoughtful  men  there  is  a  strong  belief 
that  this  country  is  the  instrument  by  which  freedom,  peace  and 
true  religion  will  be  carried  to  the  uttermost  ends  of  the  world. 
If  that  be  so,  there  is  assuredly  no  portion  of  the  earth's  surface 
which  more  needs  the  possession  of  these  blessings,  or  from  which 
can  come  in  keener  despair  the  cry  '  Come  and  help  us.'  The 
countries  of  Asia  still  remaining  .  .  .  include  those  whereon  the 
earliest  progenitors  of  the  human  race  appeared,  and  those  which 
are  familiar  to  us  in  Biblical  records,  or  interesting  as  the  plat- 
form upon  which  mighty  nations  strove,  and  empires  fell  in  the 
strife  which  was  raging  then  as  now  between  the  powers  of  Good 
and  Evil."^ 

LX 

Disraeli  and  Heine 

"  Deux  noms,  dont  le  rapprochement  pent  sembler  d'abord 
inattendu,  me  viennent  sans  cesse  k  I'esprit  lorsque  j'embrasse 
d'un  coup  d'oeil  cette  physionomie  singulis'. e  d'homme  d'etat  et 
d'ecrivain,  et  ils  aident,  si  je  ne  me  tr  mpe,  k  en  demeler  la 
signification.  M.  Disraeli  me  fait  sou  vent  penser  a  Henri  Heine. 
Chez  tous  les  deux,  en  effet,  meme  vivacite  d'intelligence,  meme 
penetration,  meme  promptitude  a  saisir  toutes  les  idees  et  a 
s'approprier  pour  un  instant  toutes  les  doctrines,  meme  vaga- 
bondage d 'imagination,  meme  indiscipHne  de  genie,  meme 
melange  bizarre  de  fantaisie  et  de  pensee,  de  frivolite  et  de  pro- 
f ondeur. . . .  M.  Disraeli  a  eu  la  chance,  qui  n'echut  pas  a  H.  Heine, 
de  vivre  dans  un  milieu  oii  certains  exces  n'eussent  jamais  ete 
toleres.  .  .  .  II  n 'a  pas  connu  non  plus  les  souffrances  morales, 
les  apres  soucis,  les  angoisses,  les  serieuses  epreuves,  qui  repandent 
I'amertume  dans  Tironie  du  poete  allemand,  et  lui  arrachent, 
parmi  ses  eclats  de  rire,  des  cris  si  poignans  :  mais  comme  il 
tranche  neanmoins  sur  la  societe  anglaise,  .  .  .  Quelle  perturba- 
tion il  jette  dans  son  parti,  quelle  inquietude  il  y  seme  par  les 
saillies  de  sa  verve  goguenarde,  .  .  .  De  quel  doigt  irrespectueux 
il  leve  tous  les  voiles  et  touche  aux  institutions  qu'il  pretend 
defendre  !  Ici,  comme  chez  H.  Heine,  on  ne  saurait  meconnaitre 
1 'influence  persistante  de  la  race.    L'un  a  fini  par  embrasser 

*  Cyprus  and  the  Asiatic  Turkey,  by  J.  M.  London,  1878,  pp.  v-vii. 


APPENDICES  249 

le  catholicisme,  I'autre  est  ne  dans  I'eglise  anglicane  ;  mais  ils 
restent  Juifs,  et  pour  sa  part  M.  Disraeli,  courageux  avocat  des 
Juifs  a  la  chambre  des  communes  et  dans  ces  livres,  n'a  jamais 
desavoue  sa  parente  avec  eux.  L'etit-il  essaye  d'ailleurs,  que  le 
sceau  de  la  race,  vivement  empreinte  dans  son  genie  et  dans  son 
caractere,  Taurait  trahi.  Malgre  son  torysme  d'emprunt,  on  sent, 
il  faut  le  dire  k  son  honneur,  dans  le  langage  de  M.  Disraeli  una 
sympathie  de  coeur  pour  les  desherites  qui  n'est  guere  une  dis- 
position anglaise  et  aristocratique  :  c'est  bien  plutot  un  souvenir 
de  I'egalite  juive  et  un  sentiment  puise  dans  la  legislation  re- 
publicaine  de  Moise  ;  mais  ce  qui  est  plus  juif  encore,  c'est  ce 
fonde  de  cynisme,  derniere  defense  d'une  race  trempee  de  longue 
date  par  la  persecution  et  le  mepris,  bronzee  par  Thabitude  de 
I'outrage.  M.  Disraeli  n'est  pas  plus  exempt  que  H.  Heine  de 
cette  audace  qui  defie  le  ridicule  et  qui  meme  sait  en  tire 
parti.  . 


•1 


LXI 

Disraeli's  Defence  of  the  Jews 

Disraeli  supported  the  emancipation  of  the  Jews  in  England 
on  religious  grounds  : — 

"  .  .  .  The  very  reason  for  admitting  the  Jews  is  because  they 
show  so  near  an  affinity  to  you.  Where  is  your  Christianity  if 
you  do  not  believe  in  their  Judaism  ?  . . .  The  Jew  was  necessarily  a 
religious  being,  but  not  a  proselytising  one,  and  so  would  support 
and  not  undermine  the  Christian  Church.  .  .  .  What  possible 
object  can  the  Jew  have  to  oppose  the  Christian  Church  ?  Is  it 
not  the  first  business  of  the  Christian  Church  to  make  the 
population  whose  minds  she  attempts  to  form,  and  whose  morals 
she  seeks  to  guide,  acquainted  with  the  history  of  the  Jews  ? 
Has  not  the  Church  of  Christ — ^the  Christian  Church,  whether 
Roman  Catholic  or  Protestant — made  the  history  of  the  Jews 
the  most  celebrated  history  of  the  world  ?  On  every  sacred  day 
you  read  to  the  people  the  exploits  of  Jewish  heroes,  the  proofs 
of  Jewish  devotion,  the  briUiant  annals  of  past  Jewish  magni- 
ficence. .  .  .  Every  Sunday — every  Lord's  day — if  you  wish  to 
express  feelings  of  praise  and  thanksgiving  to  the  most  High,  or 
if  you  wish  to  find  expressions  of  solace  in  grief,  you  find  both  in 
the  works  of  Jewish  poets.  ...  In  exact  proportion  to  your  faith 
ought  to  be  your  wish  to  do  this  great  act  of  national  justice.  If 
you  have  not  forgotten  what  you  owe  to  this  people,  if  you  were 
grateful  for  that  literature  which,  for  thousands  of  years,  has 
brought  so  much  instruction  and  so  much  consolation  to  the  sons 

1  Le  Roman  Politique  en  Angleterre  :  Lothaire  de  M.  Disraeli,  par 
M.  P.  Challemel-Lacour,  pp.  445-447.  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes  .  .  . 
15  Juillet .  .  .  Paris  .  .  .  1870. 


250  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

of  men,  you  as  Christians,  would  be  only  too  ready  to  seize  the 
first  opportunity  of  meeting  the  claims  of  those  who  profess  this 
religion/'^ 

LXII 

A  Hebrew  Address  to  Queen  Victoria  (1849) 

Translated  Extract  from  an  Address  of  Russian  Jews  in  Safed 
on  their  coming  under  England's  protection,  1849. 

(After  compliments  to  the  Consul  in  Jerusalem.) 

"  We  acknowledge  to  the  Lord  and  praise  Him  that  He  has 
put  it  into  the  heart  of  the  Glory  the  Pity  of  the  mighty  Crowned 
Queen,  the  pious,  the  precious,  the  upright  who  reigns  over  the 
provinces  of  England  and  its  dependencies,  to  do  good  to  the 
people  of  Israel  and  to  succour  them  with  every  kind  of  aid, 
for  great  and  small,  and  to  defend  them  from  those  that  rise  up 
against  them. 

"  With  a  perfect  heart 
Of  mercy  and  loving  kindness ; 
And  with  the  tips  of  the  wings  of  Mercy 
And  the  grace  of  her  Righteousness 
She  has  extended  and  caused  to  shine  upon  us, 
Who  dwell  in  our  own  land, 
The  holy  (be  it  established  in  our  days,) 
Us,  who  are  burdened  with  troubles — 
Sinking  into  distress. 
Poverty  and  calamity. 
But  loving  the  land  of  our  Fathers, 
The  place  of  our  honour. 
We  here  are  those 

Who  are  the  sons  of  the  provinces  of  Russia, 
And  this  is  the  day  we  have  looked  for  : 
We  have  found  it,  we  have  seen  it — 
For  she  has  bent  down  her  pity  to  receive  us 
Under  the  shade  of  her  wings  of  compassion, 
And  to  comfort  us  with  shade  of  her  mighty  rule. 
For  a  name,  for  a  praise,  and  for  glory  ! 
Yea,  our  souls  within  us  are  bound 
To  implore  Him,  who  is  fearful  in  mighty  acts, 
With  praises  and  prayers, 
That  He  may  prolong  her  days 
In  rest  and  satisfaction  ; 
That  the  Lord  may  hedge  her  in. 
And  all  that  are  hers : 
The  princes  around  her. 
With  her  nobles, 

*  The  Life  of  Benjamin  Disraeli,  Earl  of  Beaconsfield,  by  William 
Flavelle  Monypenny  and  George  Earie  Buckle.  Volume  iii.  .  .  .  London 
.  .  .  I9I4»  PP-  68-69. 


APPENDICES  251 

And  all  those  comforted  in  her  shadow 

May  they  rise  on  wings  of  elevation,  of  prosperity, 

In  fulness  of  joy  ; 

And  may  her  kingdom  be  established 

Like  the  Moon,  for  ever  and  ever, 

Until  the  coming  of  Messiah  ! 

May  the  Lord  bless  their  lives  and  their  substance, 

And  increase  their  honour, 

And  crown  their  praise  ! 

Amen,  so  be  Thy  will !  "  1 


LXIII 

An  Appeal  by  Ernest  Laharanne  (i860) 

"  Oh  !  que  de  proscriptions,  que  de  larmes,  que  de  sang  dans 
cette  periode  de  18  si^cles,  et  vous  etes  encore,  fils  de  Juda  ! 

"  Contre  la  haine,  le  mepris,  le  dedain,  le  degout  vous  avez 
franchi  ces  obstacles,  sans  nombre,  que  les  bourreaux  des  siecles 
d'aveugle  foi  tendaient  k  votre  passage,  et  Tetemelle  main  vous 
conduisait  sans  cesse  ! 

"  Mais  la  France  vous  a  faits  libres  !  .  .  . 

"  Vous  avez  et6  citoyens  et  vous  etes  nos  frSres  ! 

*'  L'an  1789  a  6te  pour  vous  la  premiere  6tape  de  la  rehabilita- 
tion, si  la  rehabilitation  est  1^  oil  il  n'y  a  pas  la  honte  et 
inf  amie,  mais  1^  ou  il  y  a  eu  un  malheur  ! 

"  Marchez  alors  sous  I'^gide  sacr^e  de  cette  France  6manci- 
patrice  !  Dans  sa  mission  lib^rale,  son  etoile  de  salut  distingua 
^chelonnes,  sur  la  route  des  peuples,  toutes  les  races  proscrites 
et  tous  les  parias  du  monde.  Et  vous  6tiez  sur  ce  grand  chemin, 
et  I'opprobre  et  les  malheurs  ombrageaient  seuls  I'^pineuse  et 
brulante  voie  !  " 

**  Elle  vous  appella  dans  ses  assemblees,  dans  ses  triomphes, 
dans  ses  joies,  dans  ses  malheurs  ;  et  au  jour  des  deliberations, 
vous  avez  parle,  et  au  jour  des  marches  triomphales  vous  avez 
applaudi,  et  au  jour  de  nos  malheurs,  vous  avez  pleur^  !  .  .  ." 

"  Nous  nous  inclinons  devant  vous,  hommes  forts  !  Car  vous 
f utes  forts  durant  votre  histoire  antique ;  vous  f utes  forts,  depuis 
le  drame  de  Jerusalem ;  vous  futes  forts  au  temps  du  moyen- 
age,  alors  qu'il  n'y  avait  que  deux  noires  puissances :  I'inqui- 
sition  avec  la  croix,  les  pirates  avec  le  croissant ! 

"  Mais  vous  ne  nous  etes  pas  arrives  tous  jusqu'k  nous.  Com- 
bien  n'en  a-t-il  pas  fallu  pour  payer  I'immense  tribu  de  18  siecles ! 

**  Mais,  ceux  qui  restent,  vous  pouvez  grandir  encore  et 
rebatir  la  porte  de  Jerusalem. 

**  C'est  votre  tache.    Dieu  ne  vous  aurait  pas  conduits  jusqu'k 

^  Stirring  Times  ...  of  1853  to  1856,  by  the  late  James  Finn .  .  .  vol.L 
London  .  .  .  1878,  pp.  130-132. 


252  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

nos  temps  s'il  n'avait  pas  voulu  vous  r^server  la  plus  sainte  des 
missions.  .   .  !* 

"  Une  haute  mission  vous  est  reservee.  Places  comme  un 
vivant  trait  d'union  entre  trois  mondes,  vous  devez  amener  la 
civilisation  chez  les  peuples  inexperimentes  encore,  vous  devez 
leur  porter  les  lumieres  d'Europe  que  vous  avezrecueillies  aflots." 

"  Vous  servirez  d'intermediaires  entre  TEurope  et  I'extreme 
Asie,  et  vous  ouvxirez  les  grandes  voies  quimdnent  aux  Indes  et  a 
la  Chine  et  aux  archipels  encore  inconnus,  mais  qu'il  faudra 
explorer. 

"  Vous  arriverez  aux  champs  de  Juda,  avec  la  couronne  du 
martyre  et  les  cicatrices  des  longues  douleurs,  et  le  monde 
s'inclinera  et  les  fronts  se  d^couvriront,  comme  devant  un  ain6 
des  peuples  !  .  .  ." 

"  Vous  avez  assez  aide  a  civiliser  les  peuples,  en  Europe, 
k  faire  avancer  le  progres,  a  faire  et  a  favoriser  les  revolutions  ; 
vous  devez  maintenant  songer  au  vallees  du  Liban  et  aux  grandes 
plaines  de  Genezareth. 

"  Mar  chez  !  Dans  votre  oeuvre  renovatrice,  nos  coeurs  vous 
suivront  et  nos  bras  vous  serviront  d'aide  ! 

"  Nous  le  ferons  !  Vous  avez  en  vous-memes  de  ces  hommes 
si  rares  en  nos  temps,  qui  ont  fait  appel  k  vos  sympathies,  et  k 
vos  secours,  pour  venir  soulager  nos  fr^es  dans  le  malheur  V- 

"  Cette  voix  que  nous  entendons  encore  a  retenti  d'un  bout  k 
I'autre  du  monde.  Et  qui  ne  serait  pas  reconnaissant  aujourd'hui 
du  genereux  elan  qu'a  provoque  le  grand  homme  ? 

"  Mar  chez,  Juifs  de  tous  les  pays  !  .  .  .  L'antique  patrie  vous 
appelle,  et  nous  serons  fiers  de  venir  rouvrir  vos  foyers  !  ** 

"  Marchez,  fils  de  martyrs  !  .  .  ."^ 


LXIV 

Statistics  of  the  Holy  Land 

A  FOLDED  page  with  which  the  Addenda  (Extracts  from  some  of 
the  reports,  letters,  and  addresses  on  agriculture  in  the  Holy  Land 
received  by  Sir  Moses  Montefiore,  f.r.s.,  etc.  etc.,|during  his 
sojourn  there.  Translated  from  the  originals,  by  Dr.  L.  Loewe) 
to  Lady  Montefiore 's  Notes  from  a  Private  Journal,  1844, 
concludes,  is  entitled  : — 

**  A  form  of  the  lists  giving  a  statistical  account  of  the  Children 
of  Israel  dwelling  in  the  Holy  Land.    In  the  Year  5599-1839." 

1  "  L'illustre  M.  Cr6mieux,  dont  le  nom,  en  ces  circonstances,  ne  saurait 
fetre  jamais  assez,  non  pas  glorifi.6,  mais  b6m.  ..." 

2  La  Nouvelle  Question  d'Orient.  Empires  d'Egypte  et  d'Arabie. 
Reconstitution  de  la  Nationality  Juive,  Paris  .  .  .  i860.  (8°.  47  pp.) 
pp.  39-41. 


APPENDICES  253 

These  are  the  names  of  the  worthy  persons  fearing  God,  who  resided 
in  the  Holy  City,  in  the  year  5599-1839. 

The  form  is  divided  into  seventeen  columnar  sections,  headed 
with  the  following  queries  : — 

Number  in  Faritily — Names — -Where  born — Age — Date  of  arrival 
in  the  Holy  Land — How  Situated — Occupation — Married — Single 
— -Names  and  number  of  children — Age  above  13 — Age  under  13 
— Names  of  Widows — -Age — ]^ames  of  Orphans — Age — Remarks. 

Sir  Moses,  accompanied  by  his  wife,  first  visited  the  Holy  Land 
in  1827,  and  the  urgent  necessity  and  vast  importance  of  statistics 
must  have  deeply  impressed  him,  for  we  find  that  on  his  second 
pilgrimage,  eleven  years  later,  he  caused  forms  similar  to  the 
above,  which  were  also  in  Hebrew,  to  be  distributed  in  the  Holy 
Cities  of  Jerusalem,  Safed,  Tiberias,  Hebron,  and  in  other  towns 
and  villages.  The  information  furnished  was  signed,  counter- 
signed and  sealed  by  the  Heads  of  each  Kahal. 

Forms  applicable  to  synagogues,  colleges,  schools,  and  various 
other  institutions  were  also  circulated,  requesting  particulars 
as  to  situation,  the  names  of  the  ecclesiastical  and  lay  heads, 
and  other  officials.  The  purpose  of  each  organization,  its  income 
and  expenditure,  and  a  number  of  other  minor  details. 

This  information — collected  for  thirty-six  years  5599-5635= 
1839-1875 — was  compiled  and  arranged  by  Dr.  Louis  Loewe 
(the  life-long  friend  of  Sir  Moses,  whom  he  accompanied  on 
thirteen  of  his  missions  abroad)  and  transcribed  in  fifteen 
imperial  folio  volumes,  a  model  of  Hebrew  calligraphy. 

In  addition  to  these  particulars  of  a  personal  nature,  this  in- 
valuable thesaurus  contains  information  dealing  with  land, 
agriculture,  buildings,  industries,  cotton,  oil,  fruit-trees,  and  the 
condition  of  the  country  in  general.  The  volumes  are  now  de- 
posited at  the  Jews'  College,  Queen  Square  House,  London,  but 
form  part  of  the  Library  of  the  Judith,  Lady  Montefiore  Theo- 
logical College  of  Ramsgate. 

A  wealth  of  material  lies  at  the  disposal  of  future  historians 
and  statisticians,  and  it  is  devoutly  to  be  hoped,  that  this 
great  work  will  find  its  proper  resting-place  in  the  Archives  of 
Jerusalem.  

LXV 

An  Open  Letter  or  Rabbi  Chayyim  Zebi  Sneersohn 
OF  Jerusalem  (1863) 

There  were  hundreds  of  Jews,  preferring  labour  to  starvation, 
to  be  seen  working  for  their  daily  bread  at  one  shilling  per  day  in 
the  fields  of  the  so-called  '  Industrial  Plantations  for  Jews/ 
then  under  the  auspices  of  Mr.  Finn,  late  Enghsh  Consul  for 
Palestine,  and  up  to  the  present  time  there  are  many  Jews 
engaged  in  performing  even  the  most  menial  offices  and  doing 


254  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

their  best  to  provide  food  for  their  famiHes.  The  other  day  a 
meeting  was  held  by  the  Chief  Rabbi,  Haim  David  Hassan,  and 
many  other  notabiUties  of  the  different  congregations,  at  which  I 
also  attended.  The  subject  proposed  was  an  enquiry  to  ascer- 
tain the  number  of  those  who  are  likely  to  devote  themselves 
to  agricultural  pursuits  and  to  draw  up  a  plan  in  which  way  they 
could  be  helped  in  order  to  attain  the  object  desired.  The  result 
was  that  up  to  the  present  about  one  hundred  heads 
of  families  declared  their  readiness  to  go  and  till  the  ground  of 
their  fathers.  The  result  of  the  preliminary  discussion  on  the 
plan  to  be  adopted  was  to  get  a  hodjet,  or  secure  possession  from 
the  Government  or  possession  of  cultivated  ground,  consisting  of 
gardens,  olive  trees,  vineyards  and  fields." 

Palestinian  Rabbis  were  quick  to  recognize  the  activity  of  the 
British  Consul.  James  Finn  was  indeed  an  English  pioneer  of 
the  idea  of  colonization  of  Palestine  and  of  Britain's  protection 
of  Palestinian  Jews.  He  was  appointed  Consul  before  the  death 
of  Bishop  Alexander  (who  was  a  converted  Jew  and  the  first 
Bishop  appointed  by  the  British  Government  in  Jerusalem),  in 
1848,  and  the  chief  reason  for  his  appointment  was  his  known 
love  of  the  Jewish  cause.  He  was  at  the  time  a  member  of  the 
London  Society's  Committee,  had  published  an  interesting  and 
learned  work  on  the  History  of  the  Spanish  Jews,  as  well  as  a 
tract  upon  the  Chinese  Jews,  had  devoted  himself  with  great  zeal 
and  rare  success  to  the  study  of  Hebrew,  which  he  spoke  and 
wrote  with  fluency,  and  was  considered  on  this  account  to  be 
particularly  well  qualified  for  the  post  of  Consul  at  Jerusalem 
(another  proof  of  the  great  appreciation  of  the  national  Jewish 
character  of  Palestine  on  the  part  of  the  British  Government  at 
that  time) .  Finn  went  out  as  a  devoted  friend  to  the  Jewish  cause, 
and  such  he  proved  himself  throughout.  Though  an  ardent  Chris- 
tian, he  won  the  sympathy  of  the  most  orthodox  Jerusalem 
Rabbis,  and  their  moral  support  for  the  colonization  of  Palestine. 

Palestinian  Jews  themselves  advocated  the  establishment  of 
Jewish  agricultural  colonies  in  1863  • — 

**  Behold,  we  are  now  awaking  to  a  sense  of  the  profound 
degradation  which  systematic  dependence  on  charity  must 
produce  and  to  the  awful  demoralization  which  must  be  the 
necessary  consequence  of  its  precariousness.  The  increasing 
prosperity  of  those  around  us  makes  us  the  more  deeply  feel  our 
own  unutterable  misery :  while  European  ideas,  gradually 
penetrating  to  us,  are  rousing  us  from  our  apathy  and  inspiring 
us  more  and  more  with  the  wish  to  wipe  away  from  us  the 
disgrace  of  sloth,  with  which  we  are  but  too  often  stigmatized. 
We  want  to  work,  and  to  work  hard,  in  order  to  support  our- 
selves by  the  sweat  of  our  brows.  But  there  is  in  Palestine  no 
other  source  of  employment  capable  of  giving  bread  to  a  com- 
munity consisting  of  thousands  of  individuals,  save  agriculture. 


APPENDICES  255 

You  dole  out  to  us  annually  thousands  of  pounds,  just  enough 
to  keep  us,  year  after  year,  on  the  brink  of  starvation.  This  has 
now  been  going  on  for  centuries,  with  the  result  which  we  have 
seen.  Now  try  whether  a  change  for  the  better  could  not  be 
brought  about.  Lay  out,  by  way  of  experiment,  and  on  a  small 
scale,  just  to  begin  with,  a  portion  of  the  funds  destined  for  the 
Holy  Land  in  productive  labour.  Some  of  us,  at  least,  will, 
instead  of  being  maintained  in  involuntary  idleness,  see  what  our 
handiv/ork  can  produce,  whereby  you  give  the  mere  consumer 
of  to-day  a  chance  of  becoming  the  producer  of  to-morrow,  and 
in  time  you  may  have  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  the  country  dotted 
with  self-supporting  agricultural  colonies  of  happy  Jews — the  very 
same  who  are  now  a  burden  to  you,  and  whose  cry  of  distress  every 
now  and  then  resounds  through  the  countries  of  the  West." 

Rabbi  Sneersohn  was  on  a  visit  to  Melbourne  in  1861,  and 
addressed  (in  Hebrew)  a  "  Meeting  of  the  members  of  the  Jewish 
Faith  (to  which  persons  of  other  denominations  were  also  invited) 
for  the  purpose  of  adopting  measures  to  assist  in  building  houses 
of  refuge  on  Mount  Zion  "  {The  Salvation  of  Israel,  an  address, 
etc.,  by  Rabbi  Hayim  Zwi  Sneersohn,  Melbourne,  1862). 


LXVI 

The  Tragedy  of  a  Minority,  as  seen  by  an  English 
Jewish  Publicist  (1863) 

"  The  whole  Tragedy  of  our  People  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact 
that  we  must  everywhere  he  in  the  minority  :  and  no  matter  how 
just  our  cause  may  be,  we  shall  always  have  to  complain  of 
slights  and  insults,  of  being  overlooked  by  accident  or  design, 
of  being  scorned  by  many,  and  denounced  by  zealots  or  infidels, 
all  for  the  sake  of  being  a  minority.  .  .  .  But  once  again 
blessed  with  a  Government  of  our  own,  though  only  a  small 
portion  of  Israelites  should  be  found  in  their  own  land,  while  the 
many  would  prefer  to  remain  in  the  countries  where  they  now 
sojourn,  and  the  advantages  of  which  they  might  not  wish  to 
give  up,  the  feelings  of  the  world  would  necessarily  undergo  a 
great  change,  and  the  treatment  meted  out  to  us  would  not  be 
what  it  is  now.  If  we  have  our  agriculturists,  our  statesmen, 
our  mechanics,  our  public  teachers,  equal  to  the  best  found 
anywhere,  who  would  dare  to  insult  us  by  stating  that  he  knows 
us  only  as  pedlars,  bankers  and  merchants :  and  class  us  as  a 
whole  among  petty  traders  and  men  of  low  pursuits  ?  No  effort 
which  we  can  make,  situated  as  we  are  all  over  the  world,  will 
readily  change  the  long  habit  which  was  forced  on  us  to  depend 
on  commerce,  large  and  small,  in  all  its  branches,  in  which  the 
meaner  necessarily  predominated,  owing  to  the  exclusive  laws 
to  which  we  were  subjected :   and  therefore  it  will  be  centuries 


256  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

before  the  unjust  prejudices  against  us  die  out,  if  ever  they  can, 
in  case  we  ever  succeed  in  divesting  ourselves  of  that  habit. 
If  our  land  be  restored  to  us,  and  we  to  it,  how  nobly  will  our 
character,  which  is  now  concealed  and  obscure,  burst  forth  in  all 
ancient  vigour  and  beauty,  and  we  shall  naturally  present  to  the 
world  again  examples  worthy  of  imitation,  and  the  harp  of 
Judah,  which  has  so  long  hung  mute  on  the  willows  of  many  a 
Babylon,  will  again  resound  to  the  master-touch  of  the  inspired 
poet.  He  will  again  sing  aloud  the  praises  of  the  Most  High. 
Our  judges  will  sit  on  the  judgment-seat  of  our  ancient  counsel- 
lors, and  decide  for  the  lofty  and  the  lowly  according  to  the 
demands  of  the  Mosaic  legislation  :  and  the  wisdom  which  had 
its  chief  residence  on  the  hills  of  Jerusalem  will  evermore  be 
diffused  to  enlighten  a  suffering  world,  and  will  prove  its  strength 
in  contrast  with  the  failures  of  antagonistic  systems.  .  .  .  Will 
this  dream  be  speedily  realized  ?  We  cannot  tell  indeed  :  events 
occasionally  creep  slowly  over  the  face  of  the  world,  but  at 
other  times  they  rush  rapidly  forward,  and  one  great  develop- 
ment follows  closely  on  the  heels  of  the  other.  The  same  may 
be  the  case  with  the  now  apparently  distant  restoration  of 
Israelites  to  Palestine.  The  world  is  becoming  rapidly  peopled  : 
the  boundaries  of  nations  in  the  meanwhile  are  frequently 
changed :  jealousies  of  one  people  against  another  are  con- 
stantly developed :  the  balance  of  power,  a  vain  desire  to 
preserve  peace  among  men,  is  constantly  vibrating  to  and  fro. 
Is  it  then  so  unlikely  that  an  effort  will  be  made  to  place  in 
Palestine  and  the  neighbourhood  an  enterprising  race  which 
shall  restore  it  ?  "  

LXVII 

:  nn'^sn  ]«nab6n  p'ts  rw^'ll^  b^iw^^  ^n^  nia;'*  man 

London  Hebrew  Society  for  the  Colonization 
OF  THE  Holy  Land 

Plans 
'*  The  London  Society  for  the  Colonization  of  the  Holy  Land 
intends : — 

"  I.  To  collect  funds  for  the  purchase  of  deserted  and  desolate 
towns,  and  fields  and  vineyards  in  the  Holy  Land,  and  to  prepare 
Hebrew  Persons  able  and  wiUing  to  work,  so  as  to  fit  them  for 
agricultural  labour  in  the  Holy  Land. 

"2.  All  Israelites,  expert  in  sacred  scripture  and  the  Hebrew 
language,  who  are  members  of  this  society  for  six  years,  and 
prove  their  ability  in  agriculture,  honest,  and  of  respectable 
behaviour,  able  and  willing  to  work,  will  be  sent  out  to  the  Holy 
Land  by  this  Society. 


APPENDICES  257 

"3.  On  those  sent  out  by  the  Society  the  sacred  duty  devolves 
to  fulfil  faithfully  the  commandments  of  the  min  not  to  work 
— or  cause  to  work — on  Sabbath,  Festivals,  Schemita,  and 
Jobal,  as  well  as  to  observe  nxai  nriDB^  IDpi  and  all  other  com- 
mandments relating  to  the  cultivation  of  the  soil  in  the  Holy 
Land. 

"4.  All  Israelites  having  lived  uninterruptedly  for  three 
years  in  the  Holy  Land  will  be  considered  as  free  members,  and, 
after  passing  proper  examination,  can  enjoy  the  same  rights  as 
those  who  have  contributed. 

**  5.  A  house,  with  adjoining  land,  and  cattle,  implements  and 
all  other  requirements  for  agriculture,  and  all  necessaries  for 
himself  and  his  family  shall  be  provided  by  the  Society  until 
the  soil  is  fertilised  and  productive. 

"  6.  In  each  colony  the  Society  shall  establish  a  Synagogue 
with  all  its  requirements  as  n'D,  etc.,  schools  for  children  and 
adults,  appoint  and  pay  Rabbis,  readers  and  the  other  officials, 
provide  books,  &c. 

"7.  The  Rabbi  must  not  only  have  thorough  knowledge  of 
the  Hebrew  language  and  Theology,  but  must  also  be  expert  in 
other  sciences  and  languages,  especially  the  language  of  the 
country. 

'*  8.  Every  colonist  has  the  preference,  after  the  stipulated 
time,  to  farm  the  land  fertilised  by  his  labour,  which  land 
remains  the  property  of  the  society. 

"9.  The  colonists  will  be  placed  under  the  protection  of  the 
great  European  powers. 

"10.  Co-religionists  trained  to  the  use  of  arms  will  be  ap- 
pointed by  the  society,  to  protect  the  colony  from  the  attacks 
of  the  Bedouins ;  also  police  to  enforce  the  laws  and  to  main- 
tain order. 

"11.  Israelitish  co-religionists  of  all  countries  and  of  either 
sex  will  be  accepted  as  members  of  the  society. 

"12.  Those  of  other  religions  can  only  be  accepted  as  honorary 
members. 

"13.  Boys  and  girls  from  13  to  20  years  of  age,  and  persons 
more  than  50  years  of  age  can  be  members  of  the  second  class 
only. 

"  14.  Children  under  13  years  of  age  are  members  of  the 
third  class. 

"15.  Communities  forming  societies  among  themselves  will 
be  accepted  as  branches  of  this  society. 

"  16.  Members,  who  bequeath  money  or  property,  according 
to  their  means,  for  the  benefit  of  the  society  will  be  constituted 
perpetual  members. 

"  17.  Any  member  desiring  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of 

II.— s 


258  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

deceased  relations  or  friends,  can  do  so  by  paying  a  certain  sum, 
according  to  his  means,  to  have  them  inscribed  as  perpetual 
members. 

"  i8.  Each  member  to  pay  an  entrance  fee  of  not  less  than 
IS.  6d.,  one- third  of  which  fee  must  be  paid  at  the  time  of 
entrance. 

'*  19.  This  third  part  will  be  used  to  meet  the  expenses  of 
stationery,  printing,  advertising,  rent  of  lecture  hall,  manage- 
ment, &c.,  and  for  the  assistance  of  those  persons  preparing 
themselves  for  agriculture. 

"  20.  Each  member  agrees  to  pay  a  certain  voluntary  contri- 
bution towards  the  funds  of  the  society,  which  sum  has  to  be 
paid  to  the  committee  every  isnn  U^fc^l  for  which  he  will  receive 
a  receipt. 

"21.  A  public  meeting  will  be  held  every  n*l  when  the  names 
of  the  members  and  the  amount  of  their  contributions  will  be 
published. 

"22.  General  meetings  will  be  held  three  times  during  the 
year,  at  such  time  and  place  as  the  monthly  meetings  shall 
appoint. 

"23.  Admission  of  non-members  to  the  monthly  meetings  by 
ticket,  to  be  had  gratis. 

"  24.  None  but  members  will  be  allowed  to  address  the 
meeting.  Non-members  can  submit  any  question  in  writing, 
which  will  be  communicated,  and  if  necessary  discussed  at  the 
meeting. 

"  25.  To  explain  and  to  illustrate  the  principles  of  the  society, 
lectures  will  be  delivered  every  Sabbath  in  the  hall  of  the 
society,  to  which  members  have  free  admission,  non-members  by 
ticket,  sold  for  the  benefit  of  the  society. 

**  The  land  will  be  divided  by  ballot,  for  which  members  of  the 
first  class  only  are  qualified.  For  assistance  and  for  instruction 
every  member  of  six  months  standing,  in  the  first  and  second 
class,  has  a  claim. 

"  Members  who  shall  have  obtained  a  plot  of  land  and  should 
not  desire  to  emigrate,  can  convey  the  same  to  another  person, 
provided  he  be  qualified  as  described  in  Rule  2."^ 

^  ^^'i^\  rip35  The  Hebrew  National.  A  weekly  Journal  [Edited  by 
Herschel  Filipowski]  .  .  .  London.,  vol.  i.,  No.  2,  Feb.  22nd,  1867,  pp. 
29-30. 

An  appeal  from  this  Society  "  By  order  of  the  Committee,  E.  I.  Polak, 
Secretary  {pro  tern.),"  appeared  in  a  specimen  of  a  unique  newspaper  lent  to 
me  by  Mr.  James  H.  Lowe,  entitled  J  1310^^^  VK^^H  K'^**  London  Jews' 
Weeldy  Times,  No.  4,  31st  May  =26  lyar,  but  the  year  is  omitted.  The 
advertisements  were  printed,  but  the  news  was  lithographed.  The  ofl&ces 
were  situated  at  4  Sun  street,  and  the  paper  was  pubUshed  by  Harris 
Leyserowich  of  No.  3  Sweedland  Court,  Bishopsgate  Street,  City. 


APPENDICES  259 

LXVIII 

An  Open  Letter  of  Henri  Dunant  (1866) 

**  The  disquieting  circumstances  in  which  Europe  finds  itself 
should  not  let  us  forget  that  the  Eastern  question,  which  has 
already  troubled  the  Governments  and  peoples,  may  speedily 
reappear  and  complicate  a  position  grave  enough  in  itself. 
Instinctively  every  one  feels  that  the  day  when  this  question 
will  call  for  a  definite  solution,  all  Europe  will  perhaps  be  in 
inextricable  difficulties. 

"  Diplomatic  difficulties  can  only  end  in  barren  expedients, 
but  the  present,  which  is  averse  to  a  system  of  forcible  conquest 
by  fire  and  sword,  has  a  much  more  powerful  weapon  at  its 
disposal — that  of  pacific  conquest  by  civilization. 

"  What  is  therefore  to  be  done  in  order  to  prevent  grave 
complications,  and  regenerate  the  East  by  rousing  its  vital 
forces  and  infusing  into  it  the  spirit  of  Western  civilization  ? 

"  One  of  the  most  powerful  means  would  be  the  formation  of 
a  large  society,  having  an  eminently  international  character, 
and  which  would  have  thereby  the  merit  of  reconciling  the 
particular  interests  of  the  several  European  Powers  with  those  of 
civilization.  This  Society  would  open  for  the  West  new  and 
abundant  sources  of  wealth :  it  would  become  for  the  East  an 
efiicient  means  of  moral  regeneration :  and  lastly  would  be  for 
all  nations  co-operating  in  the  matter  a  great  honour  and  a  great 
profit. 

"  The  following  is  the  manner  in  which  such  an  association 
may  be  presented  to  the  European  public  : — 

"  Objects  of  the  Eastern  International  Society : — 
"  To  promote  the  development  of  agriculture,  industry,  com- 
merce, and  public  works  in  the  East,  and  especially  in  Palestine. 
To  obtain  from  the  Turkish  Government  privileges  and 
monopolies,  whether  in  Constantinople  or  the  rest  of  the  Empire  : 
notably  the  concession  and  the  gradual  abandonment  of  the  soil 
of  Palestine.  To  distribute  for  pecuniary  considerations  such 
portions  of  the  land,  the  concession  whereof  might  have  been 
acquired  or  received  by  the  Company,  and  to  colonize  the  more 
fertile  valleys  of  the  Holy  Land. 

"  The  Turkish  Empire  contains  virtues  of  all  kinds,  which,  if 
they  were  utilized  by  a  powerful  company,  would  yield  con- 
siderable results  ;  but  the  Porte  neither  possesses  the  resources 
nor  the  necessary  forces  in  order  to  create  and  lead  to  a  favourable 
issue  the  works  of  public  utility,  which  the  internal  development 
of  the  Ottoman  Empire  so  urgently  demands :  left  to  her  own 
resources  she  can  neither  augment  her  revenues  nor  form  new 


26o  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

ones,  she  is  unable  to  give  energetic  support  to  either  agri- 
culture or  industry,  which  are  the  only  means  of  increasing 
public  wealth  and  prosperity. 

"It  is  therefore  for  the  West,  which  possesses  the  capital 
and  where  the  creative  forces  are  superabundant,  to  turn  to  an 
account  the  real  advantages  presented  by  Turkey,  and  to  take 
in  hand  a  work  capable  of  yielding  excellent  results.  Skilfully 
conducted,  operations  in  this  new  country  bring  in  a  very  high 
interest :  but  new  combinations  must  be  devised,  which  should 
enjoy  both  the  approval  of  the  European  Powers,  and  the 
support  of  the  Sultan's  Porte.  Therefore,  in  order  not  to  weaken 
its  forces,  the  Society  must  utilize  certain  special  circumstances  in 
which  Turkey  is  now  placed,  and  Palestine  offers  itself  at  first 
sight  to  the  mind  as  the  earliest  field  of  activity. 

"  Palestine,  as  known,  only  wants  human  labour  in  order  to 
produce  abundantly :  it  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  and 
fruitful  countries  on  the  globe  :  products  of  all  latitudes  are  to 
be  met  with  there,  and  emigrants  from  Europe  find  there  the 
climate  of  their  country.  Commerce  and  private  industry 
completing  the  work  of  agriculture,  will  draw  hither  in  numbers 
merchants,  colonists  and  capitalists.  This  resurrection  of  the 
East,  uniting  with  the  new  rise  of  religious  sentiment,  will  be 
aided  by  the  co-operation  of  Israelites,  whose  valuable  qualities 
and  remarkable  aptitudes  cannot  but  prove  very  advantageous 
to  Palestine. 

"  Having  established  commercial  undertakings  at  Constanti- 
nople and  other  cities  of  the  Turkish  Empire,  the  Society  will 
construct  at  Jaffa  a  port  and  a  good  road,  a  railway  from  this 
city  to  Jerusalem.  The  territory  through  which  the  railway 
runs  should  be  granted  by  Turkey  to  the  Society,  which  might 
sell  it  to  Israelitish  families.  These  in  their  turn  would  create 
colonies  and  make  them  prosperous,  with  the  help  and  the 
labour  of  those  of  their  Eastern  brethren  whose  love  for  their 
ancient  country  has  maintained  itself  as  ardently  as  formerly. 
Special  committees  might  at  their  cost  send  Israelitish  emigrants 
from  Morocco,  Poland,  Moldavia,  Wallachia,  the  East,  Africa,  etc. 

"  The  result  pursued  and  obtained  by  the  Society  by  means 
of  a  sincere  international  understanding,  the  co-operation  of 
those  interested  in  Turkey,  and  the  establishment  of  Western 
populations  in  Palestine,  will  infallibly  be  in  a  less  distant  future 
than  might  be  imagined. 

"  The  reconstruction  of  Holy  Places  at  Jerusalem,  which 
might  be  carried  out  internationally,  and  in  a  manner  worthy  of 
Christendom  :  the  end  of  conflicts  which  are  being  incessantly 
renewed  between  the  Great  Powers  on  account  of  the  Holy 
Places  :  the  transformation  of  ancient  Jerusalem  into  a  new  city 
which  shall  rival  in  importance  the  finest  cities  in  the  West :  the 
creation  of  European  colonies  which  in  time  will  become  centres 


APPENDICES  261 

when  Western  civilization  will  spread  into  Turkey  and  penetrate 
the  extreme  East. 

"  Under  the  nominal  suzerainty  of  the  Sultan  the  Society  will 
administer  with  intelligence  and  equity  the  territories  that  might 
develop  upon  it.  Thus  India  has  long  been  administered  and 
governed  by  an  English  company.  The  Sultan,  grateful  for  the 
financial  support  which  will  be  given  to  him,  might,  perhaps, 
grant  to  the  Holy  Land  a  special  administration,  which,  under 
the  high  direction  of  the  Porte,  would  offer  real  security  to  the 
populations  that  might  repair  thither,  and  guarantees  for  the 
funds  that  might  be  employed  there.  Thanks  to  this  combina- 
tion, which  would  procure  for  her  valuable  resources,  Turkey 
would  not  be  obliged  to  contract  new  loans  in  order  to  pay  the 
interest  on  previous  ones. 

"  The  rising  colonies  might  diplomatically  be  neutralized,  like 
Switzerland,  and  by  a  treaty  which  would  have  some  analogy  to 
the  Convention  signed  at  Geneva  in  favour  of  the  amboulance, 
sanitary  bodies,  and  wounded  soldiers.  It  would  not,  moreover, 
be  so  difficult  to  neutralize  Palestine  by  an  agreement  among  the 
Powers,  since  there  exists  a  remarkable  precedent,  which  is  the 
neutralization  of  the  Lower  Danube  officially  obtained  from  the 
Seven  Powers,  who  signed  the  treaty  at  Paris.  Now  the  Com- 
mission of  the  Lower  Danube  has  created  its  flag  and  a  small 
fleet,  it  possesses  a  numerous  staff  and  revenues :  it  actually 
seeks  to  contract  a  loan,  the  same  as  an  independent  state. 

'*  In  order  to  prepare  the  organization  of  an  International 
Eastern  Society,  it  is  necessary  that  the  minds  should  be  induced 
to  occupy  themselves  with  these  great  and  interesting  questions. 
It  is  indispensable  for  this  purpose  to  form  a  committee  com- 
posed of  influential  and  honourable  men  of  different  nations  and 
different  opinions,  having  at  heart  the  success  of  these  views  in  the 
general  interest.  For  the  rest  the  elements  of  such  a  committee 
are  quite  clear. 

"  Its  programme,  at  the  same  time  economic,  humanitarian, 
scientific,  etc.,  is  also  international:  it  cannot  hurt  the  sus- 
ceptibilities of  any  nation.  Influential  men  in  France,  England, 
and  elsewhere  are  favourably  disposed  to  the  scheme."^ 

^  Societe  Nationale  Universelle  pour  la  Renouvellement  de  1' Orient 
[Henri  Dunant]  Paris  .  .  .  1866. 


262  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

LXIX 

An  Appeal  of  Rabbi  Eijas  Gutmacher  and  Rabbi  Hirsch 
Kalischer  to  the  Jews  of  England  (1867) 

Appeal  to  Our  Brethren 

Thou  shall  yet  plant  vines  upon  the  mountains  of  Samaria  ; 
the  planters  shall  plant  and  shall  eat  them  as  common  things. 
Jeremiah,  chap.  xxxi. 

And  I  will  raise  up  for  them  a  plant  of  renown  and  they  shall 
be  no  more  consumed  with  hunger  in  the  land.     Ezekiel  xxxi  v. 

Hear  ye  generous  people,  learn  ye  who  take  an  interest  in  holy 
matters,  show  your  tender  feelings  towards  our  brethren  in  the 
holy  land  !  Think  of  the  abandoned,  devastated,  sacred  soil. 
Thus  voices  and  signs  urgently  warn  you,  pointing  out  to  you 
that  the  time  long  ago  vouchsafed  has  arrived  to  render  them 
effectual  help. 

Destructive  epidemic  diseases  and  famine  ravage  in  that  land 
in  the  same  awful  way  this  year  as  they  did  in  the  past  one  and 
your  ever  so  abundantly  flowing  gifts  and  donations  are  not 
efficient  to  alleviate  the  misery,  to  satiate  the  hunger  ;  upon  us 
the  needy  cast  their  looks  and  crave  for  relief.  But  there  is  only 
one  way,  one  remedy  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  such  distress, 
and  that  is  :  colonization,  cultivation  and  improvements  of  the 
Palestine  soil. 

This  proposal,  suggested  already  many  years  ago,  urges  now 
more  than  ever  upon  final  realization,  the  soil  must  be  redeemed. 
The  society,  "  AlUance  Israelite,"  in  Paris,  so  great  in  its  activity, 
at  the  head  of  which  M.  Adolphe  Cremieux  stands  as  president, 
has  declared  itself  in  favor  of  this  idea  and  promised  its  own 
assistance  and  interference  (sic)  elsewhere,  to  accomplish  the 
object,  as  we  have  seen  from  that  society's  recently  published 
half-yearly  report. 

A  letter  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  addressed  to  us  after  his  safe 
return  from  Palestine  states  that  the  idea  has  been  approved  of 
there  also.  Sir  Moses  in  the  same  letter  says  that  from  Zephat 
alone  sixty  Jewish  families  addressed  to  him  personally  the 
fervent  prayer  for  a  grant  of  land  for  agricultural  purposes. 
That  the  hard  tried  Israelitish  inhabitants  of  Schabatz  in  Servia 
have  declared  themselves  ready  to  emigrate  for  the  purpose  of 
cultivating  the  Palestine  soil,  is  known  to  us  already,  through  the 
medium  of  Hebrew  periodicals. — ^To  reaUze  the  idea  in  question, 
money  must  be  raised  before  anything  can  be  done  :  the  funds 
in  hand  are  not  sufficient,  the  number  of  Subscribers  must 
increase,  and  the  subscriptions  be  permanent.  The  leaders  of 
congregations  should  take  the  matter  in  hand  and  every  member 
of  a  congregation  in  good  circumstances  ought  to  join  the  society, 
with  a  yearly  contribution  of  two  Thalers  (six  shillings),  by  which 


APPENDICES  263 

they  would  be  instrumental  in  the  performance  of  the  religious 
commands  attached  to  the  sacred  soil  just  as  if  they  themselves 
had  been  performing  it.  To  enable  members  in  more  humble 
circumstances  to  contribute,  quarterly  payments  might  be 
received.  But  he  whom  the  Almighty  has  blessed  with  earthly 
fortunes  and  who  has  the  heart  for  the  sufferings  of  his  co- 
religionists anywhere  in  the  Universe — he  should  not  fail  to  join 
the  "  Alliance  Israelite  "  of  Paris,  as  a  member  with  a  yearly 
contribution  of  i  Thaler  10  Sgr.  (4  Shillings),  and  thus  further  the 
great  aim.  Two  treasurers  have  been  appointed  by  us  to  receive 
contributions.  The  well-known  Banker,  Mr.  Seegall,  in  Posen, 
is  Chief  Treasurer,  and  Mr.  S.  Fuerst,  in  Schmiegel,  Special 
Treasurer  for  amounts  up  to  100  Thalers  (£15).  The  latter 
Gentleman  has  offered  to  pay  all  postages  out  of  his  own  private 
pocket,  and  is  resolved  to  go  at  his  own  expense  to  Palestine  and 
to  make  a  beginning  with  the  colonization  ;  i)erhaps  the  under- 
signed Mr.  Hirsch  Kalischer  may  take  upon  himself  the  expense 
and  hardships  of  such  a  voyage,  to  see  there  after  the  strict 
observance  of  the  religious  commands  connected  with  agriculture 
in  Palestine.  Were  there  one  at  least  in  every  congregation  that 
would  zealously  take  the  matter  in  hand  ;  we  would  willingly 
confer  upon  him  the  diploma  of  a  Governor  of  the  society  and 
give  him  the  necessary  instructions.  We  are  also  ready  to 
purchase  a  priceworthy  piece  of  land  in  Palestine  on  account  and 
in  the  name  of  any  of  our  wealthier  brethren  in  faith  that  would 
remit  to  us  a  sum  for  the  purpose,  and  to  have  it  administered 
according  to  their  instructions.  We  hope  that  with  the  proper 
assistance  from  the  congregations  of  Israel  and  by  the  aid  of  the 
Omnipotent  we  shall  in  a  very  short  time  be  able  to  give  effect 
to  the  idea  of  Colonization. 

Thorn  in  the  month  of  Marcheshvan  5627.  "Be  of  good 
courage,  and  let  us  play  the  men  for  our  people  and  for  the  cities 
of  our  God  "  (2  Samuel  x.  12). 

Eli  AS  GuTMACHER,  Rabbi  in  Graetz. 

Hirsch  Kalischer,  Rabbi  in  Thorn. ^ 


LXX 

Alexandre  Dumas  (//j)  and  Zionism 

In  La  Femme  de  Claude,  pp.  50-51,  Daniel  says  : 

"  Nous  sommes  dans  une  epoque  ou  chaque  race  a  resolu  de 
revendiquer  et  d 'avoir  bien  ^  elle  son  sol,  son  foyer,  sa  langue  et 
son  temple.  II  y  a  assez  longtemps  que  nous  autres  Israelites, 
nous  sommes  depossedes  de  tout  cela.  Nous  avons  ete  forces  de 
nous  glisser  dans  les  interstices  des  nations,  d'ou  nous  avons 

'  Siflifr  nD»  The  Hebrew  National,  vol.  i..  No.  i.,  Feb.  15th,  1867, 
p.  6. 


264  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

penetre  dans  les  inter ets  des  gouvernements,  des  societes,  des 
individus.  C'est  beaucoup,  ce  n'est  pas  assez.  On  croit  encore 
que  la  persecution  nous  a  disperses,  elle  nous  a  repandus  ;  et 
nous  tenant  par  la  main,  nous  formons  aujourd'hui  un  filet  dans 
lequel  le  monde  pourrait  bien  se  trouver  pris  le  jour  oii  il  lui 
viendrait  kVidee  de  nous  redevenir  hostile  ou  de  se  declarer ingrat . 
En  attendant  nous  ne  voulons  plus  etre  un  groupe,  nous  voulons 
etre  un  peuple,  plus  qu  un  peuple,  une  nation.  La  patrie  ideale 
ne  nous  suffit  plus,  la  patrie  fixe  et  territorial  nous  est  redevenue 
necessaire,  et  je  pars  pour  chercher  et  lever  notre  acte  de  naissance 
legalise." 

Isidore  Cahen  writes,  Le  Daniel  de  la  Femme  du  Claude 
"...  prevoit  et  predit  une  rest  aurat  ion  materielle  de  la  grandeur 
de  Juda,  la  reconstitution  dun  Etat  politique  juif  !  M.  Dumas 
va  jusqu'a  citer  le  voeu  celebre  de  la  Hagadah  :  *  L'ann^e 
prochaine  a  Jerusalem.  .  .  .' 

"  Dans  ces  voeux  qui  contiennent  nos  livres  traditionelles 
il  n'y  a  qu'une  esperance  allegorique  un  vceu  mystique  :  c'est 
une  Jerusalem  ideale, . . .  et  non  pas  une  Jerusalem  politique "^ 

...  II  faut  que  je  sois  bien  maladroit  et  que  je  dise  bien  mal  ce 
que  je  veux  dire  pour  qu'il  y  ait  erreur  sur  mon  appreciation  des 
Israelites.  Le  jour  ou  j'ai  ecrit  la  Femme  de  Claude,  j'ai  cru  les 
glorifier.  Je  ne  vols  pas  que  Daniel  et  Rebecca  ne  representent 
pas  un  ideal  superieur  et  si  Daniel  menace  un  moment  ceux  qui 
pourraient  se  montrer  hostiles  ou  ingrats  de  la  puissance  que  ses 
coreligionnaires  ont  acquise,  il  a  parfaitement  raison.  Ce  n'est 
pas  quand  depuis  pres  de  deux  mille  ans  une  race  subit  Tin  justice 
et  la  persecution  comme  Fa  fait  votre  race,  qu'elle  va,  apres  de 
grands  services  rendus,  supporter  I'ingratitude  et  I'hostilite  de 
ceux  qu'elle  a  tires  d'affaire.  II  n'en  est  pas  moins  vrai  que  lors 
de  I'apparition  de  la  Femme  de  Claude,  beaucoup  de  vos  co- 
religionnaires se  sont  trompes  sur  mes  intentions  et  que  quelques- 
uns  ont  organise  une  cabale  contre  la  piece.  Je  ne  leur  en  veux 
pas.  Je  ne  ferai  jamais  entrer  une  question  personnelle  dans  ce 
jugement  que  je  puis  avoir  a  porter  historiquement  et  philoso- 
phiquement  sur  toute  une  Nation. 

. .  .  Comme  j'assiste  pendant  le  temps  que  je  passe  sur  la  terre 
aux  evolutions  de  Thumanite  a  laquelle  j'appartiens,  je  m'amuse 
quelquefois  k  essayer  de  prevoir  et  meme  de  predire  la  direction 
qu'elles  peuvent  prendre.  Comme  j'ai  bien  etudie  celles  de  votre 
race,  que  je  I'ai  vue  asservie  et  persecutee  de  tous  temps  et  en 
ces  memes  temps  tou jours  patiente  et  laborieuse,  je  me  suis, 
dans  mon  interieur,  pris  de  sympathie  pour  elle,  et  si  j 'avals 
ete  capable  de  pratiquer  une  religion  c'est  k  celle  de  ces  per- 
secutes et  de  ces  laborieux  que  je  serais  alle.  Quand  un  peuple 
a  etabli  toute  la  morale  humaine  sur  dix  petits  versets,  il  pent 
vraiment  se  dire  le  peuple  de  Dieu,  etant  donne  la  conception 
que  les  hommes  les  plus  eclaires  peuvent  se  faire,  derriere  Moise 
^  Archives  Israelites,  i*'  Fevrier,  1873,  p.  86. 


APPENDICES  265 

d'un  Dieu  personnel.  Seulement  j'ai  le  tort  d'appliquer  a  ceux 
que  j'etudie  et  qui  m'interessent  les  ideas  que  j'aurais  si  j'etais 
a  leur  place  .  .  .,  quand  j'ai  vu  les  evenements  politiques  nous 
apporter  en  1870,  en  etablissant  la  Republique  et  en  nous  re- 
tirant  de  Rome,  vous  apporter  la  revanche  de  tant  d'injustices 
et  d'humiliations  patiemment  supportees,  je  me  suis  demande 
quelle  mission  je  me  donnerais,  si  dans  les  idees  ou  je  suis, 
j  'etais  membre  de  ce  peuple  particulier.  Je  me  suis  dit  alors  que 
je  n'aurais  qu'une  idee,  ce  serait  de  reprendre  possession  de  mon 
sol  d'origine  et  de  tradition  et  de  rebatir  le  temple  de  Jerusalem, 
sinon  sur  la  place  du  tombeau  du  Christ,  du  moins  en  face.  C'est 
cette  idee  que  j'ai  incamee  dans  Daniel.  On  m'a  dit  souvent 
depuis,  que  je  me  trompais  sur  les  ambitions  des  IsraeUtes,  qu'ils 
ne  pensaient  plus  a  ces  represailles-la,  que  leur  ideal  etait  de 
vivre  en  paix  avec  les  differentes  nations  qui  leur  ont  donne 
droit  de  cite  et  qu'ils  ont  renonce  a  finir  leurs  jours  dans  un  foyer 
a  eux.  Tant  pis  pour  eux,  si  c'est  vrai.  II  est  bon  d'avoir  un 
ideal,  meme  quand  il  est  irrealisable.  Voilk  mon  cher  ami,  aussi 
brievement  que  possible,  mes  idees  sur  vos  coreligionnaires. 
lis  m'ont  tou jours  inspire  les  sentiments  que  leur  courage,  leur 
perseverance,  leurs  malheurs,  leurs  efforts  de  toutes  sortes 
doivent  inspirer  a  des  esprits  de  bonne  foi  et  k  des  consciences 
desinteressees.  .  .  .^ 


LXXI 

Appeal  of  Dunant's  Association  for  the  Colonisation 
OF  Palestine  (1867) 

Palestine  Colonisation 

To  the  Editor  of  the  Jewish  Chronicle. 

".  .  .  International  undertaking  for  the  Rejuvenescence  of 
Palestine. — Palestine  is  a  rich  and  fertile  country,  although  now 
little  populated,  and  therefore  uncultivated.  A  soil  greatly 
subject  to  a  variety  of  circumstances  is  the  cause  of  a  great 
variety  of  meteorological  conditions.  Hence  a  great  variety  of 
productions  peculiar  nearly  to  every  latitude  ;  hence  also  a  great 
facility  for  every  colonist  to  find  in  his  new  country  a  climate 
approaching  that  of  his  native  land. 

"  It  is  not  to  be  feared  that  the  colonisation  of  the  Holy  Land, 
judiciously  carried  on,  can  lack  warm  sympathies  or  labour  under 
a  want  of  colonists.  Numerous  adhesions  from  emigrants  by  the 
thousand,  easy  in  circumstances  and  willing  to  work,  have 
already  addressed  themselves  to  the  founders  of  the  undertaking 
for  the  rejuvenescence  of  Palestine." 

^  The  foregoing  are  extracts  from  a  hitherto  unpublished  letter  sent  by 
Alexandre  Dumas  (fils)  to  a  prominent  French  Jew.    It  is  dated  1873. 


266  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

"  The  new  reforms  introduced  by  the  Ottoman  Government, 
the  law  which  authorised  strangers  to  purchase  and  hold  real 
estate  in  the  Turkish  empire,  the  road  now  being  constructed 
from  Jaffa  to  Jerusalem,  the  works  projected  in  the  port  of 
Jaffa,  the  improvements  effected  in  the  great  lines  of  communica- 
tion— all  these  undertakings  and  circumstances  united  seem  to 
indicate  that  the  moment  could  not  be  better  chosen  for  com- 
mencing the  colonisation  of  Palestine.  .  .  ." 

"  The  capital  required  for  such  an  undertaking  would  not  long 
remain  unproductive  ;  indeed,  the  financial  operation  of  the 
company  that  should  be  formed  for  this  purpose  would  be  one  of 
the  simplest. 

"  The  uncultivated  land  in  Palestine  purchased  of  the  Ottoman 
Government  at  a  comparatively  small  price,  and  with  facilities 
for  payment,  resold  at  a  higher  figure,  would  bring  in  an 
important  profit.  The  increase  in  the  value  of  this  land — a 
direct  result  of  the  colonisation — would  be  an  additional 
guarantee  for  the  realisation  of  this  expectation. 

*'  The  supply  to  the  colony  of  agricultural  and  industrial  tools, 
a  trade  of  importation  organized  on  a  scale  strictly  proportionate 
to  the  acknowledged  wants  of  the  new  settlement,  would  offer  to 
the  company  a  field  for  a  second  operation,  which,  presenting 
neither  risk  nor  peril,  would  nevertheless  insure  from  the  very 
beginning  undoubted  profits. 

"  The  life  which  begins  to  stir  in  the  port  of  Jaffa  will  take  a 
fresh  rise  with  the  development  of  agriculture  and  manufacture 
in  colonised  Palestine.  The  rejuvenescence  of  Central  Asia, 
which  England  on  the  one  hand  and  Russia  on  the  other  pursue 
with  so  much  vigour — ^the  former  in  the  way  of  peace  and  the 
latter  in  that  of  war — will  not  fail  favourably  to  react  on  the 
trade  of  the  coast  of  Syria,  once  so  flourishing,  and  the  decline  of 
which  only  dates  from  the  fall  of  the  great  empire  of  Persia. 

"  Ancient  Phoenicia,  the  cities  of  Tyre  and  Sidon,  the  richest 
of  antiquity,  owed  their  prosperity  only  to  the  intermediate 
trade  carried  on  between  the  east  and  the  west.  The  fall 
of  the  empire  founded  by  Cyrus  produced  in  Central  Asia 
so  great  a  moral  and  material  decay  that  the  trade  and 
industrial  pursuits  of  these  immense  regions  perished  from 
inanity.  Tyre  and  Sidon  had  no  longer  any  basis  for 
existence ;  their  grandeur  accordingly  gradually  declined. 
Alexander,  after  these  splendid  and  proud  cities,  succeeded  in 
forming  direct  relations  with  India,  which  the  founder  of  this 
empire  had  brought  nigh  to  Europe.  But  Alexandria  in  its 
turn  had  to  experience  fortune's  inconstancy.  Since  the  dis- 
covery of  the  route  to  India  to  the  day  when  steamers  and  the 
railway  to  Suez  restored  to  it  some  life,  desertion  and  oblivion 
were  its  lot.  The  piercing  of  the  isthmus  of  Suez  will  end  by 
restoring  to  Alexandria  its  pristine  importance.  The  trade  of 
India  will  once  more  completely  come  back  to  it,  but  the  cities 


APPENDICES  267 

on  the  coast  of  Syria  and  Jaffa  in  particular  will  not  the  less 
remain  mistresses  of  every  commercial  market  of  Central  Asia, 
upon  which  a  new  destiny  is  dawning. 

"  A  great  economical  revulsion  in  the  old  world  is  preparing, 
and  the  coast  of  Palestine  will  again  become  as  in  days  of  old,  in 
common  with  that  of  Lower  Egypt,  the  centre  of  all  exchange 
between  the  old  continents. 

"  The  Palestine  Company  has  therefore  an  immense  future, 
which  it  is  easy  to  foresee  even  now,  but  we  must  allow  events 
to  proceed  in  the  development  of  its  activity  beyond  the  modest 
limits  which  we  at  present  mark  out  for  it. 
"Paris  and  Jerusalem,  March,  1866  and  September,  1867.*' 

The  address  of  the  secretary-general  of  this  undertaking  is 
Paris,  24,  Rue  de  la  Paix.^ 


LXXII 

Edward  Cazalet's  Zionist  Views 

"  It  was  through  the  armed  intervention  of  England,  that,  in  the 
year  1841,  Syria  was  transferred  from  Egyptian  to  Turkish  rule. 
At  that  time  Lord  Palmerston  was  in  ofi&ce  ;  and  his  policy,  as  he 
explained  to  the  French  Ambassador,  M.  de  Bourgoing,  was  to 
turn  Syria  into  a  desert  under  Turkish  rule,  and  interpose  this 
desert  between  the  Sultan  and  his  Egyptian  vassal.  In  confirma- 
tion of  this,  which  may  seem  to  some  an  astounding  statement, 

I  can  only  refer  you  to  '  Guizot  s  Memoirs,'  vol.  2,  p.  525 to 

Syria  assuredly  reparation  is  due  on  the  part  of  England.  ...  To 
attempt  to  improve  the  Turkish  Government  of  Syria  is,  for 
obvious  reasons,  a  hopeless  task.  ...  No  other  country  has  any- 
thing like  the  same  interest  in  Syria,  that  we  have  ;  besides  which, 
it  is  to  the  EngHsh  nation  alone  that  the  population  of  Syria  look 
for  protection  and  support.  .  .  . 

"  It  was  England  who  handed  this  country  over  to  the  Turks 
in  1841.  Turkey  has  ever  since  abused  her  charge,  and  it  is  only 
just  that  she  should  be  now  called  upon  to  transfer  it  into  more 
capable  hands." 

"  The  Arabs,  who  form  two-thirds  of  the  whole  of  the  popula- 
tion of  Syria,  and  are  for  most  part  lords  of  the  soil,  are  with  very 
few  exceptions  completely  illiterate,  regardless  of  truth,  dis- 
honest in  their  dealings,  and  immoral  in  their  conduct.  In  large 
towns  the  greater  proportion  of  the  upper  classes  are  both  physic- 
ally and  mentally  feeble,  owing  to  the  effects  of  polygamy,  early 
marriages,  and  degrading  vices.  Out  of  such  elements  there  is 
no  possibility  of  creating  a  ruUng  class.  The  other  sects  are  too 
few  in  number,  and  too  bigoted  and  superstitious,  to  be  of  any 

^  Jewish  Chronicle  and  Hebrew  Observer,  December  13,  1867,  p.  6. 


268  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

assistance  in  the  government  of  the  country.  If,  then,  the 
regeneration  of  Syria  is  to  be  attempted,  it  must  of  necessity 
come  from  without,  and  can  only  be  brought  about  by  an  influx 
of  an  industrious  and  more  enlightened  people.  Fortunately 
this  last  resource  is  not  denied  to  us.  The  restoration  of  the 
Jews  to  their  own  land,  seems  to  me  the  only  practicable  means 
by  which  the  regeneration  of  Syria  can  be  effected.  You  must 
not  imagine  that  this  event,  important  though  it  unquestionably 
must  be,  need  cause  any  great  perturbation  in  Europe,  or  prove 
in  any  way  a  strain  upon  the  resources  of  England.  All  that  is 
required  is  that  England  should  create  the  conditions  under 
which  a  large  number  of  Jews  would  gradually  migrate  on  their 
own  account  to  Syria  and  Palestine.  The  first  condition  of  such 
a  movement  is  that  law  and  order  should  be  introduced  under  our 
Protectorate.  .  .  . 

**  But  there  is  another  influence  which  would  greatly  assist 
the  colonization  of  the  country.  It  has  long  been  a  cherished 
project  with  the  Jews  to  establish  a  college  in  the  Holy  Land, 
which  would  serve  as  a  centre  of  Jewish  philosophy  and  science. 
Such  an  institution  would  readily  meet  with  support,  and 
incalculably  quicken  the  pulses  of  their  national  life.  With  an 
extensive  literature  in  their  own  language,  in  which  every  branch 
of  philosophy  and  science  is  represented,  the  Jews  would  be  able 
to  make  such  an  institution  a  genuine  centre  of  intellectual 
activity.  The  leading  learned  men  of  the  Jewish  race  would  be 
naturally  attracted  to  such  a  national  centre,  and  would  form 
a  nucleus  round  which  all  the  intellect  of  the  nation  would  gather, 
by  means  of  which  the  necessary  elements  of  the  future  govern- 
ment of  the  country  might  be  formed.  I  understand  that  the 
most  suitable  site  for  this  college  has  already  been  generally 
agreed  upon. 

*'  I  have  still  to  show  you  that  these  attractions  would  be  suffi- 
cient to  induce  numbers  of  Jewish  families  to  migrate  to  Syria. 
The  total  number  of  the  Jews  throughout  the  world  is  variously 
estimated  from  eight  to  ten  millions.  Of  those  the  greater 
number — ^probably  six  millions — ^inhabit  Russia  and  the  old 
Polish  provinces  which  now  belong  to  Austria,  Germany  and 
Roumania.  The  condition  of  the  Jews  in  Russia  is  deplorable 
in  the  extreme.  They  are  denied  civil  rights.  They  are  forbidden 
to  hold  landed  property.  They  are  treated  as  aliens,  and  are 
restricted  to  limited  areas  in  which  they  suffer  from  the  evils  of 
over-population.  These  conditions  have  induced  no  fewer  than 
250,000  Jews  to  emigrate  to  America  within  the  last  thirty  or 
forty  years,  and  it  may  be  confidently  predicted  that  Syria  under 
our  protectorate  would  offer  still  greater  attractions.  The  land  of 
Palestine  alone,  is  capable  of  supporting  ten  times  its  present 
population.  It  may  seem  strange  to  say  of  the  Jews  who  are 
scattered  throughout  the  world,  that  they  still  consider  this  to  be 
their  fatherland.    But,  if  they  are  denied  the  actual  possession  of 


APPENDICES  269 

it,  they  still  bear  it  in  their  hearts.  Three  times  a  day  every  Jew 
offers  up  a  prayer  for  the  restoration  of  his  race  to  the  land  and 
the  temple,  from  which  he  has  been  exiled  for  eighteen  centuries. 
It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  this  scattered  and  downtrodden 
people  possess  within  themselves  all  the  elements  which  go  to 
form  a  united  nation.  They  have  a  code  of  laws  for  their  own 
government ;  they  have  a  literature,  a  history,  a  language  and  a 
religion,  which  are  peculiar  to  them.  Their  education  is,  with 
some  exceptions,  on  a  par  with  that  of  the  most  civilized  nations. 
Numbers  of  them  excel  in  all  the  different  branches  of  mechanics 
and  art ;  and  in  trade  and  finance  they  are,  as  we  all  know, 
unrivalled.  Though  last,  not  least  they  are  a  people  who  would 
fight  bravely  in  the  defence  of  their  country. 

"  During  the  last  twenty  years  of  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Nicholas,  the  military  conscription  fell  heavily  upon  the  Jews. 
In  proportion  to  their  numbers,  for  every  Russian  that  was  en- 
listed, five  Jews  were  compelled  to  enter  the  service  ;  and  during 
the  late  Turkish  war  they  bore  themselves  bravely  in  the  face  of 
the  enemy.  No  one  who  has  any  knowledge  of  the  Jewish  character 
can  for  a  moment  doubt  that  if  the  Jews  were  restored  to  their 
country  under  an  English  protectorate  they  would  prove  true  to  our 
naHon,  and  that  Syria  would  become  as  firmly  united  to  England 
as  if  it  were  peopled  by  our  own  countrymen."'^ 


LXXIII 

A  Collection  of  Opinions  of  English  Christian  Authorities 
ON  the  Colonization  of  Palestine 

I.  General  Sir  Charles  Warren's  Views 

"  My  proposal  is  simply  an  arrangement  by  which,  .  .  .  Palestine, 
this  unfortunate  land  may  yet  be  placed  in  ...  a  position  which 
may  enable  her  again  to  take  a  place  socially  among  the  kingdoms 
of  the  earth. ..." 

"  It  will  probably  at  once  occur,  '  And  what  of  the  Arabs  of 
Palestine  ?  '  I  ask  in  reply,  *  Who  are  the  Arabs  ?  '  They  are 
certainly  not  Turks  in  any  degree  ;  they  are  for  the  most  part 
not  Arabs  of  Arabia,  of  the  Desert.  Then  who  are  they  ?  It  has 
long  been  known,  and  no  person  has  thrown  more  light  upon  the 
subject  than  M.  Ganneau,  that  the  people  of  Palestine  are  of  a 
very  mixed  race  :  some  of  Canaanitish  descent,  some  Jewish, 
some  of  Arabia.  It  is  evident  that  many  of  them  being  Moslems 
are  so  for  convenience,  .  .  .  We  cannot,  therefore,  look  upon  the 
natives  of  Palestine  as  rigid  Moslems  of  one  race  ;  but  we  must 

^  England's  Policy  in  the  East:  our  Relations  with  Russia  and  the 
Future  of  Syria.  By  Edward  Cazalet.  Second  Edition.  London  : . . .  iSyg. 
[8°.   iv+32  pp.  in  printed  wrapper.]  pp.  22-26. 


270  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

recognize  them  as  descendants  of  Canaanites,  Israelites,  Greeks, 
Romans,  Arabs,  and  Crusaders,  now  professing  the  Moslem  or 
the  Christian  faith,  according  to  circumstances,  but  retaining 
above  ever5rthing  the  ancient  traditions — yes,  and  in  some 
instances,  I  have  little  doubt,  their  veritable  old  religion." 

'*  Palestine  is  about  the  size  and  shape  of  Wales,  and  has  now 
a  population  of  about  one  and  a  half  millions.  Give  her  good 
government,  and  quicken  the  commercial  life  of  the  people,  and 
they  may  increase  tenfold,  and  yet  there  be  room.  The  soil  is  so 
rich,  the  climate  so  varied,  that  within  ordinary  limits  it  may  be 
said  that  the  more  i)eople  it  contains,  the  more  it  may.  Its 
productiveness  will  increase  in  proportion  to  the  labour  bestowed 
on  the  soil,  until  a  population  of  fifteen  millions  might  be 
accommodated  there. 

"  Let  us  observe  how  the  country  may  be  improved.  It 
consists  of  the  hill  country,  or  mountain  districts  ;  the  Shephalah 
or  swelling  hills,  or  wolds  ;  the  maritime  and  Jordan  plains,  and 
the  tablelands  of  Arabia. 

"  All  these  are  most  productive  naturally ;  but  are,  for  the 
most  part,  at  present  enjoying  a  long  Sabbath. 

"  In  the  hill  country,  even  now  the  white  skeletons  of  the  old 
sj^tem  of  terracing  are  visible  in  parts  ;  but  the  rich  loamy  soil 
is  washed  down  into  the  wadies,  leaving  the  hillsides  bare  and 
desolate,  and  glaring  in  their  nakedness.  A  cultivated  strip  may 
be  seen  at  the  bottom  of  the  wady,  subject  to  being  swept  away 
by  any  storm  of  rain  forming  a  torrent  down  the  bare  hillsides, 
or  withered  before  its  time  by  the  reflection  of  the  sun  from  the 
bare  rocks. 

"  Place  the  valley  in  proper  hands,  and  note  the  results.  The 
earth  from  the  bottom  will  be  carefully  carried  up  the  hillsides, 
and  laid  out  in  terraces,  on  which  are  planted  young  trees — ^those 
of  a  more  delicate  nature  being  placed  on  the  northern  declivity, 
in  order  that  they  may  suffer  less  from  the  sun's  rays.  The  trees 
thrive  rapidly,  as  they  will  do  in  Palestine  ;  the  rain  falls,  but 
not  as  heretofore,  rushing  fiercely  down  the  bare  rocks,  and 
forming  a  torrent  in  the  valley.  No  ;  now  it  falls  on  the  trees  and 
terraces,  percolates  quietly  into  the  soil  and  into  the  rocky  hill- 
side, and  is  thus  absorbed,  scarcely  injuring  the  crops  at  the 
bottom  of  the  valley.  The  rain  that  sinks  into  the  rocks  will 
shortly  reissue  in  perennial  springs,  so  refreshing  in  a  thirsty  land. 
The  trees,  having  moisture  in  the  soil  at  their  roots,  spread  out 
their  leaves  in  rich  groves  over  the  land.  The  sun's  rays  now  do 
not  fall  on  the  ground,  but  on  the  green  leaves  and  fruit,  by  which 
they  are  intercepted  and  absorbed,  giving  no  glare  or  reflection. 
Tl^e  heat  of  the  sun  causes  a  moisture  to  rise  from  the  trees  and 
soil  beneath  them,  which,  on  reaching  the  higher  and  cooler  winds, 
is  condensed  into  visible  vapour,  constantly  forming  as  the  breeze 
passes  over  the  grove,  so  that  each  grove,  so  to  speak,  supplies 
its  own  umbrella.   The  climate  is  thus  changed.    \Vliere  were  hot , 


APPENDICES  271 

glaring  sun,  dry  wind,  dry  earth,  stony  land,  absence  of  vegetable 
products,  are  now  to  be  found  fleecy  clouds  floating  through  the 
balmy  air,  the  heat  of  the  sun  tempered  by  visible  and  invisible 
vapours,  groves  mth  moist  soil,  trickling  streamlets  issuing  from 
the  rocks,  villages  springing  up  apace,  Palestine  regenerated. 

"  This  is  no  dream.  I  have  seen  this  change  take  place  in 
Palestine  in  three  years,  on  a  small  scale.  Why  is  the  Lebanon 
so  different  to  the  hill  country  of  Palestine  ?  In  a  great  measure, 
because,  by  reason  of  its  position  and  conformation,  its  woods 
have  not  been  cut  down.  .  .  . 

"  Again,  on  the  east  of  Jordan,  in  Gilead,  I  have  seen  the  same. 
After  riding  for  miles  through  the  ruins  in  the  glaring  summer 
atmosphere,  through  a  country  denuded  of  trees,  nearly  choking 
with  the  scorching  wind,  I  came  upon  a  district  where  the 
ancient  woods  had  not  been  cut  down.  Immediately  a  change 
was  felt  :  clouds  were  seen  hanging  over  the  woods,  the  air 
became  soft  and  pleasant,  the  sun's  rays  beat  less  fiercely,  flowers 
were  seen  under  the  trees,  blackberries  on  the  brambles,  water 
gushing  out  from  the  hillsides,  birds  chirping  in  the  shade.  This 
was  not  due  to  any  change  in  the  atmosphere  generally,  but  was 
entirely  local,  and  due  to  the  presence  of  trees.  In  fact,  there  are 
spots  where  you  can,  on  the  same  level,  change  the  climate  in  an 
hour  by  passing  from  the  bare  land  to  that  which  is  well  wooded. 

"  This  matter  I  have  frequently  examined  into  in  Palestine. 
I  mention  one  particular  instance.  During  the  prevalence  of  hot 
winds  at  Jerusalem,  I  noticed  two  clouds  constantly  stationary 
a  few  miles  off,  in  an  otherwise  cloudless  sky.  On  riding  over 
towards  them,  I  found  them  to  be  hanging  over  two  large  olive 
groves  about  seven  miles  off,  recently  planted  by  the  Greek 
convents.  Although  the  wind  was  blowing  briskly,  the  moisture 
ascending  was  condensed  as  quickly  as  it  rose,  and  formed  an 
umbrella  over  these  groves. 

"  In  the  wolds  of  Palestine  the  same  process  may  be  continued. 
Not  so  much  terracing  is  wanted,  but  much  planting  of  wood, 
particularly  on  the  south  side — ^trees  of  a  hardy  growth  ;  so  that, 
with  a  green  southern  slope  opposite,  the  delicate  fruit  trees 
planted  on  the  northern  slopes  may  bring  their  fruit  to  perfection. 

"  The  water,  which  will  now  be  found  gushing  from  the  rock, 
from  springs  which  have  long  been  silent,  will  be  carried  in  ducts 
along  the  hillsides,  and  used  for  irrigation  purposes,  passing 
thence  into  the  plain,  where  it  can  still  be  used  for  irrigation, 
or  else  assist  in  filling  up  the  wells  near  to  the  surface  of  the 
ground — wells  which  have  hitherto  been  between  thirty  to 
ninety  feet  deep. 

"  Now  again  we  shall  find  a  difference  in  the  crops  in  the  plain. 
Hitherto  there  has  been  but  one  season,  and  then  a  long  interval 
of  desolation,  from  July  to  November,  when  the  heaven  is  of 
brass  and  the  earth  iron.  During  this  long  period,  scarcely  a 
green  blade  can  be  seen  over  the  vast  plains — nothing  but  sticks, 


272  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

and  stones,  and  dust  ;  the  monotony  relieved  only  by  the  noise 
of  the  gulgul  careering  on  the  wings  of  the  whirlwind.  .  .  . 

"  The  presence  of  water  brought  down  on  the  surface  from  the 
hills,  together  with  the  vast  groves  of  trees  to  be  planted,  causes 
a  change.  The  latter  rains  of  June  will  be  found  to  fall,  giving  a 
second  season — a  never-ending  succession  of  crops.  The  fulfil- 
ment of  the  Prophecies  will  commence  taking  place — ^when  the 
ploughman  shall  overtake  the  reaper,  and  the  treader  of  grapes 
him  that  soweth  seed.  .  .  . 

"  The  advance  of  the  rolling  sand-hills,  which  is  now  over- 
whelming the  fairest  of  the  maritime  plains,  may  now  be  arrested. 
The  rich  ground  between  Gaza  and  Ascalon,  which  the  sand  has 
swallowed  up,  must  again  be  recovered.  This  can  easily  be 
effected,  by  the  planting  of  conifer cb  along  the  sea  coast,  as  has 
been  done  already  at  Beyrout.  ...  If  we  examine  the  Jordan 
valley,  we  find  even  greater  changes  can  be  effected  :  it  can  be 
made  far  more  fertile  than  it  ever  was.  .  .  . 

"  The  whole  valley,  however,  may  be  made  one  vast  garden, 
not  merely  by  rebuilding  the  great  aqueducts,  remains  of  which 
still  exist,  and  by  means  of  which  the  great  cities  were  watered, 
but  by  means  of  the  Jordan  river  itself.  The  Jordan,  out  of 
Tiberias,  falls  ten  feet  to  the  mile,  or  600  feet  in  sixty  miles.  .  .  . 
The  waters  of  the  Jordan  might  be  brought  out  of  Tiberias  in 
aqueducts  falling  one  foot  to  the  mile,  and  thus  be  brought  over 
the  great  plain  of  Basan  and  of  Jericho,  and  be  made  to  irrigate 
all  the  lands  which  the  streams  have  not  touched.  At  the  same 
time,  the  streams  themselves  will  have  increased  exceedingly 
from  the  development  of  the  country  in  the  high  lands. 

"  The  country  can  thus  be  transformed."^ 

2.  The  Rev.  James  Neil  on  the  Colonization  Movement 

*'  At  a  moment  when  all  eyes  are  turned  to  the  East,  it  cannot 
be  unimportant  to  learn  that,  after  the  slumber  of  ages,  Palestine 
is  awakening  to  new  life,  and  Israel  are  actually  returning  to  its 
shores  in  such  numbers,  and  at  the  same  time  in  such  a  way  as 
they  have  never  been  known  to  do,  or  could  have  done,  since 
their  formal  banishment  by  the  Emperor  Hadrian,  in  the  year 
A.D.  135.  Many  Jews,  it  is  true,  driven  ruthlessly  out  of  Spain 
in  1492,  found  a  home  in  the  Holy  Land.  To  go  still  further 
back,  the  celebrated  Hebrew  traveller,  Benjamin  of  Tudela, 
tells  us  in  the  twelfth  century  that  he  found  considerable 
numbers  residing  in  the  various  towns  of  Palestine  which  he 
visited — descendants,  perhaps,  amongst  others,  of  some  of  the 
30,000  who  joined  the  arms  of  Chosroes  the  Persian  in  his 
capture  of  Jerusalem,  A.D.  616,  or  even  of  the  Jews  whom 

*  The  Land  of  Promise  ;  or,  Turkey's  Guarantee.  By  Charles  Warren. 
London:  George  Bell  and  Sons,  York  Street,  Covent  Garden.  1875. 
(8°.  24  pp.  in  printed  wrapper)  pp.  5-6,  8,  14-20. 


APPENDICES  273 

Julian  the  Apostate  restored,  a.d.  363,  wheft  he  vainly 
endeavoured  to  discredit  Christianity  by  rebuilding  the  Temple. 
But  there  is  this  all-important  difference  between  what  happened 
in  the  case  of  those  who  then  returned,  and  those  who  are  now 
flocking  back  to  the  land  of  their  forefathers.  While  in  the 
former  instances,  whether  under  Pagan,  Christian,  or  Moslem 
masters,  they  were,  as  all  history  shows,  equally  the  subjects  of 
extortion,  oppression  and  contumely  :  now  they  are  beginning 
to  hold  a  position  of  comfort,  independence,  and  power.  This 
remarkable  change  is  in  itself  significant,  and  the  whole  move- 
ment should  surely  be  watched  by  the  student  of  prophecy  with 
eager  and  expectant  attitude.  .  .  . 

"...  The  feeling  everywhere  seems  abroad  that  the  time  has 
at  last  arrived  to  restore  the  desolations  of  Zion,  and  to  rebuild 
the  waste  places  of  the  land  of  Israel.  The  very  existence  of 
*  The  Syrian  and  Palestine  Colonisation  Society,'  which  is  about 
a  year  old,  constitutes  a  striking  expression  of  such  a  sentiment. 
This  society,  according  to  its  prospectus,  has  '  been  formed  to 
promote  the  Colonisation  of  Syria  and  Palestine  and  the  neigh- 
bouring countries  by  persons  of  good  character,  whether  Chris- 
tians or  Jews.'  This  it  proposes  to  effect  by  obtaining  informa- 
tion for  intending  settlers,  and  making  arrangements  for  their 
transport  and  reception  ;  by  assisting  approved  applicants  with 
advances ;  and  by  making  arrangements  for  the  purchase  of 
land  by  the  emigrants,  or  securing  suitable  tracts  of  Government 
waste  lands,  under  certain  guarantees  ;  and  by  exerting  them- 
selves to  improve  the  communications.  Having  mentioned  this 
association,  let  me  plainly  say,  from  an  intimate  experience  of 
this  matter,  that  there  are  at  present  a  variety  of  reasons  why 
emigration  to  Palestine  by  English  people  cannot  possibly  be 
undertaken  with  any  hope  of  success,  in  the  same  way  as 
emigrants  to  the  United  States  or  to  a  British  Colony.  In  the 
first  place,  the  heat  of  the  plains  is  too  great  to  admit  of  their 
labouring  during  summer  with  their  own  hands.  The  German 
colonists  in  attempting  this  have  suffered  a  fearful  mortality. 
Again,  to  employ  Arab  labour  to  advantage,  and  to  hold  any 
dealings  with  the  people,  the  peculiar  manners  and  customs  of 
the  East  must  be  known,  and  colloquial  Arabic  to  some  extent  be 
mastered.  But,  above  all,  the  want  of  thorough  protection  to 
life  and  property  so  long  as  Palestine  remains  in  Ottoman  hands 
is  greatly  against  any  emigration  scheme  that  does  not  include 
European  government  for  the  whole  colony.  Hence  the  evident 
wisdom  in  such  a  case  of  the  plan  put  forth  by  Captain  Charles 
Warren,  R.E.,  in  a  pamphlet,  published  last  year,  entitled  '  The 
Land  of  Promise,  or  Turkey's  Guarantee.'  This  officer,  who  has 
an  intimate  acquaintance  with  Syria,  derived  from  his  able  work 
there  on  behalf  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund,  proposes  that, 
if  only  as  a  solution  of  the  pecuniary  embarrassments  of  the  Porte, 

II.— T 


274  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

Palestine  should  be  handed  over  to  a  company  similar  to  the  old 
East  India  Company,  to  be  farmed  and  governed  by  such  an 
association  for  a  period  of  twenty  years.  He  suggests  that  such  a 
Company  should  pay  to  Turkey  its  present  revenues,  and  to  the 
creditors  of  Turkey  a  proportion  of  the  interest  due  to  them, 
taking  for  itself  six  per  cent,  on  its  capital  and  expending  the 
remaining  revenue  in  improving  the  country.  What  he  considers 
the  ultimate  future  of  the  land  we  learn  from  his  own  words. 
'  Let  this  '  (the  above  arrangement),  he  says,  '  be  done  with  the 
avowed  intention  of  gradually  introducing  the  Jew,  pure  and 
simple,  who  is  eventually  to  occupy  and  govern  this  country.  .  .  . 
Concerning  what  that  settlement  is  in  part  to  be,  I  can  profess  no 
doubt,  because  I  feel  none.  It  is  written  over  and  over  again  in 
the  Word  of  God.  .  .  .  Israel  are  to  return  to  their  own  land.  This 
event,  in  its  incipient  stage,  I  have  shown  to  be  now  actually 
taking  place.  That  which  is  yet  to  be  looked  for  is  the  pubUc 
recognition  of  the  fact,  together  with  the  restoration,  in  whole  or 
part,  of  Jewish  national  life,  under  the  protection  of  some  one  or 
more  of  the  Great  Powers. . .  /  "^ 

3.  Colonel  C.  R.  Conder  on  Palestinian  Colonization 
The  greatest  authority  on  Palestine  in  our  generation,  Claude 
Reignier  Conder,  wrote  : — 

"  It  has  always  seemed  to  me  that  the  future  element  of 
prosperous  colonisation  is  to  be  found  among  the  Jews  of 
Eastern  Europe.  The  thrift  and  energy  of  the  race  are  not  their 
only  qualifications.  Those  who  mean  to  thrive  in  Palestine  must 
not  only  be  prepared  to  work  on  the  land,  but  they  must  be 
accustomed  to  the  harder  conditions  of  existence  which  are 
common  in  uncivilised  countries,  and  almost  unknown  in  the 
west.  It  is  true  that  they  will  have  to  encounter  the  evils  due  to 
bad  government  and  corruption,  which  are  mitigated  by  civilisa- 
tion ;  but  if  the  accounts  received  from  America  are  credible  it 
is  doubtful  if  these  evils  are  less  apparent  in  South  America  than 
they  are  in  Turkish  dominions.  A  people  which  has  not  only  been 
able  to  live,  but  which  has  prospered  more  than  the  native  born 
population,  under  Russian  tyranny,  will  not  find  it  difficult  to 
prosper  as  subjects  of  the  Sultan.  A  people  which  has  lived  under 
one  form  of  Oriental  despotism  will  be  less  discouraged  by 
another  similar  condition  than  Europeans  would  be.  It  is  from 
the  Oriental,  Jewish,  agricultural  class,  expelled  from  Russia  for 
their  religion,  that  the  colonists  most  naturally  fitted  for  agri- 
culture in  Syria  may  evidently  be  drawn. 

*'  I  have  often  thought  that  the  words  of  that  famous  passage  in 
the  Law,  which  predicts  the  future  of  Israel,  must  have  come 

1  Palestine  Re-Peopled ;  or,  Scattered  Israel's  Gathering.  A  Sign  of  the 
Times.  By  the  Rev,  James  Neil,  b.a.  .  .  .  Third  Edition,  Revised.  London. 
.  .  .  1877.    pp.  v~vi  and  34-37. 


APPENDICES  275 

home  with  a  sad  and  overwhelming  force  to  the  Jews  in  Russia 
during  the  last  few  years  : 

'* '  And  among  these  Goim  shalt  thou  find  no  ease,  neither  shall 
the  sole  of  thy  foot  have  rest,  and  thy  life  shall  hang  in  doubt 
before  thee  ;  and  thou  shalt  fear  day  and  night  ;  and  shalt  have 
none  assurance  of  thy  life.  In  the  morning  thou  shalt  say. 
Would  God  it  were  even ;  and  at  even  thou  shalt  say,  Would  God 
it  were  morning  ;  for  the  fear  of  thy  heart  wherewith  thou  shalt 
fear  ;  and  for  the  sight  of  thine  eyes  which  thou  shalt  see/ 

"  But  what  is  the  other  picture  which  the  Law  presents  of 
Israel  in  its  own  land  ?  '  Blessed  shalt  thou  be  in  basket  and  in 
store.' 

"  The  proposal  so  to  settle  agriculturists,  as  freeholders 
tilling  their  own  lands,  is  in  accord  with  the  general  tendency  of 
all  enlightened  statesmanship  of  the  present  age.  We  have  too 
many  artisans  starved  by  competition,  and  too  few  tillers  of  the 
earth.  Whether  is  it  better  for  a  man  to  sell  penny  toys  in  the 
streets  of  a  foggy  metropolis,  or  to  till  the  red  corn  lands,  and 
make  food  for  himself,  for  his  wife  and  for  his  children,  for  the 
citizens  beyond  the  seas  ?  Even  if  the  whole  of  Palestine  east  of 
Jordan  were  covered  with  cornfields  and  vineyards,  with  mul- 
berry and  fig  gardens,  with  cotton  and  maize,  and  pot  herbs,  and 
fruit  orchards,  there  would  not  be  too  much  produce  useful  to 
man.  There  would  be  markets  in  which  the  growers  could 
compete  with  ease  ;  and  towns  would  grow  up,  where  manu- 
factories of  silk  and  cotton  might  arise.  There  would  be  rice  and 
indigo  grown  in  the  Jordan  Valley,  where  now  there  are  only 
flowers,  and  there  would  be  petroleum  and  bitumen,  and  other 
minerals,  to  be  worked  near  the  Dead  Sea  shores.  There  would 
in  short  be  a  return  of  the  old  prosperity,  which  once  covered  this 
country  with  great  Roman  cities,  and  a  prosperity  yet  greater 
because  of  the  facilities  offered  by  modern  science. 

"  If  then  I  were  asked  for  advice  on  this  subject  I  would  say  ; 
Buy  all  the  land  you  can  get  at  moderate  prices  in  Bashan  and 
in  Northern  Gilead,  and  buy  it  soon,  for  the  price  will  go  up. 
Promote  as  far  as  possible  the  making  of  a  railway,  which  is 
practicable,  and  which  will  bring  this  region  within  the  pale  of 
civilization.  Send  out  as  many  fit  men  as  you  can,  to  till  the 
land  ;  and  send  their  wives  and  children  after  them.  They  will 
be  happy,  and,  if  they  work,  they  will  be  rich.  The  difficulties  are 
less  than  those  to  be  expected  elsewhere,  and  the  advantages  are 
greater.  The  movement  is  not  artificial,  not  merely  due  to 
religious  sentiment,  or  to  visionary  philanthropy.  It  is  a 
natural  and  healthy  one,  which  ought  to  be  encouraged,  by 
giving  power  and  money  to  the  organization  which  seeks  to  aid 
it,  and  to  control  its  direction  in  a  wise  course.  The  case  has  been 
laid  before  you  fairly,  and  the  details  and  precedents  have  been 
sufficiently  studied.  The  experience  of  ten  years  will  be  of  high 
value  ;  and  the  consent  of  the  Sultan,  whose  country  it  is,  has 


276  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

been  gained,  both  to  the  construction  of  a  very  important  line  of 
railway,  and  to  the  settlement  of  Jews,  willing  to  abide  by  the 
law  of  that  land  as  they  have  obeyed  the  much  more  tyrannical 
laws  of  the  Czar. 

"  I  confidently  expect  therefore,  within  a  few  more  years,  to 
see  prosperity  increasing  in  Palestine,  and  the  empty  lands 
filling  up  with  an  industrious  population.  And  if  this  be  so  the 
Jewish  people  will  have  reason  to  remember  with  gratitude  the 
name  of  Baron  Rothschild  as  a  generous  benefactor,  and  the 
Society  of  the  Chovevi  Zion,  as  an  organisation  which  undertook 
a  very  important  work  at  a  time  when  help  was  sorely  needed." ^ 

4.  Sir  John  William  Dawson  on  the  Future  of  Palestine 

Sir  John  William  Dawson,  Professor  of  Natural  History  at 
Montreal  University,  the  worthy  disciple  of  Lyell  and  Darwin, 
in  a  description  of  the  Holy  Land,  writes  : — 

**  From  the  higher  parts  of  Jaffa  one  may  obtain  a  good  idea 
of  the  physical  characters  of  the  maritime  plain  of  Southern 
Palestine.  Along  the  shore  stretch  banks  and  dunes  of  yellow 
sand,  contrasting  strongly  with  the  deep  blue  of  the  sea,  and 
shading  off  on  the  east  into  the  verdure  of  the  plain.  Near  Jaffa 
this  is  covered  with  orange  orchards,  laden  in  February  with 
golden  fruit  of  immense  size,  and  which  forms  one  of  the  most 
important  exports  of  the  place.  To  the  south  the  plain  spreads 
into  the  fertile  fiats  of  ancient  Philistia,  interspersed  in  the 
distance  with  patches  of  sand,  the  advanced  guards  of  the  great 
Arabian  desert.  To  the  north  it  constitutes  the  plain  of  Sharon, 
celebrated  in  Hebrew  song,  and  extends  for  fifty  miles  to  where 
Mount  Carmel  projects  its  high  rocky  front  into  the  sea.  On  the 
inland  side,  the  plain  is  bounded  first  by  the  rolling  foot-hills  of 
the  Judean  range,  the  Shephelah  or  low  country  .  .  .  and  then  by 
the  hill  country  proper,  which,  clothed  in  blue  and  purple,  forms 
a  continuous  range,  limiting  the  view  eastward  from  Jaffa.  .  .  . 

"  The  maritime  plain  was  also  a  granary . . .  and  it  still  produces 
much  wheat  and  barley,  though  large  portions  of  it  are  neglected 
and  untilled,  and  the  culture  carried  on  is  by  means  of  implements 
as  simple  and  primitive  as  they  could  have  been  in  the  days  of 
Abraham.  In  February  one  found  it  gay  with  the  beautiful 
crimson  anemone  (A.  coronaria),  which  may  have  been  the 
poetical  *  Rose  of  Sharon,'  while  a  little  yellowish-white  iris 
represented  the  *  lily  of  the  valley  '  of  Solomon's  Song.  .  .  . 

**  .  .  .  Along  the  shores  of  the  Dead  Sea  there  are  springs 
which  produce  petroleum  ;  and  this  when  hardened  becomes 
Asphalt. 

"  Now  the  valley  of  the  Dead  Sea  is  an  *  oil  district,'  and  from 

^  Eastern  Palestine.  A  Lecture  delivered  for  the  Western  Tent  of  the 
Chovevi  Zion  Association.  By  Claude  Reignier  Conder  .  .  .  Chovevi  Zion 
Association.  .  .  .  1892.     (8°.  36  pp.  in  printed  wrapper)  pp.  5-6  and  35-36- 


APPENDICES  277 

the  incidental  mention  of  its  slinaepits,  or  literally  asphalt  pits, 
in  Genesis  xiv.,  was  apparently  more  productive  in  mineral  pitch 
in  ancient  times.  It  is  interesting  in  connection  with  this  to 
notice  that  Conder  found  layers  of  asphalt  in  the  mound  which 
marks  the  site  of  ancient  Jericho,  showing  that  the  substance 
was  used  in  primitive  times  lor  roolb  and  floors,  or  as  a  cement  to 
protect  brick  structures  from  damp  ;  and  it  is  well  known  that 
petroleum  exudes  from  the  rocks  both  on  the  sides  and  in  the 
bottom  of  the  Dead  Sea,  and,  being  hardened  by  evaporation 
and  oxidation,  forms  the  asphaltum  referred  to  by  so  many 
travellers. 

"...  Palestine,  to  the  ordinary  traveller,  appears,  especially  in 
the  drought  of  summer,  a  bare  and  barren  country.  Yet  the 
climate  and  rainfall  of  Palestine,  with  the  chemical  quality  of 
its  rocks  and  soils,  rich  in  lime,  alkaUes,  and  phosphates,  render 
it  productive  to  a  degree  which  cannot  be  measured  by  our  more 
northern  lands.  Its  plains,  though  limited  in  extent  and  often 
stony,  have  very  fertile  soil.  The  olive,  the  vine,  and  the  fig-tree 
will  grow  and  yield  their  valuable  fruit  in  abundance  on  rocky 
hills  which  at  first  sight  appear  barren  and  worthless.  Whenever 
culture  has  been  undertaken  ^^ith  skill  and  vigour,  it  has  been 
well  rewarded. .  ,  In  the  olden  times  the  Tirosh  (often  incorrectly 
translated  *  wine  '),  as  the  Hebrews  called  the  fruit  of  their  hiU 
orchards  and  vineyards,  was  one  of  the  main  sources  of  wealth  ; 
and  the  vineyards,  with  their  vines  trailing  over  the  warm  rocks 
and  clothing  the  ground  with  their  leaves  and  fruit,  reaUze  the 
prophetic  description  of  hills  running  with  the  grape  juice,  and 
of  a  land  flowing  with  milk  and  honey,  if  by  the  latter  we  under- 
stand the  '  dibs  '  or  syrup  of  the  grape.  In  Palestine  a  few  olive- 
trees  on  a  rocky  hill,  that  in  colder  cUmates  would  be  worthless, 
may  maintain  a  family.  There  is  also  an  abundance  of  nutritious 
pasturage,  more  especially  for  sheep  and  goats,  all  the  year  round, 
on  the  limestone  hills.  .  .  . 

"  Palestine  must  originally  have  been  a  well-wooded  country, 
and  its  forests  are  mentioned  in  the  historical  books  of  the  Bible  ; 
but  they  have  for  the  most  part  perished,  and  this  had  tended  to 
make  the  climate  more  arid.  The  wild  hiU-sides  are,  however, 
often  covered  with  an  exuberant  growth  of  bushes  and  young 
trees,  which,  if  permitted  to  grow,  or  if  replaced  by  cultivated 
trees,  would  soon  clothe  the  land  with  verdure,  and  tend  to 
produce  a  more  abundant  summer  rainfaU.  With  just  laws,  well 
administered,  there  is  nothingto  prevent  Palestine  from  becoming 
as  wealthy  and  populous  as  we  learn  from  the  Bible  it  was  in  the 
days  of  the  Jewish  kings,  and  it  seems  to  have  been  at  a  later  time 
under  the  Roman  government.  .  .  . 

"  In  Palestine,  .  .  ,  the  country  is  gay  with  flowers,  especially 
in  early  spring,  and  the  conspicuous  objects  of  culture  are  the 
vine  and  the  ohve.  Even  in  the  plains,  cultivated  fields  are  few, 
and  much  is  merely  wild  pasture.    The  palm-tree  is  rare,  though 


278  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

it  still  grows  in  the  plain  of  Jericho  and  the  sheltered  valleys 
throughout  the  country,  yielding  dates  smaller  than  those  of 
Egypt,  but  of  very  pleasant  flavour.  .  .  . 

"  That  the  future  of  these  old  lands  may  be  more  important 
than  their  present,  it  requires  little  penetration  to  see  ;  and  the 
old  Book,  whose  history  of  these  lands  in  the  past  we  have  been 
considering,  has  something  to  say  of  their  future  as  well.  What- 
ever beUef  men  may  repose  in  prophecy,  they  cannot  doubt  that 
the  word  of  God  has  committed  itself  to  certain  foreshadowings 
of  the  future  ;  and  though  some  of  these  are  shrouded  in  a 
symbolism  to  which  varied  interpretations  have  been  given, 
others  are  sufficiently  plain.  .  .  . 

"  We  know,  however,  that  physically  these  lands  are  still 
young,  and  capable  of  greater  things  than  those  of  the  past,  and 
we  may  content  ourselves  with  repeating  the  inspired  words  of 
an  older  Jewish  prophet  : — 

'  For  the  Lord  will  comfort  Zion  : 
He  will  comfort  all  her  waste  places, 
And  will  make  her  wilderness  like  Eden, 
And  her  desert  like  the  garden  of  the  Lord  : 
Joy  and  gladness  shall  be  found  therein, 
Thanksgiving  and  the  voice  of  melody.' 

Isaiah  li.  3. 

"The  Holy  Land  is  a  fine  tract  of  country  well  defined  by 
natural  boundaries,  extending  from  the  shore  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean to  the  Syrian  desert.  It  is  a  compact  district,  distinct 
and  complete  in  itself,  enclosed  by  mountain  and  sea,  and  con- 
sequently offering  great  facilities  of  defence  against  invasion. 
It  has  its  highlands  and  its  lowlands,  its  hills  and  its  valleys,  its 
streams  and  its  lakes,  its  hot  springs  and  its  cold  springs,  a  fine 
sea  coast  broken  by  bold  promontories,  cliffs  towering  above, 
beaches  spreading  out  below,  and  is  replete  with  all  the  capa- 
bilities essential  for  civilized  life.  The  Holy  Land  is  rich  in 
vegetation,  from  the  time-honoured  "  cedar  of  Lebanon  to  the 
hyssop  on  the  wall."  Groves  of  olive  and  mulberry  trees,  vine- 
yards of  grapes  of  extraordinary  size  and  richness,  interspersed 
with  fields  of  golden  grain,  with  magnificent  hedges  of  the  cactus 
almost  reaching  the  height  of  trees  ;  the  sycamore  with  its 
thickness  of  foliage — these,  and  more  can  be  enumerated  in  a 
brief  outline,  are  there  for  the  endowment  and  adornment  of  the 
Holy  Land.  Nevertheless,  the  wealth  of  nature  is  in  a  great 
measure  of  a  passing  character.  The  vSloping  terraces  of  the  hills, 
made  fertile  by  means  of  artificial  irrigation,  and  now  deprived 
of  the  help  of  the  tending  hand  of  man,  no  longer  display  that 
fruitful  aspect  which  was  formerly  their  glory.  The  land  mourns 
under  its  present  masters.  The  tillers  of  the  soil  do  not  even  sow 
in  tears  to  reap  in  joy.  With  listless  fatalism  they  cast  into  the 
ground  the  seeds  of  a  harvest  which  they  know,  as  they  watch  it 


APPENDICES  279 

come  into  being,  shall  minister  mostly,  not  to  their  wants  or 
wealth,  but  to  the  greed  of  unrighteous  local  administration. 
And,  wherever  these  people  are  crowded  together  in  their  miser- 
able villages,  all  is  mud,  slum,  penury,  depression,  chaos  and 
picturesque  misery.  A  goodly  land,  the  almond  tree  white  in 
bloom,  orange  and  olive,  everywhere  lilies,  the  scarlet  anemone  ; 
but  no  system,  no  industry,  no  skill,  no  capital.  No  nation  has 
been  able  to  establish  itself  as  a  nation,  in  Palestine,  up  to  this 
day,  no  national  union,  and  qo  national  spirit  have  prevailed 
there.  The  motley,  impoverished  tribes  which  have  occupied  it, 
have  held  it  as  mere  tenants  at  will,  temporary  landowners, 
evidently  waiting  for  those  entitled  to  the  permanent  possession 
of  the  soil.'' 1 


LXXIV 

Petition  to  the  Sultan 

The  following  is  the  text  of  a  petition  to  His  Majesty  the  Sultan 
of  Turkey,  which  was  presented  by  Mr.  Samuel  Montagu,  m.p. 
(afterwards  Lord  Swaythling) ,  to  Lord  Rosebery,  with  the  request 
to  transfer  the  same  to  Constantinople.  The  petition  was  signed 
by  the  officers  of  the  Executive  Committee  and  by  the  Commander 
and  Secretary  of  each  Tent : — 

**  To  His  Imperial  Majesty  Abdul  Hamid  Khan,  Sultan  of 
The  Ottoman  Empire. 

"  May  it  please  your  Majesty, 

"  The  undersigned  Association  of  Chovevi  Zion  (Lovers  of 
Zion)  beg  humbly  to  submit  to  your  Imperial  Majesty  that  this 
Association  has  been  founded  to  assist  a  limited  number  of 
worthy  and  industrious  Jews  to  purchase  and  cultivate  land,  and 
to  earn  their  living  by  agriculture.  The  Association  has  pur- 
chased some  portions  of  land  in  your  Imperial  Majesty's 
Dominions  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Jordan,  and  desires  to 
acquire  such  other  portions  of  land  in  the  same  region  as  may 
be  for  sale,  and  suitable  for  the  cultivation  of  corn,  vines,  fruits, 
and  silk,  or  to  the  raising  of  cattle  and  horses. 

"  And  the  Association  desires  to  send  to  this  land  jQtting 
colonists,  industrious  and  peaceable  men,  provided  by  the 
Association  with  sufficient  means  to  till  the  land  and  to  erect  for 

^  Modern  Science  in  Bible  Lands.  By  Sir  John  William  Dawson,  g.m.g., 
LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  ctc.  .  .  .  London :  .  .  .  mdccclxxxviii.  pp.  449-450, 
487.  522,  524,  527,  533,  536. 


28o  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

themselves  houses,  and  to  sink  wells  and  construct  roads  so  that 
they  may  be  able  to  reach  markets. 

**  The  Association  wishes  thus  to  send  to  your  Imperial 
Majesty's  dominions  only  such  men,  with  their  famiUes,  as  will 
with  God's  help  and  under  your  Imperial  Majesty's  protection, 
increase  the  prosperity  of  your  Imperial  Majesty's  dominion, 
and  become  faithful  subjects  to  your  Imperial  Majesty. 

"  The  Association  therefore  humbly  begs  your  Imperial 
Majesty  to  grant  the  Association  of  Chovevi  Zion  a  Firman  with 
the  following  privileges. 

"  First :  that  such  persons  as  may  be  selected  by  the  experi- 
enced men  who  conduct  the  affairs  of  the  Association  may,  when 
provided  with  proper  certificates  that  they  have  been  so  selected, 
and  that  land  has  been  purchased  for  them,  be  allowed  to  settle 
in  your  Imperial  Majesty's  dominions,  and  to  cultivate  land 
there,  and  that  the  privilege  be  granted  to  them  of  becoming 
naturalised  as  your  Majesty's  subjects. 

"  Second  :  That  in  view  of  the  great  expenses  attending  the 
beginnings  of  cultivation,  the  building  of  houses,  the  sinking  of 
wells,  and  the  making  of  roads,  the  agriculturists  be  relieved 
from  the  tax  of  the  '  Tenth  '  for  a  period  of  seven  years. 

"  Third  :  that  it  be  graciously  permitted  to  them,  under  the 
direction  and  on  the  lands  of  the  Association,  to  build  houses  and 
stables,  schools  for  their  children,  and  temples  in  which  to 
worship  the  Most  High,  to  construct  roads,  drainage  and  irriga- 
tion works,  and  to  sink  wells,  without  having  to  crave  special 
permission  in  each  case. 

"  Fourth :  that  on  condition  that  the  Association  send  only 
men  free  from  disease  or  illness  and  approved  by  experienced 
Doctors,  such  persons  may  freely  travel  in  your  Imperial  Majesty's 
dominions. 

"  And  the  Association,  reckoning  on  your  Imperial  Majesty's 
benevolence  and  wisdom,  believes  that  your  Imperial  Majesty 
will  confer  these  benefits  on  deserving  and  industrious  people, 
and  your  Imperial  Majesty's  most  humble  petitioners  invoke  on 
your  Imperial  Majesty,  the  blessing  of  the  Most  High. 


President. 

.Honorary  Secretary." 


The  following  reply  was  received  : — 

"  Foreign  Office, 

'^iith  March,  1893. 
"  Sir, — I  am  directed  by  the  Earl  of  Rosebery  to  acknowledge 
the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  3rd  inst.,  forwarding  a  number 
of  petitions,  addressed  to  the  Sultan,  by  the  '  Lovers  of  Zion ' 
in  favour  of  the  colonization  of  certain  lands  on  the  East  oi  the 
Jordan  by  Jewish  emigrants. 


APPENDICES  281 

*'  His  Lordship  will  enquire  of  Her  Majesty's  Ambassador  at 
Constantinople  whether  the  fact  of  these  petitions  being  sent  in 
through  the  British  Embassy  would  be  likely  to  lead  to  a 
relaxation  of  the  regulations  affecting  immigration  to  Syria. 
"  I  am,  Sir, 

"  Your  most  obedient,  humble  servant, 

'*  (Signed)  T.  V.  Lister.^ 
**  Samuel  Montagu,  Esq." 


LXXV 

(i)  Choveve  Zion  and  Zionist  Workers 

A  GREAT  deal  of  idealism,  energy  and  capacity  has  gone  to  the 
making  of  the  Zionist  movement  in  its  earlier  and  its  more  recent 
form.  It  would  be  outside  the  scope  of  a  history  of  Zionism 
dealing  mainly  with  England  and  France  to  attempt  to  do 
justice  to  the  work  of  all  those  individuals — mostly  Russian 
Jews — who  have  devoted  themselves  to  the  national  revival, 
in  Palestine  or  in  the  Diaspora.  The  purpose  of  this  Appendix 
is  to  place  on  record  the  services  of  some  of  the  most 
prominent  workers  (not  mentioned  in  the  text  of  this  book) 
in  the  field  of  organization,  of  propaganda  or  of  Palestinian 
colonization. 

Young  men  of  ability  and  studious  habits  founded  the  Bnei 
Zion  Association  at  Moscow.  This  Society  had  indeed  con- 
centrated upon  and  developed  most  strongly  the  national  and 
Zionist  ideal.  The  position  of  the  Moscow  Bnei  Zion  was  so 
conspicuous,  because  that  organization  was  the  headquarters  of 
prominent  Zionist  workers  who  played  a  distinguished  part  in 
the  national  revival  in  Russia  and  in  other  countries.  Among 
these  the  most  active  and  important  leaders  were :  E.  W. 
Tschlenow,  M.  Ussischkin,  J.  Maze,  A.  Idelsohn,  T.  Brutzkus, 
B.  Mintz,  S.  Mintz  and  M.  Rabinovitz. 

E.  W.  TscHLENOw's  life  of  strenuous  work  was  characterized  by 
calmness  and  steadfastness  on  the  one  hand,  and  gentleness  and 
high  virtue  on  the  other.  Since  his  earliest  youth  he  combined 
within  him  the  noble  spirit  of  idealism  and  great  capacity  for 
precise  work.  As  a  young  student,  he  soon  won  his  way  to  the 
foremost  rank  among  the  Choveve  Zion  workers.  The  soundness 
and  farsightedness  of  his  views  were  remarkable.  Simple  but 
impressive  as  a  writer,  as  well  as  platform  orator,  his  generosity 
and  devotion  soon  made  him  a  favourite  of  the  Bnei  Zion,  and 
brought  him  prominence  as  organizer,  leader  and  orator.  He 
graduated  at  the  Moscow  University  in  medicine,  and  dis- 
tinguished himself,   after  further  study  at  other  universities 

*  Palcesfina,  The  Chovev6  Zion  Quarterly,  No.  3,  1893,  p.  7. 


282  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

abroad,  in  a  special  branch  of  his  science.  He  then  settled  in 
Moscow.  His  successful  medical  career,  however,  never  pre- 
vented him  from  devoting  a  considerable  part  of  his  time,  and 
when  necessary  all  of  it,  to  useful  Jewish  public  work  in  general, 
and  to  Zionism  in  particular.  After  his  important  and  fruitful 
work  in  the  Choveve  Zion  movement  he  entered  the  Zionist 
Organization.  ^He  was  in  Palestine  twice,  not  as  a  mere  tourist 
but  as  an  investigator.  He  wrote  a  great  number  of 
pamphlets,  reports  and  articles,  and  a  very  good  book  against 
Territorialism  {Zion  and  Africa,  in  Russian,  1903).  His 
second  journey  to  Palestine  enabled  him  to  increase  his 
already  extensive  knowledge  of  colonization,  and  he  laid  down 
his  observations  and  conclusions  in  another  excellent  woik, 
which  he  wrote  in  Russian,  and  which  has  been  translated 
into  other  European  languages..  The  conspicuous  service  which 
he  rendered  amid  formidable  difficulties  to  the  Jewish  National 
Fund,  of  which  he  was  the  manager  in  Russia,  his  tact,  his  calm 
energy  and  his  counsel  were  of  inestimable  value  to  the  Zionist 
cause.  After  having  been  for  many  years  a  member  of  the 
Greater  Actions  Committee,  he  was  elected  at  the  Vienna 
Zionist  Congress  of  1913  a  member  of  the  Inner  Actions  Com- 
mittee. He  then  gave  up  his  brilliant  medical  career  in  Moscow 
to  undertake  a  work  of  singular  complexity  and  extreme  heavi- 
ness. In  this  he  won  the  same  measure  of  confidence  as  that  he 
enjoyed  in  Russia,  and  provided  the  most  important  personal 
link  between  the  East  and  the  West.  In  191 4  he  was  delegated, 
together  with  ^  the  author,  for  Zionist  political,  work  in  this 
country ;  and  he  came  here  again  in  191 8  notwithstanding  his 
failing  health.  During  his  brief  but  momentous  excursus  into 
the  regions  of  politics  and  diplomacy  he  revealed  the  same  high 
qualities  which  had  elsewhere  marked  his  mind  and  character. 
In  consequence  of  his  efforts,  his  health,  which  had  some  years 
ago  been  weakened,  broke  down,  and  his  tragic  death  took  place 
on  the  31st  of  January,  1918,  in  London — the  greatest  loss 
Zionism  has  sustained  since  the  death  of  Wolffsohn. 

M.  Ussischkin's  career  as  Choveve  Zionist  and  modern  Zionist 
is  unique  as  well  as  remarkable.  In  some  respects,  and  in  some 
quarters,  his  influence  was  far  greater  than  that  of  anyone  else. 
A  strong,  perhaps  the  strongest  organizer,  possessed  of  deep 
nationaUstic  convictions  and  of  intense  Jewish  feeling,  and  en- 
dowed with  the  wonderful  gift  of  being  able  to  impress  the  masses, 
he  succeeded  in  establishing  a  very  high  reputation  when  a  mere 
student,  and  later  on  as  one  of  the  founders  and  leaders  of  the 
Bnei  Zion,  and  subsequently  among  the  Choveve  Zion  leaders. 
He  was  also  a  founder  of  the  Bilu.  On  his  long  visits  to  Palestine, 
in  propaganda  work  for  the  purpose  of  raising  funds  for  coloniza- 
tion, and  throughout  his  whole  long  and  fruitful  career  of 
nationahst  work,  he  exhibited  the  most  indefatigable  activity 
and  greatest  courage.    Having  graduated  at  Moscow  in  Tech- 


APPENDICES  283 

nology  and  Engineering,  he  settled  in  Ekaterinoslaw,  where  his 
strong,  unbending  personality,  his  power  of  leadership,  and  the 
general  respect  he  commanded,  soon  brought  him  into  pro- 
minence, and  gained  for  him  a  high  reputation  in  Russia,  in 
Palestine,  and  elsewhere.  The  very  strength  of  mind,  energy, 
outspokenness  and  self-reliance,  combined  with  inflexible  deter- 
mination and  ardent  zeal,  distinguish  his  untiring  efforts  on 
behalf  of  the  Zionist  Organization.  While  others  faltered  and 
failed,  he  remained  firm  ;  while  others  despaired,  he  remained 
confident,  and  his  zeal  and  perseverance  gained  for  him  the 
respect  even  of  those  who  opposed  some  of  his  methods,  while  it 
increased  the  admiration  in  which  he  was  held  by  many  of  his 
adherents.  He  greatly  distinguished  himself  in  his  strenuous 
work  for  the  Zionist  financial  institutions,  and  was  also  the  most 
influential  champion  of  the  idea  of  immediate  practical  work  in 
Palestine.  His  pamphlets  on  Palestine  and  the  Zionist  pro- 
gramme are  written  with  admirable  cleverness.  He  has  Uved 
now  for  some  years  in  Odessa,  where  he  is  the  Chairman  of  the 
Society  for  the  promotion  of  Jewish  colonization  work  in  Pales- 
tine. Being  Jewish  NationaUst  to  the  backbone,  he  naturally 
takes  a  great  interest  in  the  revival  of  the  Hebrew  language. 

A.  Idelsohn  is  the  most  modern  and  the  most  ingenious 
Zionist  publicist  in  the  Russian  language.  His  influence  has  been 
underestimated  rather  than  justly  appreciated.  While,  on  the 
one  hand,  the  pathetic  devotion  and  enthusiasm  of  others  are 
undoubtedly  most  useful  and  indispensable  conditions  for  the 
success  of  the  movement,  an  analytical  mind,  as  a  temporizing 
element  and  corrective,  is  of  no  less  importance.  This  mind  was 
devoted  to  the  cause  by  Idelsohn  since  his  youth,  and  found 
expression  in  his  writings  in  the  Zionist  organ,  written  in  the 
Russian  language,  its  name  being  Razswiet  and  levreiskam  Shisn. 
A  critic,  and  a  somewhat  ironical  thinker,  he  never  permits  an 
emotional  effort  to  mar  his  clear  intellectual  discrimination.  In 
later  years  he  formed,  with  M.  A.  Soloveitschik,  A.  Goldstein, 
J.  Klebanow,  A.  Seidemann,  M.  Aleinikow,  D.  Pasmanik,  S.  J. 
Janowski,  J.  Brutzkus,  Ch.  Grinberg,  J.  Eljaschew,  I.  Gruenbaum, 
and  others  who  comprised  the  editorial  staff  of  his  paper,  a 
brilHant  ensemble  of  Zionist  inteUectuals  which  has  recently 
been  augmented  by  L.  Jaffe,  who  sometimes  acte  i  as  editor. 
Idelsohn  is  an  eminent  Zionist  and  a  member  of  the  Actions 
Committee. 

Julius  Brutzkus  was  an  active  and  highly  appreciated 
member  of  the  Bnei  Zion.  Most  gifted  and  learned,  with  a  clear 
mind,  and  generally  well  informed,  he  adhered  to  the  national 
idea  from  early  youth.  He  graduated  in  medicine  at  the  Moscow 
University,  and  settled  for  some  years  in  Petrograd,  where  he 
became  active  in  matters  communal,  literary  and  journalistic. 
He  wrote  several  excellent  articles  and  pamphlets. 

The  two  MiNTzs  were  also  appreciated  for  their  faithfulness, 


284  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

sincere  devotion,  and  excellent  and  tactful  propaganda.  B.  Mintz 
has  since  settled  at  Rostow,  where  he  takes  a  leading  part  in 
Zionist  work.  S.  Mintz  graduated  at  Moscow  in  medicine  and 
settled  in  Warsaw,  where  he  attained  a  high  reputation  in  his 
profession  as  well  as  in  communal  activity.  A  sincere  Nationalist, 
of  a  serious  and  studious  turn  of  mind,  deeply  attached  to 
Zionism,  an  excellent  Hebraist,  most  active  in  all  movements 
making  for  the  revival  of  the  national  language,  he  has  remained 
true  to  Bnei  Zion  traditions.  There  are,  further,  the  zealous 
Alperin,  and  Michael  Rabinovitch,  resident  at  Rostow,  a  dis- 
tinguished Zionist  worker  who  was  member  of  the  Actions 
Committee. 

The  great  earnestness  and  untiring  assiduity  of  the  Bnei  Zion 
did  not  fail  to  attract  attention  and  to  produce  a  deep  impression. 
The  immense  zeal  for  this  cause  dispelled  the  apathy  of  those 
around  them.  Thus  the  Moscow  Choveve  Zion  and  Zionist  Group 
became  indeed  one  of  the  best,  the  most  esteemed  and  the  most 
active  in  the  world.  Of  those  in  touch  with  the  first  pioneers  was 
Kalonimos  Wolf  Wissotski  {1824-1904),  the  well-known  Chovev 
Zion  and  Zionist,  a  zealous  supporter  of  the  colonization  of  Pales- 
tine, a  generous  friend  of  Hebrew  literature,  a  patron  of  learning 
and  learned  men.  The  representatives  of  his  great  firm  have  to 
the  present  day  remained  faithful  to  the  traditions  of  the  founder 
in  a  most  liberal-minded  and  far-reaching  manner. 

The  following  names  are  arranged  in  alphabetical  order. 

Elieser  Ben-Jehuda,  born  in  Russia,  is  a  prominent  repre- 
sentative of  the  revival  of  the  Hebrew  language  and  of  the 
national  renaissance.  As  early  as  1880  he  expounded  his  political 
views  on  Zionism  in  Smolenskin's  monthly  Ha'shachar.  In  188 1 
he  went  to  Palestine,  where  he  became  a  sturdy  and  independent 
fighter  for  Hebrew  as  a  living  tongue  and  for  Jewish  nationalism. 
In  1885  he  founded  the  Hebrew  weekly  paper  Ha'zevi,  which  he 
edited  for  several  years,  assisted  by  his  wife  (Hemda)  and  his  son. 
Together  they  formed  the  first  Hebrew-speaking  family  in  the 
country.  He  has  revolutionized  Hebrew  style  and  introduced 
many  new  colloquial  and  journalistic  expressions.  As  a  pioneer 
of  modern  methods,  radically  opposed  to  the  old  ways  of  thought 
and  action,  he  defended  his  heterodox  ideas  with  energy,  became 
involved  in  controversies,  and  was  arrested  by  the  Ottoman 
authorities  for  his  nationalistic  propaganda.  Many  years  ago  he 
started  the  pubUcation  of  his  great  Hebrew  dictionary  {Millon). 
He  was  one  of  the  first  Palestine  Zionists  who  approached  Herzl 
and  devoted  themselves  to  Zionist  propaganda  in  Palestine. 

Vassyli  Bermann  (1862-96)  was  a  young  man  of  high  intel- 
lectual attainments  and  endowed  with  exceptional  literary  gifts, 
and  would  undoubtedly  have  risen  to  great  eminence  had  he 
continued  to  devote  himself  to  literature.  But  he  gave  almost 
all  his  time  to  the  Choveve  Zion  movement.  His  name  is  closely 
connected  with  the  history  of  the  national  Jewish  movement  in 


APPENDICES  285 

Russia.  Born  at  Mitau,  he  received  his  elementary  education  at 
the  school  founded  by  his  father,  a  capable  pedagogue,  in  Peters- 
burg, and  completed  his  college  studies  in  the  same  town. 
Already,  as  student  of  the  faculty  of  Law  in  Petersburg,  Bermann 
placed  himself  at  the  service  of  Judaism,  and  strove,  through  the 
foundation  of  a  suitable  association,  to  spread  the  idea  of  the 
liberation  of  the  Jewish  people  into  wide  circles  of  the  com- 
munity. In  the  year  1884  he  published  the  compilation  Palestine. 
Even  this  first  work  drew  general  attention  upon  the  highly 
gifted  young  writer.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Russian  Choveve  Zion 
at  Drusgenik,  in  1887,  Bermann  was  considered,  by  the  side  of 
the  spiritual  father  of  the  national  Jewish  movement  in  Russia, 
Leo  Pinsker,  as  the  leader  of  the  "  Zionophiles,"  as  Bermann 
called  the  adherents  of  the  national  Jewish  idea.  When  it  was 
found  desirable  to  obtain  the  authorization  of  the  Russian 
Government  for  the  "  Odessa  Association  for  Supporting  Jewish 
Artisans  and  Agriculturists  in  Syria  and  Palestine,"  the  shrewd 
lawyer,  Vassyli  Bermann,  employed  his  utmost  energy  in  order 
to  help  in  overcoming  all  difficulties  which  stood  in  the  way  of 
the  foundation  of  this  association.  He  was  one  of  the  members 
of  the  first  official  congress  of  the  Russian  Choveve  Zion  which 
was  held  at  Odessa  in  the  year  1890.  Once  again  in  Petersburg, 
Bermann  devoted  all  his  zeal  to  the  editing  of  his  continued 
compilation,  which  he  intended  to  transform  into  a  year-book. 
In  this  way  Zion,  published  in  the  year  1891,  was  brought  out. 
It  is  considerably  superior  to  its  predecessor  in  contents  and  get- 
up.  Zion,  which  is  dedicated  to  Pinsker,  affords  an  interesting 
insight  into  the  phase  of  development  of  the  national  Jewish 
thought  of  that  time.  From  Bermann,  who  was  well  aware  of 
the  influence  of  historical  knowledge  upon  the  strengthening  of 
the  national  consciousness,  came  also  the  initiative  towards  the 
foundation  of  the  "  Historio-Ethnographic  Commission  "  within 
the  "  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  Culture  among  the  Jews  in 
Russia."  When,  in  the  year  1892,  the  Petersburg  central  com- 
mittee of  the  Jewish  Colonization  Association  was  formed,  and 
the  necessity  for  a  scientific  basis  of  the  colonization  question 
became  evident,  Bermann  undertook,  at  the  request  of  the 
J.  C.  A.,  a  mission  of  study,  the  result  of  which  he  recorded  in  a 
comprehensive  memoir,  and  thus  afforded  the  central  committee 
valuable  material  towards  the  work  of  colonization.  The  exer- 
tions of  travelling  had  much  affected  Bermann's  health.  But 
he  would  not  allow  that  to  prevent  him  from  further  work  in 
favour  of  his  brethren  with  the  greatest  devotion.  At  last  he 
found  himself  compelled  to  seek  the  mild  cHmate  of  Egypt. 
There,  on  March  i8th,  1896,  Vassyh  Bermann  breathed  his  last. 
His  tombstone  bears  the  inscription  :  **  If  I  forget  thee,  O 
Jerusalem,  let  my  right  hand  forget  (her  cunning)."  The  dying 
man  had  wished  it  so. 
Gregor  Belkovsky,  a  distinguished  lawyer,  born  in  Odessa, 


286  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

was  one  of  the  first  pioneers  of  the  Choveve  Zion  movement.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Societies  Nes  Ziona  and  Ezra.  In  1895-7 
he  was  Professor  of  Law  at  the  University  of  Sofia,  Bulgaria. 
On  his  return  to  Russia,  he  entered  the  Zionist  Organization 
and  came  into  prominence  from  the  First  Congress  onwards. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  notable  workers  for  the  establishment  of 
the  Zionist  financial  institutions.  He  also  did  important  work 
in  connection  with  the  movement  in  Russia. 

Jehiel  Brill  (1836-86),  born  in  Russia,  and  taken  to  Constan- 
tinople when  he  was  quite  young,  was  later  brought  to  Jerusalem, 
where  he  received  a  talmudic  education.  In  1863,  with  the 
assistance  of  his  father-in-law,  Jacob  Saphir,  he  established  the 
Hebrew  monthly,  Ha'lebanon,  which,  after  the  appearance  of 
the  twelfth  number,  was  suppressed  by  the  Turkish  Government. 
He  then  went  to  Paris,  where  he  resumed  publication  of  Ha'- 
lebanon. After  the  Franco-Prussian  War  he  removed  to 
Mayence,  where  he  renewed  the  publication  of  his  paper.  When 
the  Choveve  Zion  movement  was  inaugurated.  Brill,  who 
was  well  acquainted  with  Palestine,  was  chosen  by  Baron 
Edmond  de  Rothschild,  on  the  recommendation  of  Rabbi 
Samuel  Mobile wer,  to  conduct  a  group  of  experienced  farmers 
from  Russia  to  Palestine.  He  gave  a  vivid  description 
of  his  mission  in  his  Hebrew  pamphlet  Yesod  Ha'maalah 
(Mayence,  1883). 

H.  Brody  was,  when  in  Berlin,  a  studious,  scholarly  worker, 
and  at  the  same  time  active  in  Zionism.  Later  he  was  appointed 
Rabbi  in  Nachod,  Bohemia,  and,  being  a  scholar  and  a  prolific 
writer,  he  became  very  active  in  scientific  and  literary  matters. 
He  has  contributed  to  Ha'magid,  Haeshkol  and  Ha'shiloach  ; 
has  edited  (with  A.  Freimann)  a  Bibliographical  Review,  and  has 
written  valuable  books  on  Jehuda  Ha'levi  and  Moses  Ibn  Ezra. 
In  defence  of  Zionism  he  has  written,  under  the  nom  de  plume 
Dr.  H.  Salomonsohn,  an  excellent  pamphlet,  in  which  he  proves 
that  Zionism  is  an  essential  principle  of  Jewish  tradition. 

Martin  Buber,  bom  in  Galicia,  was  a  member  of  the  Vienna 
Kadima  who  afterwards  studied  in  Berlin.  He  was  closely  akin 
to  Berthold  Feiwel  in  aspirations  and  activity.  Buber  was  one  of 
the  founders  of  the  Verlag  and  one  of  its  principal  contributors. 
He  was  really  one  of  the  authors  of  the  Jewish  Renaissance,  not 
a  product  of  it.  He  has  no  equal  as  an  inspirer  of  the  Jewish 
intellectuals  in  Western  Europe.  He  has  been  a  Zionist  since  the 
inception  of  the  Organization,  but  he  has  devoted  himself  mostly 
to  literary  work  in  connection  with  the  Jewish  Renaissance. 
Sweet  and  pathetic  legends,  dehcate  Chassidic  sketches,  tales 
of  wonder,  mystic  and  philosophical  treatises  and  allegories,  pro- 
foundly Jewish  and  reflected  in  deep  Murillo-like  shades,  such 
are  the  subjects  of  his  Story  of  Rabbi  Nachman  (1906),  Legends 
of  the  Baal  Shem  (1907),  Daniel  (1914)  and  other  writings. 

Rabbi  I.  H.  Daiches,  a  great  Talmudist,  formerly  Rabbi  of 


APPENDICES  287 

Neustatt  Shirvint,  and  now  in  Leeds,  supported  the  Choveve 
Zion  movement,  and  was  afterwards  a  delegate  to  the  Zionist 
Congress. 

Joshua  Eisenstadt  (Barzilai),  the  oldest,  and,  as  far  as  en- 
thusiasm is  concerned,  still  the  youngest  among  the  propa- 
gandists in  Palestine,  a  man  of  high  aspirations,  who  looks  at 
things  from  the  standpoint  of  a  devotee  rather  than  of  a  critic, 
exercises  considerable  influence  through  his  speeches  and  popular 
articles.     He  died  in  Switzerland  in  1918. 

Rabbi  Mordecai  Eliasberg  {1817-89),  Rabbi  of  Bausk  in 
Russia,  an  eminent  Talmudist,  a  profound  theologian  and  a 
diligent  student  of  history,  who  wrote  valuable  books  and  articles 
on  talmudic  subjects,  was  one  of  the  most  ardent  advocates 
of  the  ideas  of  the  Choveve  Zion.  By  his  numerous  con- 
tributions to  Hamelitz  he  helped  very  much  in  the  spread  of 
Zionist ic  ideas,  and  his  memory  will  be  cherished  as  one  of  the 
representatives  of  orthodox  Judaism  who  raised  the  banner  of 
Palestine. 

Berthold  Feiwel,  born  in  Brunn,  Moravia,  was  a  member  of 
the  Vienna  Kadima,  but  did  most  of  his  work  in  Berlin.  A  young 
man  of  exceptional  attainments,  he  early  attracted  the  notice  of 
Herzl,  and  was  for  some  time  editor  of  the  Welt,  for  which  work 
he  was  particularly  well  qualified.  But  the  work  of  leader-writing 
did  not  satisfy  the  poetic  and  aesthetic  side  of  his  nature,  and  he 
turned  to  literature.  The  promise  of  his  early  writings,  with  their 
beauty  and  originality,  is  amply  fulfilled  in  the  literary  activity 
which  he  subsequently  developed  in  the  Almanack  and  in  other 
publications  of  the  JUdischer  Verlag,  which  was  founded  by  him 
and  his  friends.  His  poems,  as  well  as  his  excellent  translations 
of  Rosenfeld  and  other  works,  have  won  him  a  lasting  reputation. 
He  has  also  taken  an  active  part  in  the  work  of  the  Zionist  Organ- 
ization, and  was  a  member  of  the  Actions  Committee.  He  was 
editor  of  the  Welt  for  the  second  time  in  the  years  1906-9,  and  has 
written  many  pam.phlets. 

The  brothers  Isaac  and  Boris  Goldberg  hold  a  specially  dis- 
tinguished place  both  in  Russian  Zionism  and  in  the  movement 
at  large.  Isaac  Goldberg  has  made  himself  indispensable  to  all 
Zionist  institutions,  and  has  attained  the  highest  repute  in  the 
Zionist  Organization,  and  in  Palestine.  Boris  Goldberg  is  a  very 
influential  member  of  the  Actions  Committee,  with  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  all  matters  concerning  Zionism  and  Palestine,  and 
an  important  contributor  to  the  Zionist  press.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Zionist  Commission  of  Inquiry  which  visited  Palestine 
five  years  ago. 

J.  Grazowski  has  written  popular  and  useful  books  on  general 
Jewish  history,  and  has  collaborated  in  a  Hebrew  dictionary. 
He  is  now  in  the  service  of  the  Anglo-Palestine  Company  at 
Jaffa. 

Mordecai  (Marcus)  ben  Hillel  Ha'cohen  was  even  in  his 


288  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

early  youth  an  excellent,  versatile  contributor  to  the  Hebrew  and 
Russian  Press.  Possessed  of  great  vivacity  and  a  humorous  and 
enthusiastic  disposition,  an  enlivening  speaker,  with  the  national 
idea  deeply  at  heart,  he  has  worked  for  Zionism,  Hebrew  and 
the  national  idea  with  considerable  success.  His  writings  in 
Ha'melitz,  Ha'zefirah,  Razswiet,  and  other  papers  and  reviews, 
as  well  as  his  own  pamphlets,  the  description  of  his  journey 
to  Palestine,  and  his  reminiscences,  written  in  a  brilliant  style, 
have  won  him  a  well-merited  popularity.  After  working  several 
years  in  the  Choveve  Zion  movement,  and  in  the  Zionist  Organ- 
ization, he  settled  in  Palestine,  where  he  is  active  as  one  of 
the  most  popular  leaders  of  the  Tel-Aviv  community,  and  is 
particularly  engaged  in  educational,  communal  and  literary  work. 

Dr.  William  Herzberg  (1827-97),  a-  highly  educated  writer 
and  communal  worker,  who,  though  not  writing  in  Hebrew, 
greatly  influenced  the  movement,  and  his  work  was  translated 
into  Hebrew.  He  wrote  the  famous  book,  Judische  Familien- 
papier e  (1875-6).  This  book  made  a  stir  in  the  Jewish  scholastic 
world.  Zacharias  Frankel  welcomed  the  book  as  a  modern 
Kusari.  It  was  only  after  some  time  that  the  identity  of  the 
author  was  discovered,  for  it  was  published  under  the  nom  de 
plume  of  Gustav  Meinhardt.  Perez  Smolenskin  was  much 
inspired  by  the  nationalist  spirit  of  this  phenomenal  literary 
production,  and  translated  the  most  important  parts  of  it  in  the 
Haschachar  (he  had  made  it  a  rule  not  to  publish  any  translation, 
but  in  this  case  departed  from  the  rule).  Herzberg  intended  to 
obtain  a  professorship  in  a  German  University,  but,  finding  that 
this  was  impossible  for  a  Jew,  he  contented  himself  with  a 
professorship  in  the  Gymnasium.  He  passed  his  probationary 
year  in  the  Gymnasium  of  his  native  town,  Stettin,  but,  when 
his  final  appointment  was  recommended  by  the  Head  Master, 
who  was  much  impressed  by  the  fine  scholarship  of  the  young 
teacher,  the  Minister  of  Education  confirmed  it  cordially,  on  the 
supposition,  however,  that  the  candidate  had  embraced  Chris- 
tianity, as  a  Jew  could  not  be  appointed  Professor  in  a  Gym- 
nasium. In  1877  he  was  induced  by  his  friend.  Professor  Gratz, 
to  accept  the  post  of  Director  of  the  Agricultural  School,  Mikveh 
Israel,  near  Jaffa.  Dr.  Herzberg  remained  one  year  in  this 
position  and  then  accepted  the  Headmastership  at  the  Von 
Laemel  School  at  Jerusalem. 

Isaac  M.  Hirschensohn,  bom  in  Russia,  has  rendered  great 
services  to  the  progress  of  the  Jews  in  Palestine  as  a  publisher, 
bibliophile  and  Talmudist.  He  advocates  rabbinical  ideas,  in 
harmony  with  the  national  principle. 

Dr.  N.  Katzenelsohn,  of  Libau,  Russia,  holds  an  important 
place  in  the  history  of  Zionist  organization.  After  having  joined 
the  Organization  at  one  of  the  first  Congresses,  he  soon  became  a 
prominent  member,  particularly  in  the  domain  of  financial 
affairs  and  institutions.    One  of  the  devoted  friends  of  Herzl,  he 


i 


2   fi^ 


APPENDICES  289 

accompanied  him  on  his  visit  to  Russia  in  1903,  and  took  part 
in  some  of  his  political  efforts  there.  In  1905  he  was  appointed 
President  of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Jewish  Colonial  Trust, 
and  regularly  gave  his  reports  of  the  activities  of  this  Institution, 
as  well  as  of  those  of  the  A.P.C.  at  the  Zionist  Congresses.  He 
visited  Palestine  in  1907,  and  particularly  investigated  the 
financial  and  economic  situation  of  the  country.  He  also 
accompanied  Wolffsohn  in  the  same  year  to  Constantinople  on  a 
political  mission.  Dr.  Katzenelsohn  was  a  member  of  the  First 
Russian  Duma,  and  was  for  many  years  very  active  in  the  work 
of  the  I.e. A.  for  the  emigration  of  the  Russian  Jews,  a  question 
on  which  he  also  submitted  reports  to  the  Zionist  Congresses. 

Dr.  Jacob  Kohan-Bernstein,  of  Kishinew,  was  one  of  the 
earliest  of  the  Choveve  Zion.  His  speeches  and  appeals  when  he 
was  in  charge  of  the  so-called  "  Post-Centre  "  were  most  effective 
in  kindling  Zionist  enthusiasm.  As  a  member  of  the  Actions 
Committee  he  has  occupied  a  high  position  in  the  movement. 

The  late  Abraham  Moses  Luncz  (1854-1918),  born  in  Russia, 
lived  since  his  early  youth  in  Palestine.  He  rendered  great 
services  to  the  exploration  of  the  Holy  Land  from  the  historical, 
geographical  and  physiographical  standpoint,  by  means  of  his 
guide-books  for  Palestine,  his  Palestine  annuals,  and  his  Jeru- 
salem almanac. 

Joseph  Lurie  was  bom  in  Russia,  and  became  a  prominent 
nationalist  at  the  Berlin  University.  He  settled  later  in  Warsaw, 
where  he  was  engaged  in  educational  work,  and  afterwards  edited 
a  Zionist  Yiddish  weekly  paper,  published  by  the  Achiasaf, 
After  the  suspension  of  this  paper  he  lived  for  about  two  years  in 
St.  Petersburg,  where  he  was  assistant  editor  of  the  Fraind.  Thence 
he  went  to  Palestine,  and  became  a  teacher  at  the  Jaffa  Gym- 
nasium. Some  time  afterwards  he  was  elected  President  of  the 
Union  of  Teachers  {Agudath  Ha'morim)  of  Palestine.  He 
has  not,  however,  given  up  his  journalistic  work.  His  articles 
on  Palestine  are  unequalled  for  clearness  of  exposition  and  logical 
argument. 

Rabbi  Samuel  Mohilever  (1827-1903),  of  Bialystok,  wrote 
many  appeals  in  favour  of  the  Choveve  Zion  movement.  He  was 
a  lifelong  adherent  of  the  national  cause,  helped  to  promote 
colonization,  and  gave  his  unqualified  adherence  to  the  new 
Zionism.  Even  in  very  advanced  age  he  was  still  a  fighter  in  the 
forefront,  travelling,  preaching,  collecting  funds  and  generously 
spending  his  own  means.  At  the  outbreak  of  the  pogroms  in 
1881,  he  took  the  Jewish  refugees  to  Lemberg.  Here  he  became 
acquainted  with  Sir  Samuel  Montagu  (afterwards  Lord  Swayth- 
ling)  and  Laurence  Oliphant,  and  he  sought  to  win  the  former  for 
the  Palestinian  colonization  movement.  On  his  return  to  Russia 
he  called  a  conference  at  Warsaw  and  formed  a  Choveve  Zion 
Society.    In  the  same  year  he  undertook  a  journey  to  Paris  to 

II.— u 


290  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

obtain,  through  the  Grand  Rabbin  Zadoc  Kahn  and  M.  Erlanger, 
Baron  Edmond  de  Rothschild's  support  for  the  colonization 
movement.  Returning  again  to  Russia,  he  went  on  a  propaganda 
tour,  agitating  in  several  towns  in  favour  of  Palestinian  coloniza- 
tion. In  1885  he  presided  at  the  Kattowitz  Conference.  In  1890 
he  journeyed  to  the  Palestinian  colonies  and  witnessed  the 
founding  of  the  colony  of  Rechoboth. 

Leo  Motzkin  was  bom  in  Russia  and  educated  in  Berlin.  His 
intellectual  versatility  made  him  a  leading  personality  in  student 
circles  and  Jewish  societies,  particularly  in  the  Zionist  Organiza- 
tion. He  soon  attracted  attention  at  the  Congresses,  and  was 
delegated  to  proceed  to  Palestine  and  inquire  into  the  condition 
of  the  colonies,  on  which  he  prepared  a  report.  As  a  member  of 
the  Actions  Committee,  he  took  part  in  191 4  in  a  Commission 
consisting  of  Zionists  appointed  to  inquire  into  the  state  of  affairs 
in  Palestine.  He  has  also  written  valuable  books  and 
pamphlets  on  the  Russo- Jewish  problem. 

Isaac  Nissenbaum,  bom  in  Russia,  lives  in  Warsaw,  where  he 
was  one  of  the  sub-editors  of  Ha'zefirah  and  a  lecturer  at  the 
Zionist  Synagogue.  Though  not  a  Rabbi,  he  belongs  by  virtue 
of  his  education,  associations  and  the  nature  of  his  occupation 
to  the  Rabbinical  world.  A  learned  Talmudist,  a  powerful 
preacher  and  a  proUfic  Hebrew  writer,  he  has  a  worthy  record 
in  all  these  spheres. 

Alfred  Nossig,  scientist,  artist  and  journalist,  was  one  of  the 
first,  perhaps  the  first  in  Galicia,  to  publish  pamphlets  in  Polish 
in  defence  of  Jewish  nationalism.  He  has  pursued  a  line  of  his 
own  in  Zionism,  and  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  Zionist  Organ- 
ization his  activities  have  often  been  open  to  criticism.  But  he 
deserves  recognition,  both  as  a  man  of  letters  and  as  a  strenuous 
advocate  of  Palestinian  colonization. 

Daniel  Pasmanik  is  a  Russian  Zionist  who  has  done  much 
propaganda  work  and  proved  himself  a  writer  and  journalist  of 
extraordinary  capability.  His  book  Die  Seek  Israels  (written  in 
Russian  and  translated  into  German)  is  a  noteworthy  contribution 
to  Zionist  thought. 

Jehiel  Michael  Pines  (1842-19 12),  born  and  educated  in 
Russia,  a  Hebrew  writer  and  Talmudist,  was  elected  delegate  to 
a  conference  held  in  London  by  the  Association  Mazkereth 
Mosheh  for  the  estabUshment  of  charitable  institutions  in 
Palestine  in  commemoration  of  the  name  of  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  ; 
in  1878  he  was  sent  to  Jemsalem  to  estabhsh  and  organize  such 
institutions.  Thenceforward  he  lived  in  Palestine,  working  for 
the  welfare  of  the  Jewish  community  and  interesting  himself  in 
the  organization  of  Jewish  colonies.  In  his  Hebrew  book,  Yalde 
Ruchi,  and  particularly  in  Part  I,  Rib  Ami  (Mainz,  1872),  he 
expounded  the  Jewish  national  idea.  He  was  a  contributor 
to  all  Hebrew  periodical  publications,  esi)ecially  to  those  in 
Palestine, 


APPENDICES  291 

Samuel  Poznanski  pursued  his  studies  at  Berlin,  and  was 
already,  as  a  young  man,  a  rising  representative  of  the  Hebrew 
Revival.  Having  graduated,  he  returned  to  Poland,  where  he  is 
now  the  Rabbi  and  Preacher  of  the  Great  Synagogue  at  Warsaw. 
His  achievements  in  the  field  of  Jewish  scholarship  are  great  and 
universally  recognized.  He  has  written  many  valuable  books 
and  treatises,  all  of  which  are  the  result  of  careful  observation 
and  patient  study,  and  are  distinguished  by  depth  of  thought. 
A  devoted  Hebraist,  he  contributes  to  Hebrew  literature  and  the 
Press,  and  as  a  communal  worker  he  has  succeeded  in  counter- 
acting destructive  assimilationist  tendencies  by  the  advocacy  of 
a  sound  traditional  nationalism. 

Rabbi  Samuel  Jacob  Rabbinowitch,  of  Sopotkin  (now  in 
Liverpool),  was  first  a  Chovev  Zion  and  early  joined  the  Zionist 
Organization.  His  calm  piety  and  gentle  nature  won  him  the 
hearts  of  all  Zionists.  He  was  for  several  years  a  member  of 
the  Zionist  Actions  Committee.  He  contributed  a  number  of 
articles  to  Ha'melitz,  which  later  were  published  under  the  title 
Ha'dat  Weha'leumit  (Warsaw,  igoo).  He  has  also  written 
talmudic  works. 

Rabbi  Isaac  Jacob  Reines  (1839-1915)  was  a  great  talmudic 
authority,  author  of  halachic  works,  in  which  he  taught  the  rigid 
application  of  logic  to  the  solution  of  talmudic  problems,  and 
founder  and  principal  of  a  modern  Yeshivah  (Rabbinical  College) 
in  Lida.  He  was  an  ardent  Chovev  Zion,  and  joined  the  Zionist 
movement,  in  which  he  became  one  of  the  most  prominent 
workers,  orators  and  propagandists.  He  occupied  a  high  and 
influential  position  in  orthodox  Zionism,  and  was  the  founder  of 
the  orthodox  Zionist  section,  Misrachi. 

Rabbi  Pinchas  Rosowski,  a  great  talmudic  scholar  and  pro- 
minent Hebraist,  was  an  enthusiastic  Chovev  Zion,  and  later  a 
member  of  the  Zionist  Organization.  He  wrote  articles  inspired 
by  the  nationalist  idea. 

Jacob  Saphir  (1822-86),  a  Russian  Jew,  who  settled  in 
Palestine,  was  not  directly  connected  with  the  new  colonization. 
He  was  commissioned  by  the  Jewish  community  of  Jerusalem 
to  undertake  a  journey  through  the  southern  countries,  in  order 
to  collect  alms  for  the  poor  Palestinian  Jews.  In  1854  he  made 
a  second  tour,  visiting  Yemen,  British  India,  Egypt  and  Australia. 
The  result  of  this  journey  was  his  Hebrew  book  Ehen  Saphir 
(vol.  i.,  Lyck,  1866  ;  Mayence,  1874),  in  which  work  he  gave  the 
history  and  a  vivid  description  of  the  Jews  in  the  above-mentioned 
countries.  There  is  in  his  book  a  touch  of  Haskalah  (Enlighten- 
ment) and  even  of  national  sentiment. 

His  grandson,  Elie  Saphir,  who  died  a  few  years  ago,  was  a 
conspicuous  figure  among  the  pioneers  of  the  new  colonization  by 
virtue  of  his  great  knowledge,  especially  of  the  Arabic  language 
and  literature,  and  the  laws'and  customs  of  the  country.  A  man 
of  keen  judgment,  he  occupied  the  position  of  assistant-manager 


292  THE  HISTORY  OF  ZIONISM 

of  the  Anglo-Palestine  Company  at  Jaffa.  The  leaders  of  financial 
and  agricultural  institutions  were  always  eager  to  consult  and 
confide  in  him.  But  he  was  essentially  a  scholar.  His  Hebrew 
writings,  and  particularly  his  last  work  Ha'arez — a  physio- 
graphic and  scientific  examination  of  the  conditions  of  Palestine 
— are  of  great  value. 

M.  Smilanski,  of  Rechoboth,  has  one  of  the  longest  and 
best  records  of  work  in  Hebrew  literature.  His  writings  on 
Palestinian  colonization  are  as  sound  as  his  literary  sketches  are 
instructive. 

A.  Tannenbaum,  of  St.  Petersburg,  was  an  ardent  Chovev  Zion 
and  an  excellent  Hebraist.  Of  his  Hebrew  writings,  his  study  on 
"  The  Architecture  of  the  Synagogues  "  (in  the  first  volume  of 
Knesseth  Israel)  is  of  enduring  merit.  This  group  strongly  sup- 
ported the  local  Choveve  Zion  Society,  which  was  of  considerable 
importance.  At  that  period  Rosenfeld  undertook  with  great 
courage  and  determination  the  propaganda  in  the  first  Razsweet, 
which,  however,  had  to  be  suspended  after  a  period  of  brilliant 
journalistic  exploits  in  troublesome  and  stormy  times  (in  the 
eighties),  in  which  period  the  two  years  of  that  organization  hap- 
pened to  fall.  Later  on,  the  late  Salomon  Gruzenberg,  a  medical 
man  of  great  knowledge  and  an  ardent  Zionist,  whose  articles 
were  characterized  by  soundness  of  argument,  took  up  the  same 
work  in  a  new  Russian  weekly  paper,  entitled  Boudoushtshnost, 
which  managed  to  exist  a  little  longer. 

Vladimir  Temkin  was  one  of  the  most  important  and, 
undoubtedly,  the  most  popular  champion  of  the  Bilu.  An 
idealist,  an  enthusiast,  an  attractive  personality  and  a  power- 
ful speaker,  he  possessed  a  special  gift  for  propaganda,  and 
became  one  of  the  chief  organizers  of  colonization  in  Pales- 
tine. He  belonged  to  the  Zionist  Organization  from  its  incep- 
tion, was  a  prominent  Congress  representative  and  member  of 
the  Actions  Committee,  and  is  to-day  one  of  the  leading 
Zionists. 

Davis  Trietsch  has  not  always  found  the  appreciation  he 
deserved.  He  has  b$^n  frequently  drawn  into  controversies  and 
misunderstood  owing  to  the  support  he  has  given  to  schemes 
which  appeared  to  be  impracticable  and  fantastic,  but  in 
ordinary  circumstances  would  not  have  given  rise  to  opposition. 
But  he  is  a  man  of  varied  experience  and  untiring  activity,  and 
his  advice  has  often  been  very  useful.  He  lived  for  a  couple 
of  years  in  Palestine,  where  he  grappled  with  many  forms  of 
industrial  work  ;  he  has  written  books,  pamphlets  and  articles, 
and  is  an  indefatigable  advocate  of  the  idea  of  colonization.  He 
has  given  a  considerable  impetus  to  the  study  of  Palestine  and 
to  many  practical  ideas. 

Semion  Weissenberg  worked  hard  with  Herman  and  Temkin 
in  the  St.  Petersburg  Students'  Palestinophile  Association,  took 
part  in  the  Odessa  Choveve  Zion  meetings,  and  later  entered  the 


APPENDICES  293 

Zionist  Organization,  of  which  he  is  a  prominent  member.  His 
bent  lies  in  the  direction  of  work  in  connection  w'th  the  Jewish 
problem  in  Russia. 

David  Yellin  (1858),  a  son-in-law  of  J.  M.  Pines,  is  one  of  the 
most  eminent  Hebraists  and  educationists  in  Palestine.  The 
Zionist  idea  captured  him  early  in  life  and  grew  upon  him  during 
his  many-sided  literary  and  educational  career.  He  has  written 
the  best  text-books  of  the  Hebrew  language,  based  on  the 
principle  of  the  modern  method  Ihrith  B'ibrith  (Hebrew  in 
Hebrew),  and  has  thus  helped  to  make  Hebrew  a  living  language. 
He  has  been  teacher  and  principal  of  several  Hebrew  schools 
and  of  the  seminary  for  the  training  of  teachers.  He  has  many 
connections  in  England,  and  is  on  the  Montefiore  foundations  in 
Palestine. 

In  St.  Petersburg  Zionism  has  now  gained  a  strong  footing, 
owing  to  the  steady  efforts  of  the  distinguished,  devoted  and  in- 
defatigable member  of  the  Actions  Committee,  Israel  Rosoff, 
Michael  Aleinikow,  the  able  and  gifted  Abraham  Idelsohn, 
A.  J.  Rapaport,  as  well  as  of  the  very  able  and  devoted 
workers  S.  S.  Babkow,  W.  Grossmann,  A.  Goldstein,  S.  J. 
Janovski,  A.  Seidemann,  M.  Sachs,  and  others.  As  far  as 
Nationalism  is  concerned  the  learned  an